Liquid fuels (sources, properties,
The Carnol process production
system for CO* mitigation
Steinberg, M. Energy, 1997, 22, (2/3), 143-149. An alternative CO2 mitigation system and a methanol production process was subjected to a feasibility study. The Carnol system has three components: (I) a coal-fired power plant supplying flue gas CO?, (2) a process which converts the CO2 in the presence of H from natural gas to methanol, and (3) use of methanol as a fuel component in the automotive sector. Up to 100% COz emission reduction can be achieved in the methanol process alone, while for the entire system, up to 65% CO2 emission reduction is possible. It is technically feasible and economically competitive with alternative COz-disposal systems for coal-fired power plants. The Carnol process is estimated to be economically attractive compared to the current market price of methanol, especially if credit can be taken for carbon as a marketable co-product.
Characterization of dispersant structures and their 97104490 effect on rheological behavior of coal-water slurries. Sun. C. et al. Ranliao Huaxrte Xuehao., 1997. 25, (3), 213-217. (In Chinese) A detailed characterization is given of the dispersant structures and their effect on properties of coal water slurries. The results indicated that coal slurryability and rheological behaviour as well as static stabilization of coal water slurries are notably related to dispersant structures. The adaptability of coals to dispersant structures is complicated and related to coal properties determined by coal rank. A low percentage of multi-ring aromatic monomer in dispersant polymerization structure generally results in a fine pseudoplastic behaviour of slurry. However, it decreases the dispersing ability of dispersant. Comparatively, the substitutes of a dispersant monomer are of little effect. It was also found that high dispersing ability of a dispersant is one of the important factors in dilutant behaviour and low static stabilization of coal water slurry.
oil in Tuha Basin, China
Cheng, K. el al. Sci. China, Ser. D; Earth Sci., 1997, 40, (4), 439-442. A typical basin of coal-generated oil accumulation in China is the Tuha Basin and the main source beds are Middle-Lower Jurassic coal. Both desmocollinite and suberinite are considered coal-generated oil contributors. The crude oil in the Tuha Basin are rich in alkanes (70%-go%), have high pristaneiphytane ratio (h-S), abundant heavy carbon isotope (6-“C) and absolute Czo sterane predominance. The hydrocarbon generation process from the coal series is characterized by multi-stages, early generation and early expulsion.
Cobalt as an alternative Fischer-Tropsch catalyst 97104492 to iron for the production of middle distillates 107, Van Berge. P. J. and Everson, R. C. Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal.,l997, (Natural Gas Conversion IV), 207-212. Syngas with Hz/CO ratio 2:l is used to manufacture middle distillates. The high cost of cobalt is compensated by extended run.
Correlation between structural characteristics of and properties of coal-water slurries on Lingwu coal Li, Y. et al. Ranliao Huaxue Xuebao., 1997. 25, (3), 247-252. (In Chinese)
To gauge the effects of structural characteristics of 16 additives on the slurryability, rheological behaviour and static stability of CWS of Lingwu coal, these additives were experimentally evaluated. The results indicated that obvious correlation exists between the structural characteristics of additives and the properties of CWS of Lingwu coal. The main structural characteristics and the d.p. are key factors affecting the properties of CWS of Lingwu coal.
Determination of sulfur 97104494 fraction of vacuum gas oil Ma, X. et al. Fuel, 1997, 76, (4), 329-339.
An analysis of sulfur compounds in the non-polar fraction, which represents 73 wt% of total sulfur in a vacuum gas oil (VGO), was carried out. The process used involved sulfur-selective ligand exchange chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatographic (h.p.1.c.) separation on the basis of aromatic ring number, with subsequent capillary g.c.mass spectrometry for identification. Quantification was achieved by independent h.p.1.c. separation based on aromatic ring number followed by capillary gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. These methods were very effective in isolating the sulfur compounds from complex mixtures of high-boiling hydrocarbon compounds and for separating the sulfur compounds according to aromatic ring number. The structures and concentrations of over 100 sulfur compounds in the non-polar fraction of the VGO were determined.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts
ether: a fuel for the 21st century
Fleisch. T. H. et ul. St&. Surf. Sci. Co/u/., 1997, 107, (Natural Gas Conversion IV), 117-125. Collaborative work with Haidor Topsoe S/A, AVL LIST GmbH and Navistar, Amoco has identified Di-Me Ether (DME) as a new, ultraclean alternative diesel engine fuel. DME can be handled like LPG, an important alternative transportation fuel. Preliminary engine test data for DME were recently reported at the 1995 SAE conference in Detroit, Michigan. It is produced currently from methanol and its primary use i\ as an aerosol propellant as it is environmentally friendly. Haldor Topsoe has developed a process for direct production of DME from natural gas, coal or biomass. The process can be used for large scale (about 40.000 BSD diesel equivalent) manufacture of DME from natural gas using predominantly single-train process units. The advantages of DME as an environmentally and customer friendly diesel fuel option are presented.
