Electrical power supply and utilization (economics, policy, supplies, forecasts)
energy and cost savings potential
Konopacki. S. J. et al. ASHRAE 7‘1U/IT.. 1996, 102, part 2. SA-96-13-1, 691698. The US Department of Defence (DOD) has to produce a reduction in energy consumption and costs by 20% from 1985 to 2000 and by 30% from 1985 to 2005. EDA (End-Use Disaggregation Algorithm) and MEIP (Model Energy installation Program) are the two independent studies used. Whole-installation electricity use data from a state utility to estimate electrical energy conservation potential and cost savings potential at a military installation and nation-wide are used. Annual electricity savings are estimated at 4,900 GWhiyr. with peak demand savings of 694 MW and annual energy cost savinga of $316 million per year, with a simple payback of 3.9 years.
in the Pacific
The Energ) Journal, 1997, 18, (3). 75-102. Woo, C.-K. et al. A policy of price deregulation and open access in the electric power industry is supported by evidence of market integration and price competition. The objective of this paper is to test the hypotheses that wholesale electricity sub-markets in the Pacific Northwest region of the WSCC are integrated, and price competition exists within these integrated sub-markets. A bivariate co-integration test was therefore conducted, with a price-difference test and a causality test to the 1996 on-peak daily electricity prices of four sub-markets in the Pacific Northwest of North America. A comparison between the gross profit from price arbitrage and the posted transmission tariff indicates that price competition prevails in these market pairs, and the causality test results provide supporting evidence that price leadership does not exist in these three market pairs.
Electricity restructuring and regional air pollution 97102898 Palmer, K. and Burtraw, D. Resources and Energy Economics, 1997, 19, (l-2), 139-174. The regional air pollution effects that could result from new opportunities for inter-regional power transmission in the wake of more competitive electricity markets are investigated. The key determinant of changes in electricity generation and transmission is the relative cost of electricity among neighbouring regions. The key determinant of how much additional power would he traded is the uncommitted electricity transfer capability hetween regions, including its possible future expansion. The changes in emissions of NO, and CO? that result from changes in the utilization of existing coal-fired facilities are modelled as a function of the average emission rate for each pollutant in each region. This is coupled with assumptions about the extent of displacement of coal-fired generation in the importing regions. An atmospheric transport model is employed to predict the changes in atmospheric concentrations of nitrates as a component of particulate matter (PM-IO) and NO, in each region, as well as changes in CO: emissions. The discoveries revealed by this study suggest that, in the year 2000, emissions of NO, could increase by 213,000 to 478,900 t as a result of restructuring. The changes in NO, emissions should he considered in the context of an expected decrease in annual emissions of over 2 million t that will result from full implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments over the next few years. These changes would nonetheless have adverse health effects. Consequences for increased COz emissions range between 75 and 133.9 million t. Changes in pollutant concentrations resulting from changes in NO, emissions would he substantially greater in regions where generation is increasing than in neighbouring regions. 97102899
of lost load Energ P&y, 1997, 25, (l), 97-103. K. G. Willis and G. D. Garrod The performance of electricity distribution companies on reliability of supply is reviewed by the Office of Electricity Regulation (OFFER). While physical indicators of supply reliability, such as number of outages and minutes of electricity lost per customer per year, are readily available, little is known about the monetary value placed on supply reliability by customers. This paper briefly reviews different methods to derive monetary values of power interruptions avoided, before arguing that a method which values the lost utility to consumers from outages is the most appropriate. A contingent ranking method is used to derive such lost utility values from a survey of industrial firms. The value customers place on outages avoided is higher than that currently used in appraisals of infrastructure investment, and in the determination of electricity prices, in the UK. 97/Q29# Emission constrained secure economic dispatch Arya, L. D. et 01. Electrical Power& Energy Systems, 1997, 19, (4), 279-285. A methodology for secure economic operation of power systems is described.
