Liquid fuels (transport, refining, quality, storage)
content. This modified feedstock has an acceptable performance under catalytic cracking producing significant yields, compared to commercial FCC catalysts, of gasoline and low catalyst coking.
the spectrophotometric approach is advantageous because it is rapid, relatively inexpensive, multivariate and is therefore especially useful for online processes monitoring and control.
98101081 Progress on ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass
Wyman, C. E. Biomass Energy Environ., Proc. Eur. Bioenergy Conf., 9th, 1996, 1, 356-361. Edited by Chartier, P., Elsevier, Oxford, UK. A low-cost transportation fuel and fuel additive that can improve a nation’s economy and environment could be provided by ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass. Feedstocks include agricultural and forestry residues, significant fractions of municipal wastes, and herbaceous and woody crops grown to support large-scale ethanol production The cellulose and hemicellulose in these materials can be broken down to form sugars for conversion into ethanol. The yields, rates, and concentrations of ethanol production have improved so ethanol from biomass (bioethanol) is now competitive in price for blending with gasoline. Bioethanal reduces net CO2 emissions by 90% or more compared to gasoline, as it requires little, or no, fossil fuel. To support the immediate application of the technology, a 1 ton/ day process development unit was constructed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Research also continues to reduce the cost of ethanol production.
Pyrolysis oils for power plants and boilers 98101082 Sipila, K. et al. Biomass Energy Environ., Proc. Eur. Bioenergy Conf., 9th, 1996, 1, 302-307. Edited by Chartier, P., Elsevier, Oxford, UK. Produced from woody biomass and herbaceous plan& flash pyrolysis oils offer economically attractive options as biofuels for diesel power plants and heating boilers. Several research groups in Europe, Canada and the United States have undertaken intensive research into this issue. In Finland, VTT, Wartsila Diesel Oy, Vapo Oy and Neste Oy, in co-operation with Ensyn Technologies Inc., have started experimental work on pyrolysis. Test results with a 1.5 MW electrical diesel engine fuelled with Canadian wood oil and from the first oil production are discussed. Two fluidized-bed pyrolysers with feed rates of 1 kg/h and 20 kg/h are in operation. The main research topics are: the effects of various biomasses, hot gas filtering and fuel oil stability. Neste Oy is performing combustion tests in a 200 kW oil boiler with several oils and a test engine of 60 kW is used for oil characterization. The maximum price for pyrolysis oil that could be paid in order for power production to be feasible has been determined for diesel power plants in Italy, Denmark and Finland. 98101083 shale
of Tarfaya (Morocco) oil
Bennouna., C. et al. Quim. Analysis, 1997, 16, (Suppl. l), S67-S73 The upgrading of Tarfaya oil shale is the subject of this study. It aims to ascertain the effect of sample mass, final temperature, residence time and hydrogen initial pressure in order to optimize the pyrolysis experimental conditions of this variety of Moroccan shales. A uniform experimental design was chosen to discuss all the aspects of factor effects on different pyrolysis responses and to find their optimum. The following conditions achieve the maximal oil yield: 335S”C for 90 min with a heating rate of 4.5”C min-’ and 17.5 bar of initial hydrogen pressure. As this oil is poor in paraffin, a compromise has been found between the oil quantity and quality. For the industrial exploitation of these results, optimal methods have been determined for each response.
The role of process oil characterization in direct 98101084 coal liquefaction Burke, F. P. and Winschel, R. A. Proc. Annu. Inr. Pittsburgh Coal Conf., 1995, 12, 1017-1022. As an important feature of a direct coal liquefaction processes, a processderived recycle oil can play the role of a vehicle to convey coal into the reactor, a medium for mass and heat transfer among reactants, and can itself be a reactant. A short history and discussion is given of the development and importance of process (recycle) oils in different coal liquefaction processes. Current research trends are to replace supportedcatalyst systems with dispersed catalysts offering high selectivity and reactivity but avoiding capital costs and to incorporate solvent-mediated reactions as a part of a strategy to reduced process costs.
Study of the composition of Yemen petroleum and 98lOlO85 thermal cracking of its heavy residuum
Ghata, A. er al. Per. Coal 1996, 38, (2), 18-22. The crude oil is a paraffinic-naphthenic oil. The light base oil has a low sulfur content (0.75%) and low specific gravity. The light fractions are ~71 ~01%. There is no significant salt and water content. Additional light fractions can be produced by thermal cracking.