97104496 DTA and TG studies of Paleocene bituminous from El lusr oil deposit-Egypt Markova. K. (‘I ul. J. T/wnn. Am/., 1997, 4X. (2), 331-341.
DTA and TG supplemented by X-ray and luminescence-bituminous studies were used to characterize the organic and mineral composition of selected samples from boreholes P-24. P-27 and P-26 of the petroleum deposit El Iusr (Suez Channel region. Egypt). The content of bitumens in sandstones was higher than in clays and their compositions change with horehole depth. A slight vertical and lateral migration of hvdrocarhons was observed in the first clay member of the lateral migration ot hydrocarbons in the first clay member of the Iusr article. The content of light hydrocarbons increased with increasing proportion of clay minerals. Montmorillonite wa\ more effective in retaining light hydrocarbons that kaolinite.
Effect of ultrasonic slurry
on the properties
Li, Y. X. et al. DG‘MK Tuguirg~her.. 1997, 9702. (Proceedings ICCS ‘97. Volume I), 507-510. The paper investigates the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the propcrtics of coal water slurry (CWS), such as slurryability, rheological hehaviour: and static stability. The ultrasonic intensity was varied from 40 to 80 W/cm- and treatment time from 2 to 10 min. A distinct improvement in both rheological behaviour and static stability of CWS was observed as a result of the treatment, but at same time it caused a slight increase in the apparent viscosity of CWS. Particle size distribution analysi\ indicated that ultrasonic treatment resulted in a higher proportion of fine coal which improves the rheological behaviour and static stability of CWS.
97104498 in offshore
Exergy analysis platforms
De Oliveira Jtinior. S. and Van Homheeck, M. Encrg Cmwm. Mpnt. 1997, 38, (IS-17) 1577-1584. The exergy analysis of petroleum separation processes in offshore platforms to characterize their thermodynamic performance and identify possible ways of improving platform performance are discussed. In offshore platforms petroleum is separated into water, oil and gas. After the separation, water is sent back to the sea or re-injected into the reservoir. Oil is pumped and gas is compressed and sent to the refineries. Gasturbines and furnaces are employed to generate electricity, mechanical power and hot water that are utilized in the platform, consuming part of the natural gas produced by the platform. The exergy analysis developed for the offshore platform evaluates the exergy efficiency and the exergy destroyed in each set of equipment. as well as the overall platform performance. The importance of each set of equipment in the overall efficiency is quantified by the use of the factors. defined as the relation between the consumed exergy in a particular set of equipment and the consumed exergy in the platform. This analysis is employed to evaluate the performance of a typical Brazilian offshore platform.
97104499 for strongly
Generalized scaling of spontaneous imbibition water-wet systems J. Petroleum Science, 1997. 18. 314, I hS- 178.
Ma, S. et ul. In oil recovery by waterflooding in fractured reservoirs, the mass transfer between fractures and matrix blocks is critical. A scaling equation has heen used for rate of oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition. The results are presented as oil recovery vs dimensionless time. Recent experimental investigation of these two factors has resulted in a more generalized scaling equation for strongly water-wet systems with a general definition of characteristic length and a viscosity ratio term included in the definition of dimensionless time. In this paper, published data on oil recovery by imbibition have been analysed and correlated through application of the new definition. These data sets were for different porous media, core dimensions, boundary conditions, and oil and water viscosities. The generalized correlation was fitted closely hy an empirical mats transfer function with the new definition of dimensionless time a\ the only parameter.