2nd edition Preface This is a book written primarily for practitioners dealing with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polychlorotrifluoroethylene in some form or shape. The second edition, as was the first edition, is primarily about manufacturing various forms of PTFE; its properties, part fabrication, applications and other ancillary topics. This book does not set out to cover the latest developments as published in journals, rather it focuses on the needs of the commercial world. Secondarily, theoretical and scientific topics related to PTFE have been covered to render the book useful to researchers and academicians. Primary sources have been cited for those individuals interested in more in-depth understanding of subject matter. Since the publication of the first edition 2000, a good deal of change has occurred in the world of fluoropolymers in economic, commercial manufacturing and technology areas. Accordingly the second edition has been revamped to cover as much of these changes as practical. Four new chapters and two new appendices have been added to those in the first edition to cover the changes taken place in the last one and one-half decades. The rest of the chapters have been revised and updated by the inclusion of new information and data. Some of the highlights of the new contents of the second edition are described. It has been over 75 years since discovery of PTFE. Chapter 1 describes the history of that discovery and the development of commercial fluoropolymers. In Chapter 2 readers find a very brief discussion of production and market statistics of fluoropolymers and PTFE. Chapter 9 includes information about the PTFE products offered by producers and is complementary to the contents of Chapter 2. The contents of Chapter 9 reflect the eastward movement of PTFE resin manufacturing as the Western and Japanese companies have been abandoning PTFE.
The gap has been filled by China, represented by many companies, and by India where a newly established company, Gujarat Fluorochemicals Limited manufactures PTFE products including filled compounds. Chapter 7 captures one of the most important events since the discovery of PTFE in 1938. The traditional surfactant used in polymerizing fluoropolymers, ammonium perfluorooctanoate, was found to be a risk to humans, wildlife and the environment that led to its ban. The industry has developed replacement surfactants successfully leading to the abandoning of ammonium perfluorooctanoate by most companies. Chapter 14 is a scaled down revision as compared to the first edition. It is virtually impossible to provide adequate coverage of the topic of fluorinated additives in a single chapter considering an entire book devoted to the subject matter has been published. A great deal of progress has been made in the surface treatment technologies for PTFE, which have been covered in Chapter 15. Atmospheric plasma treatment techniques have been developed and along with conventional vacuum plasma methods have been making small in-roads in providing PTFE surfaces prepared for adhesive bonding. The old sodium etching method is still used to treat the surface of most of the PTFE consumed. None of the views or information presented in this book reflects the opinion of any of the companies or individuals that have contributed to the book. If there are errors, they are oversight on the part of the author. A note indicating the specific error to the author or to the publisher, to allow prompt correction of electronic files, is much appreciated. Sina Ebnesajjad Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania August 2014