CORROSION RESISTANT HOT AND COLD FORMING PARTS OF NI-CR-MO ALLOY AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME
APPARATUS FOR DRAWING-IN A P I P E E N D BY C O L D F O R M I N G
Ulrich Heubner, Michael Kohler, Manfred Rockel, Ernst Wallis, Werdohl, Federal Republic Of Germany assigned to VDM NickelTechnologie Aktiengesellschaft For use in making components which are required to have a very high resistance to uniform corrosion and against pitting and crevice corrosion under very highly corrosive conditions encountered in up to date chemical process technology and environmental protection technology, for instance, in flue gas desulfurizing plants for concentrating sulfuric acid, and which are required to be manufactured satisfactorily by conventional hot and cold forming processes an alloy is employed which contains (in ~ by weight) 22.0 to 24.0 chromium, 15.0 to 16.5 molybdenum, up to 0.3~ tungsten, up to 1.5~ iron, up to 0.4~ vanadium, 0.1 to 0.45/o aluminum, 0.001 to 0.04% magnesium and 0.001 to 0.01 calcium, balance nickel and inevitable accompanying elements and impurities.
Robert Weber, Helmut Mechtold, Uttenreuth, Federal Republic Of Germany assigned to Siemens Aktiengesellschaft An apparatus for drawing-in a pipe end by plastic cold forming includes a clamping body. An annular body disposed on the clamping body has an inner surface and a center. An internal tool in the form of a stop ring is centrally supported on the clamping body for defining a desired inside pipe profile. A plurality of jaws is disposed on the clamping body for extending over the outside of a region of a pipe to be drawn-in. The annular body has blind bores serving as cylinders formed therein in radial directions with openings facing toward the inner surface of the annular body. Pistons connected to the jaws are inserted in the cylinders and movable radially toward the center of the annular body by a pressure medium. The stop ring has individual stops in the form of stop heads with threaded shafts lacing radially adjustably screwed into radial threaded bores formed in the stop ring. The threaded shafts may be rotated. 4901218
4907164 AUTOMATICALLY OPTIMIZED NC TOOL PATH GENERATION FOR MACHINING
COMMUNICATIONS ADAPTOR FOR AUTOMATED FACTORY SYSTEM
Margaret Guyder assigned to General Electric Company
Peter J Cornwell, Wotton Under Edge, United Kingdom assigned to Renishaw Controls Limited
A method is presented to generate 2D tool paths and to optimize the ordering of these tool paths for 21/2 axis milling of cavities for molds and dies. All motion of the cutting tool is dictated and the number of retractions is reduced to a minimum without violating a prechosen set of ordering guidelines. Predrill locations for tool plunges are specified. A 3D solid model of the cavity region with optional islands, avoidance and containment regions is constructed and a planar section through the model forms a closed curve with nested and disjoint loops. Successive inset curves are taken until there are no arcs in the curve. An ordered list of roughing tool paths is generated with a retraction indicated when necessary to prevent gouging, and finishing tool paths are augmented with tangential approach and exit arcs and milled last.
Factory machines such as CNC machine tools, co-ordinate measuring machines and industrial robots are connected in a local area network. Each machine controller is interfaced to the network via a communications adaptor which translates data, commands and programs between the Manufacturing Automation Protocal used by the network and the necessary machinespecific format. The communications adaptors are microprocessor-based and have additional input/output ports for controlling probes, other sensors such as temperature sensors and workpiece presence sensors, peripheral devices such as conveyors, and the electronic handwheel inputs of the machine controller. Controlling such devices from a program run in the communications adaptor rather than from the machine controller or from a computer on the network gives