01980 Benchmarking the energy efficiency of commercial buildings

01980 Benchmarking the energy efficiency of commercial buildings

16 Energy(energy conservation) 06/01974 Technological learning and cost reductions in wood fuel supply chains in Sweden Junginger, M. et al. Biomass a...

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16 Energy(energy conservation) 06/01974 Technological learning and cost reductions in wood fuel supply chains in Sweden Junginger, M. et al. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2005, 29, (6), 399 418. With its increasing use, the production costs of primary forest fuel (PFF) have declined over the last three decades in Sweden. The aims of this study are to quantify cost reductions of PFF production as achieved in Sweden over time, to identify underlying reasons for these reductions, and to determine whether the experience curve concept can be used to describe this cost reduction trend. If applicable, the suitability of this concept for future cost reduction analysis and for use in other countries is explored. The analysis was done using average national PFF price data (as a proxy for production costs), a number of production cost studies and data on annual Swedish production volumes. Results show that main cost reductions were achieved in forwarding and chipping of PFF, largely due to learning-by-doing, improved equipment and changes in organization. The price for wood fuel chips does follow an experience curve from 1975 to 2003 (over nine cumulative doublings). The progress ratio (PR) is calculated at 87%. However, given the uncertainty in data on PFF price and annual production volumes, the PR may range between 85% and 88%. It is concluded that in combination with the available supply potential of PFF and with bottom-up assessment of cost reduction opportunities, experience curves can be valuable tools for assessing future PFF production cost development in Sweden. A methodological issue that needs to be further explored is how learning took place between Sweden and other countries, especially with Finland, and how the development of technology and PFF production in these countries should be combined with the Swedish experiences. This would allow the utilization of the experience curve concept to estimate cost developments also in other countries with a large potential to supply PFF, but with less developed PFF supply systems.


The scale of biomass production in Japan

Matsumura, Y. et al. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2005, 29, (5), 321 330. Policymakers working to introduce and promote the use of bioenergy in Japan require detailed information on the scales of the different types of biomass resources generated. In this research, the first of its type in Japan, the investigators reviewed various statistical resources to quantify the scale distribution of forest residues, waste wood from manufacturing, waste wood from construction, cattle manure, sewage sludge, night soil, household garbage, and waste food oil. As a result, the scale of biomass generation in Japan was found to be relatively small, on the average is no more than several tons in dry weight per day.

06/01976 Trade and environmental damage in US agriculture Managi, S. and Karemera, D. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 2005, 2, (2), 168-190. Trade liberalization has the potential to contribute to overall improvements in environmental performance, while countries might lose a comparative advantage in trade because of stringent environmental regulations. This study analyses the environmental damages in the US agriculture since 1973 using state level data and conclude that states lose a comparative advantage by stringent environmental regulations. The decomposition of trade's effect into scale, technique and composition effects; and a further decomposition of the technique effect into environmental technique and environmental scale effects, show its relevance as major determinants of environmental damage. The differences in production technology and factor supplies are major factors affecting trade patterns. Finally, h u m a n risk factors suggest that freer agricultural trade is bad for the environment.

06/01977 Two-dimensional whole-core transport calculations of the OECD benchmark problem C5G7 MOX by the CRX code Lee, G. S. and Cho, N. Z. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2004, 45, (2-4), /69-177. The OECD 2-D benchmark problem C5G7 MOX was calculated by the CRX code, which is based on the method of characteristics. A modular ray tracing scheme and a parallel computation in angular domain are implemented to reduce computer memory and computation time. This paper presents results of calculations, including sensitivity studies performed with varying values for some calculation parameters.

06/01978 Use of the surface harmonics method for calculation of 2D C5G7 MOX benchmark Boyarinov, V. F. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2004, 45, (2-4), 133-142. The C5G7 MOX benchmark specifying a 16-assembly core with a surrounding water reflector was proposed as a basis to measure current transport code abilities in the treatment of reactor core problems without spatial homogenization. Seven-group cross sections for all materials were used as initial information. Just that fact allows to test an accuracy of solving the neutron transport equation excluding additional errors connected with preparing the group cross sections.

In this paper, the surface harmonics method (SHM) is applied to calculation of the two-dimensional configuration of this benchmark. Different approximations of SHM were applied, both with and without spatial homogenization. Additionally, this fact allowed evaluating the effect of spatial homogenization of cells. Comparisons were carried out for keff and pin powers both with the reference results and between the results calculated by different SHM approximations.

Energy conservation 06/01979 A multinomial Iogit model of the factors influencing the adoption of environmental technologies in the pulp and paper sector in Spain del Rf Gonzzilez, P. and Mor~in, M. A. T. International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management. 2005, 5, (4), 319-346. This paper provides an econometric analysis of the factors leading to environmental technology adoption in the pulp and paper industry in Spain. Three sets of interrelated factors influencing the widespread adoption of these technologies are considered: factors external to the firm, characteristics of the environmental technology and internal characteristics and conditions of the potential adopters. A muhinomial logit model is applied to the pulp and paper sector in Spain to explain the role of those factors in the adoption of different environmental technology types. It is shown that this adoption does not depend on environmental regulation but rather on market and economic variables (i.e. cost savings and the exploitation of a green image).

06/01980 Benchmarking the energy efficiency of commercial buildings Chung, W. et al. Applied Energy, 2006, 83, (1), 1-14. Benchmarking energy-efficiency is an important tool to promote the efficient use of energy in commercial buildings. Benchmarking models are mostly constructed in a simple benchmark table (percentile table) of energy use, which is normalized with floor area and temperature. This paper describes a benchmarking process for energy efficiency by means of multiple regression analysis, where the relationship between energy-use intensities (EUIs) and the explanatory factors (e.g. operating hours) is developed. Using the resulting regression model, these EUIs are then normalized by removing the effect of deviance in the significant explanatory factors. The empirical cumulative distribution of the normalized EUI gives a benchmark table (or percentile table of EUI) for benchmarking an observed EUI. The advantage of this approach is that the benchmark table represents a normalized distribution of EUI, taking into account all the significant explanatory factors that affect energy consumption. An application to supermarkets is presented to illustrate the development and the use of the benchmarking method.

06/01981 Benchmarks for sustainable construction. A contribution to develop a standard Zimmermann, M. et al. Energy and Buildings, 2005, 37, (11), 11471157. Sustainability has been enshrined as a goal of society to ensure that the satisfaction of present needs does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is thus a social objective, achievable only where all areas of society co-operate in fulfilling the associated demands. Ecological sustainability is, in turn, a basic prerequisite for sustainable economic and social development. The first step in formulating an effective response to this challenge, focused solely on the environmental issues, entails a quantification of the contribution required from the various areas of h u m a n activity for the achievement of sustainable development. Without binding sub-targets for the different sectors, it will be all but impossible to move systematically towards a sustainable society. These benchmarks for sustainable construction therefore set out to define the requirements to be met by buildings and structures in contributing to the achievement of a sustainable society. The permissible impact of buildings, in terms of energy demand and pollutant loads, during construction, maintenance and operation is determined. The analysis focuses on identifying the permissible levels of loads based on the specific energy consumption per m z and year for heating, hot water, electricity and construction. A conscious attempt is made to combine existing methods with the general political consensus by taking account of: the ecological scarcity method used to define critical pollutant loads; the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions specified by the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC); the demands of the 2000 Watt society for the conservation of energy resources. The study shows that buildings designed to the Passive House standard just about comply with the requirements for sustainable construction, provided electricity generation is based largely on renewable or low-CO2 resources (Swiss

Fuel and Energy Abstracts July 2006