Central and Eastern European countries are presented here. They show a high potential for fuel and technology switching as well as for energy saving measures in these countries. This leads to emission reduction costs which are significantly lower than in Western European countries.
Energy and environmental issues for Jordan 97104313 Jaber, J. 0. ef al. Applied Energy, 1997, 57, (l), 45-101. Only relatively small reserves of crude oil and natural gas are found in Jordan. Consequently the amount of hard currency spent on imported oil and petroleum products is equivalent to almost half of that earned from exported domestic commodities. Given that the national rates of energy and electricity consumption will most probably double within 15 years from that for the year 1995, any increase in crude-oil unit prices will be a significant threat to the security of energy supplies to the country and hence the quality of life. Jordan has several options, e.g. accelerating the efforts devoted to the exploration and harnessing of indigenous energy resources such as oil shale; implementing energy-thrift and better long-term environmental planning; the gradual introduction domestically of more economic unit-energy pricing. The rapidly increasing population and recent developments in housing, agriculture as well as industrial and commercial activities, combined with a lack of a comprehensive regulatory framework have led to adverse impacts on the environment. Improving the average standard and quality of living of Jordanian citizens and protecting the environment can be accomplished by the integration of environmental, social and economic goals in development planning and implementation processes. This would ensure increased effectiveness and efficiency of resource use, and stabilizing the population. 97104314
Energy and environmental issues in Vietnam
Juan, N. A. Narural Resources Forum, 1997, 21, (3), 201-207. The pattern of energy use in Vietnam, both traditional and commercial, and its evolution is discussed in this paper. The trend of energy-related emissions of CO*, SOz and NO, over the last 10 years is presented, with a methodology provided. Recent developments of environmental policies and institutions in Vietnam are also discussed.
Energy efficiency vs economic efficiency? New Zealand electricity sector reform in the context of the national energy policy objective
Gunn, C. Energy Policy, 1997, 25, (4). 445-458. The diverse commentaries on New Zealand’s ongoing electricity sector reform process are studied, within the context of the Government’s energy policy objective. In doing so, the paper aims to highlight the interactions between the concepts of energy efficiency and economic efficiency. In particular, it questions: how the various commentators on reform define these concepts; what indicators do they use to measure them; and, what level of each do they prescribe as appropriate? The principal objective is not to decide whether any commentator is ‘right’ or ‘wrong”. Rather, it is to identify the distinct ‘world views’, or ‘paradigms’, underlying the commentaries with respect to both energy efficiency and economic efficiency. The article concludes that efficiency is consistent with a ‘supply side paradigm’, valuing economic growth, whereas those who value energy efficiency over economic efficiency subscribe to a ‘demand side paradigm’, recognizing the limits to growth. Such a paradigm derives from the ethic of sustainability. Finally, it questions if these paradigms are mutually exclusive.
97104316 From energy labelling to performance standards: some methods of stimulating technical change to obtain greater energy efficiency Colombier, M. and Menanteau, P. Energy Policy, 1997, 2.5, (4), 425-434. The purchasing behaviour of the consumers in the household electrical appliances sector is sensitive to different attributes, but rarely to the energy-efficiency criterion. This represents a strong constraint to the diffusion of efficient appliances. In this paper, the authors present the main types of instruments used to compensate for this apparent lack of concern, through actions stimulating demand or encouraging the supply of more efficient products. International experience in lighting or electrical appliances sectors is investigated as well as French programmes. The conclusion insists on the complementary nature between these different instruments and suggests combining them according to the existing industrial, technological or competitive contexts.
Energy pricing under uncertain supply 97104317 Serra, P. J. Energy Economics, 1997, 19, (2). A new pricing system based on the Chilean tariff regulations to deal with an uncertain energy supply is introduced. It consists of a basic rate for each unit actually consumed and a compensation that the utilities pay their customers for each unit of energy that they voluntarily reduce below their normal consumption during an energy shortage. Within the framework of a model that portrays the stylized facts of the Chilean electric system, and assumes risk-neutral agents, this paper shows the equivalency of the new pricing system with both contingent pricing and priority pricing.