97102901 Energy conservation supply in the Netherlands
Slingerland, S. Energy PO&~, 1997, 25, (2), 193-203. The relationship between energy conservation and organization of electricity supply in the Netherlands is examined in light of the present debate about the future organization of electricity supply. Three case studies of energy conservation are analysed: the development of industrial cogeneration of heat and power; the development of wind energy and the
Fuel and Energy Abstracts
use of a so-called ‘MAP levy’ as an instrument used by utilities to stimulate demand reduction of end users. The implications of these ca\e studies for the future organization of Dutch electricity supply dre discus\cd. Some measures aimed at reconciling energy conservation and liberalization are suggested.
Energy efficiency vs economic efficiency?-New 97102902 Zealand electricity sector reform in the context of the national energy policy objective Gunn, C. Ener~ Poliq~. lY97. 25. (7). 241-254. The diverse commentaries on New Zealand’s ongotng elcctricitv sector reform process is reviewed within the context of the government’; energy policy objective. The paper aims to highlight the interactions hetwern the concepts of energy efficiency and economic efficiency. In particular. the author questions how the various commentators on reform define the\c concepts. what indicators they use to measure them. and wjhat level of each do they prescribe as approprtate’? The principal objective is not to decide whether any commentator is ‘right‘ or ‘wrong‘. hut rather to identify the distinct ‘world views’, or ‘paradigms’, underlying the commentaries with respect to both enefgy efficiency and economic efficiency. In conclusion. economic efficiency IS found to he consistent with a ‘supply \idc paradigm’. valuing economic growth, whereas those who value energy efficiency o\cr economic efficiency subscribe to a ‘demand side paradigm’. recognizing the limits to growth. Such a paradigm derives from the ethic of rustainahcilitv. The paper ends with the following (and yet unansw,ered) question: are the& paradigms mutually exclusive?
Bushnell, J. B. and Stoft. S. E. Resource.\ md Ewrp Ecorwr~~~c~.~.1997, 19. (l-2), 85-108. The organization of the transmission sector of the electricity industry ha\ been one of the most disputed issues of the restructuring proce\\ of thi\ industry. It has been widely held that this sector mu\t remain tightlv regulated due to the external costs and benefits that arise from the operation and construction of transmission resources. In thia paper we discuss the traditional approaches to managing these network externalttic\ and examine the potential for a system of tradeahle transmission right\, such as transmission congestion contracts. to successfully manage the\e externalities in a lightly regulated environment.
97102904 Institutional satisfying public policy electric industry
and programmatic suggestions for responsibilities in a retail competitive
Tcmn, B. E. and Schweitzer, M. 1997, 25. (1). 24-12. Certain environmental and social programmes are placed at risk hy the emergence of retail competition in the US electric power industrv. This paper presents institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying these kmds of public policy responsibilities in a disintegrated industrv. Suggestions include customer owned electricity franchises. clectrictiy facility siting marketplaces, electric industry foresight councilc, model systems programmes. integrated social services programmes. collaborative electric services programmes, IS0 standards and portfolio standards. The%e recommendations would he funded by a national transmission charge. a state level distribution charge and franchise level sales taxes. to be paid by transmission organizations, distribution organizations and electricity consumers, respectively.
97102905 Investment planning for electricity generation expansion Pokharel, S. and Ponnambalam, K. Inr. J. Encr&~ RG.. 1997. 21. (2). 1x5194. This paper discusses some of the essential features of electricity generation expansion planning. The emphasis in this paper is on the development of a methodology to analyse electricity planning prohlems when the variables are deterministic and stochastic in nature. Through analysis of this method using a test problem, the stochastic nature of supply and demand can be specified and a more cost effective electricity generation expansion plan can be prepared. The proposed methodology is expected to be useful for energy planners in modelling and implementing investment plans for energy supply.
you will be
Anon Elect. Rev.. 26 November-9 December 1996, 229, (23). 30-3 I. The paper interprets the EU Low-voltage Directive (73123;EEC). which applies to most electrical products. Describes the procedure and typetesting by a manufacturer and the preparation and certification of a technical construction file for each product.
Market power and strategic
Cardell, .I. B. Resources and Energy Ecormnm, 1997, 19. (l-2). I#-137. The analysis of the geographic scope of the horizontal market power is complicated by the special conditions in electric networks. Unlike the conventional setting where a firm exercises market power by restricting its own production, there could he situations in constraining electrical networks where a generator would exercise market power by increasing its production in order to block transmission of a disproportionate amouni