Use of near-infrared (NH) spectroscopy to predict 98iOlO88 several physical and operating properties of oil fractions and diesel fuels
Sikora, 2. and Salacki, W. Pet. Coal, 1996, 38, (1). 65-68. The simultaneous estimation of the density, viscosity, cetane number index and freezing point of the oil fractions and diesel fuels is possible with NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. The accuracy of obtained results is comparable to the reproducibility of the standard laboratory analysis, but
Fuel and Energy Abstracts
A technical and economic comparison of natural gas and coal feedstocks for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
Gray, D. and Tomlinson, G. Stud. Surf Sci. Caral., 1997, 107, 145-150. Discusses the economics of coal-based and natural gas-based plants for the production of high quality transportation fuels using advanced FischerTropsch synthesis.
98101088 Bio crude oil upgrading stlmulation of flash pyrolysis vapors
by in situ electronic
Kohler, J. et al. Biomass Energy Environ., Proc. Eur. Bioenergy Conf., 9th, 1996, 3, 1626-1631. Edited by Chartier, P., Elsevier, Oxford, UK. The EC-Technology Transfer Project will demonstrate a new alternative upgrading process for bio crude oil vapours produced by a flash pyrolysis plant. The project principally aims to demonstrate the benefits of an alternative upgrading process (cold-plasma-chemical processing), which was developed at Stuttgart University. The scale-up of this technology and its transfer for potential industrial applications and users is also detailed. The experimental investigations were carried out in a laboratory-scale flash pyrolysis plant equipped with a high temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor have shown that changes in the composition of the bio crude oil can be obtained. A modelling of the excitation processes of atoms and molecules in the BCO has been carried out. First results with different biomass feedstocks under different experimental conditions will be presented. The scale-up as well as the techno-economic evaluation and market potential assessment for this innovative technology are summarized.
Biochemical production of commercially valuable products from waste oils
Yant, I. C.-Y. et al. Prepr. Am. Chemical Sot., Div. Pet. Chemical, 1997, 42, (3), 699-702. Methods for utilization of waste lubricating oils are examined, including rerefining (recycling), combustion as fuel, and bioconversion to lipids and high-protein animal feed.
Brown and pit coals as catalyst supports in hydrorefining and hydrocracking of petroleum vacuum residue.
Kotowski, W. et al. Karbo-Energochemical-Ekol., 1996, 41, (6), 214-219. (In Polish) The paper presents a continuous-flow high-pressure laboratory apparatus for hydrorefining and hydrocracking of petroleum distillation bottoms. Preparation of a CO-MO catalyst on brown and bituminous coals is described.
98101091 Copyrolysis of hydrocarbons. modelling of hydrocarbon pyrolysis
Bartekova, E. and Bajus, M. Pet. Coal, 1995, 37, (4), 49-53. Describes models of naphtha and gas oil pyrolysis for olefin production.
Effect of process conditions on olefln selectivity during conventional and supercritical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
Bukur, D. B. el al. Ind. Eng. Chemical Res., 1997, 36, (7). 2580-2587. Tests of a precipitated iron catalyst was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor under a variety of process conditions during conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) and supercritical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (SFTS). In both cases the total olefin content decreases whereas 2-olefin content increases with either increase in conversion or Hz/CO molar feed ratio. Total olefin and 2-olefin selectivities were essentially independent of reaction temperature. The effect of conversion was more pronounced during conventional FTS. Olefin selectivities were compared and the results showed total olefin content is greater while the 2-olefin content is smaller during SFTS. Both the decrease in total olefin content and the increase in 2-olefin content, with increase in carbon number was significantly less pronounced during SFTS in comparison to the conventional FTS. The lolefins, and to a smaller extent n-paraffins, are the primary products of FTS. Secondary reactions of high molecular weight a-olefins occur to a smaller extent during SFTS, due to higher diffusivities and desorption rates of a-olefins in the supercritical propane than in the liquid-filled catalyst pores.
Effect of product upgrading on Fischer-Tropsch indlrect coal liquefaction economics
Choi, G. N. et al. Proc. Annu. Int. Pittsburgh Coal Conf., 1995, 12, 11771182. In order to provide detailed plant material and energy balances, utility requirements, and operating and capital costs, for incorporation of an advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) slurry reactor design and upgrading of the product F-T waxes by fluid catalytic cracking and mild hydrocracking,