Energy (supplies, policy, economics,
97104318 Evolution of the energy sector an, approach to the emissions inventory
Dubrovsky, H. and Dawidowski, L. Rev. Fat. Ing., Univ. Cent. Venez., 1995, 10, (l-2), 40-60. (In English/Spanish) The Argentine economy has experienced frequent crises over the last three decades. In spite of this, only at times of deep economic recession (1975, 1985, and 1989) has energy consumption reversed its growing trend. Similarly, within the energy supply sector, a deep and progressive structural development has continued to take place. The most important points of such transformation are related in general to self-supply.
Fuel switching or multiple cooking fuels? Understanding inter-fuel substitution patterns in rural Mexican households
Masera, 0. R. and Navia, J. Biomass and Bioenergv, 1997, 12, (5), 347-361. Fuel wood is used by 91% of Mexican rural households and 11%of urban households for cooking. Fuel wood represents 50% of total residential energy use in the country. This paper presents the results of a detailed study of the patterns of household fuel wood use and inter-fuel substitution in three villages of rural Mexico. All residents in the three villages cook with fuel wood, and between 20 and 43% of them also use LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) for this task, depending on the village. Average household fuel wood demand ranges between 53 and 60 GJ /year for fuel wood only users and from 40 to 57 GJ/year for mixed fuel wood-LPG users. Cooking practices are described together with their energy use. Kitchen performance tests and controlled cooking tests (CCT) were applied in two villages to measure savings in household fuel wood use from partially switching to LPG. The analysis shows that energy and fuel wood savings are much lower than those that may be expected on a purely technical basis. In fact, fuel wood is very seldom replaced entirely, even in households that have been using LPG for many years. Rather than switching, households follow a multiple fuel strategy which gives them the advantages of both fuels. There is a strong pattern of fuel preferences by type of dish and cooking task. Fuel wood is seen as a fuel with advantages that go beyond price and include cultural considerations. Lorena-type improved woodburning cookstoves might prove particularly useful for multiple fuel users as they show savings of up to 50% for tortilla-making compared with the traditional stoves in CCT.
Household energy efficiency in Ireland: A replication study of ownership of energy saving items
Scott, S. Energy Economics, 1997, 19, (2). 187-208. In Ireland, ownership of energy saving items in the home is surprisingly low. Logistic regression analysis of data derived from a survey of households reveals significant reasons for not investing in such items. The reasons are somewhat similar to those found by Brechling and Smith for the United Kingdom. Lack of information, non-appropriability, small potential saving, restricted access to credit and transactions costs play an important role, leaving only a minority of non-owners who are model-inconsistent and who are possibly non-optimizers. Some policy implications are outlined. 97104321 The impact of the proposed reduction in the motor fuels excise tax in the United States
Uri, N. D. and Boyd, R. Int J. Energy Res., 1997, 21, (9), 841-855. This paper examines the impact of reducing the excise tax on gasoline and diesel fuel on the United States economy. The analytical approach used in the analysis consists of a computable general equilibrium model composed of fourteen producing sectors, fourteen consuming sectors, six household categories classified by income and a government. The effects of a 4.3 cents per gallon reduction in the excise tax on gasoline and diesel fuel on prices and quantities are examined. The results suggest, for example, a decrease in the tax would result in higher output by the producing sectors (by about $2.86 billion), a expansion in the consumption of goods and services (by about $3.48 billion), and an increase in welfare (by about $3.59 billion). The government would realize a decrease in revenue of about $2.37 billion. When subjected to a sensitivity analysis, the results are reasonably robust with regard to the assumption of the values of the substitution elasticities.
Mitigation technologies and measures in the energy sector of Kazakstan
Pilifosova, 0. el al. Applied Energy, 1997, 56, (3/4), 341-350. In the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, an important commitment is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. COz reduction as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in the energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have already been included in sustainable energy programmes. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan’s COz emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for COz emission reduction is estimated to be about 11% of the baseline emission level by the end of considered period.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts
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