Kibi, Y. et ul. Jorrrrtu/ of Por~cr Sources. 1997, 60, (2). 219-224. The suitability of the electrochemical behaviour of activated carbon/carbon (AC/C) composite electrodes was investigated for high-power electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCS). High-rate charge/discharge characteristics were found to be affected by the resistance of the electrolyte phase in the pores of the electrode. The charge/discharge characteristics were improved by optimizing the pore-size distribution of the electrodes. The size and total volume of the macro-pores in the electrodes were controlled hy mixing and hurning out polymer spheres. A high-power EDLC which can discharge as much as SO0 A. was made by using improved AC/C composite electrodes.
Fuel cell co-generation:
the future of co-generation
van der Does. T. Jow~tal of PowerSources. 1996, 61, (l-2) 49-S I. The position of co-generation in a number of countries in the European Union is explored. It focuses on the situation in the Netherlands where, at this moment, ahout more than 30% of the electricity production is based on co-generation. The principal obstacles for the future development of cogeneration are presented. Based on the Dutch experience, the requirements and critical success factors for fuel cells in a household application have heen discussed.
Hydrogen generation cell systems of tomorrow 97101982
gas for the fuel
Dick\. A. L. Journal of‘Pmw Sourc~es, 1996, 61, (l-2), 113-124. Hydrogen is generally the preferred fuel for use in the present generation of fuel cells being developed for commercial applications. Of all the potential sources of hydrogen, natural gas offers many advantages: it is widely available, clean, and can be converted to hydrogen relatively easily. This paper reviews the principal methods of converting natural gas into hydrogen. namely catalytic steam reforming, autothermic reforming, pyrolysis and partial oxidation. Furthermore. it reviews currently available purification techniques and discusses some recent advances in internal reforming and the direct use of natural gas in fuel cells.
Shoshan, H. Z. et nl. PCT Int. Appl. WO 96 27,908 (Cl. HOIM4/40), I2 Sep 1096, IL Appl. 112.YO7, 7 Mar 1995; 21 pp. The authors detail a non-aqueous electrochemical hattery comprising a cathode. non-aprotic or polymeric electrolyte, and an anode of C-hased bonded particles coated with a il-/lrn solid electrolyte interphase. The interphase is an alkali metal conductor and electronic insulator. and it consists of alkali metal or alkali earth salts, oxides or sulfides. assembled in the non-charged state. The battery is assembled in the non-charged state. 97101984
Lithium-ion rechargeable cells (PAS) and LiCoOz electrodes
Huang. 6. er al. Joumol ~fPo+ver Sources, 1996, 58,.(2), 177-181. The electrochemical behaviour of a polyacenic semiconductor (PAS) was examtned hy studying LilPAS and Liigraphite cells. In a PAS or graphite anode. Three reactions were distinguished: ( i ) reaction of lithium with the Teflon hinder: (ii) decomposition of electrolyte, and (iii) intercalation of Li ions. Two laboratory cells with liquid organic electrolyte or polymer electrolyte and PAS as the anode demonstrate that PAS is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.
97101985 Manufacture of carbides with high electric capacity and anodes containing granules of carbides for lithium batteries Osada, M. and Kai, I. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 08,231,273 (96,231,273] (Cl. C04B35/52), IO Sep 1996, Appl. 9S/h1,720, 24 Feb 1995; 5 pp. (In Japanese) The heating of a mixture containing a carbonaceous material with average particle size l-20 m and C-C interlayer distance 0.335-0.340 nm; tar pitch; and Al. Zn. Sn, Si, and/or their compounds was carried out to obtain carbides. They consisted of carbonaceous material 10-60. carbonaceous material derived from tar pitch 20-80. and metal component 2-20 wt.%. The economically manufactured carbides have a high electrical capacity. Secondary Li batteries. having an anode containing these carbides, have high capacity and excellent safety due to the prevention of dendrite short circuiting.
Modeling critical overloading 97101988 830 kVA power, oil-immersed transformers
acid fuel cells in Japan
Hojo, N. ef crl. Journal of’Power Soww.s, 199f1, 61, (t-2). 73-77. Japanese gas companies have taken a keen interest in the energy-saving characteristics and superior environmental friendliness of fuel cells; since 1972 they have vigorously pursued the development of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) for on-site generation purpose. The Japan gas association has been contributing to these activities. The results of recent field
operations of many PAFC systems have given valuable data on performance and durability and useful maintenance techniques were accumulated towards commercialization. Both hardware and software of PAFC systems have been greatly improved, reflecting the experience gained from the field operations. A future task is to veriv the durability and the reliability of PAFC systems for 40.000 h opcratton and also manufacturing cost reduction.
Process performance 97101988 coal fired power plant.
Castleman. J. M. III and Mills, J. R. from. In/. C‘~VI/‘.I;/~rir/. Bet/ Cornh~.sr.. 1995. 13. (I), 551-556. Discusses an X0 MW waste coal (GOB) power plant, located on the site of a retired high sulfur coal mine. The GOB fuel consists of waste coal rejects from the-mining and washing process used during the operation of the mine. The Btu content of the fuel is 4000-9000 Btu’lh. the ash 40-65s. and the sulfur 3-9s. The independent power plant consists of two Pyropower 400,000 pph circulating fluidized hed boilers producing steam at I.765 psig and 955 F. The boilers supply steam to a common ABB turbine/generator which supplies power to the Monogahela Power systems. The plant has completed over 10,000 h of operation since startup in Feb. l9Y3.
in the planar CPn SOFC system
Frost, L. J. et al. Jmrmul of Power Sources, lY9h, 61, (I-2). 135-139. A demonstration of a high efficiency. modular planar SOFC module using the patented CPn module on pipeline natural gas is reported. The results of this 1.4 kW thermally integrated module, along with stack/cell tests, have verified the multi-stage oxidation concept. Design and analysis of a IO kW mobile electric power generating system using this technology predicts a final module with < 40% system efficiency when operated on logistics fuel. However, this analysis also stresses the need for improved cell performance at lower temperature.
Nikitin, N. N. and Ravdina, N. L. Knkr Khir~.. IYYh. (3). 1X-19. (In Russian) The paper describes a project involving the redesign ot 25ycar old batteries in their existing dimensions, construction of a dry quenching unit and a dust-free coke feeding unit, and use of modern equipment.
97101991 Study on vaporization and thermodynamics of the LaCrO, based perovskites for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) Peck, D. H. ef ul. Ber. ForschunRszenr.Jlte/ich, 1996. (Juel-.3253), I-179 pp. (In German) The ceramic interconnect of solid-oxide fuel cellc is generally made from LaCrO? based perovskites. The stability. thermochemical data. and the phase diagrams of the used perovskites were detetmined and vapourization studies were carried out. Reliable data for Gibbs energy and entropy of formation were determined for LaCrOi. The phase diagrams of the SrOCr20T-La:0, and the CaO-Cr20?-La20, phase were also determined.
Synthesis and electrochemical characteristics 97101992 pitch coke carbon material for lithium ion battery
Doh, C.-H. et al. Bull. Korean Chmr. Sot. 1996, 17. (9). X61-863. The electrochemical properties and synthesis ot pitch coke derived from coal tar pitch by heat treatment under inert atmosphere are discussed for application to Li secondary batteries.
97101993 Thermochemical investigations of the systems useful for lithium battery construction. Part 2. Solution enthalpies of LiC104 in 1,2-dimethoxyethane+butyrolactone mixtures and of LiClO.,, Nal and N,N-dimethylacetamide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane+propylene carbonate mixtures at 298.15K Piekarska, 63-71.
Nersessian. G. and Kaiser, M. Energy, April 1997, 22. (4) 393-402. The information presented in this article may be used to determine the overloading degree of transformers and the permissible duration of their usage in overload regimes.
Oman, H. Proc. Intws~c. Energy Convers. Eng. Conf., I996 31. 2072-2076. Quickly-available sources of power are needed by electrical utilities for supplying expected and unexpected peak loads. Among useful sources have been the energy stored in water by pumping it to elevated storage reservoirs in air compressed into underground chambers, and in batteries. A new power source, tBase-load nuclear and coal-fired steam plants generates offpeak energy for recharging the depleted storage facility. The performance and economics available from these new power sources is examined.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts