supply and utilization (economics, policy, supplies, forecasts)
Biomass for commercial heat and energy supply in the new Federal States of Germany, especially in the state of Brandenburg: possibilities and limitations 99KKl490
Electricity from a competitive market in life-cycle
Nagel, J. Making Bus. Biomass Energy, Environ., Chemical, Fibers Mater., Proc. Biomass Conf Am. 3rd, 1997, (2) 1557-1565. Edited by Overend, R. P. and Chornet, E. There is the historically unique opportunity in the new states of the Federal Republic of Germany of renewing and reorganizing power supply systems. For this, the use of biogenic fuel can play a special role, especially in the state of Brandenburg. In this context there are technological, economic, ecological and structural possibilities and limitations that will be described in detail in the following report, where it will become clear that the many diverse uses of biogenic fuels are in the main limited due to economic factors.
Kaberger, T. and Karlsson, R. Journal of Cleaner Production, 1998, (6), 103-109. This paper proposes that data from specific, contracted electricity production plants should be used for electricity consumption in life-cycle analysis, when electricity is purchased from a competitive market. Electricity may thereby contribute less to the sum of environmental load than when data of marginal or average plants are used. By this method, the potential of electricity supplied through the grid to be a part of ambitious industrial environmental policy is made visible. A demand for deliveries from environmentally preferable plants can introduce price differences between different types of production, thereby promoting investments in improved environmental performance of electricity production.
Biomass resources production. Romania’s case
99100496 Energy efficiency and the limits of market forces: the example of the electric motor market in France
Matei, M. and Ciomaga, C. Making Bus. Biomass Energy, Environ., Chemical, Fibers Mater., Proc. Biomass Conf. Am. 3rd, 1997, (2), 15431554. Edited by Overend, R. P. and Chornet, E. The Romanian biomass potential available to produce electricity by 2020 was assessed by RENEL-GSCI, based on different scenarios. The biomass sources under analysis were fuel wood and wood wastes, agricultural wastes from grains crops and short rotation intensive cultures. Values discussed do not represent a forecast concerning the share of biomass in the primary energy resources of Romania, rather the available potential.
Creating an initial market for electricity 99Am492 biomass in the UK: progress so far
Kettle, R. A. Making Bus. Biomass Energy, Environ., Chemical, Fibers Mater. Proc. Biomass Conf. Am. 3rd, 1997, (2) 1609-1613. Edited by Overend, R. P. and Chornet, E. Three biomass gasification projects with an aggregate capacity of 19 MW were contracted in 1994 in the third competition for contracts to supply electricity from renewables in England and Wales. Developers of these projects have up to five years in which to implement their projects and good progress is being made. Interest in the fourth competition, launched in November 1995, was high. There were 89 expressions of interest in offering biomass projects with a total capacity of 707 MW. The UK Government has recently announced the results of this competition in which a further seven projects with an aggregate capacity of 67.4 MW were contracted. Most significant, the average price has fallen from 8.65 p/kWh (13.84 c/kWh) in the third competition to 5.51 p/kWh (8.82 c/kWh) in the fourth. Thus, without a project having been built, the price of electricity from biomass has already reduced to halfway to benchmark electricity pool prices.
Economics of integrated ethanol and electricity
Easterly, J. L. Making Bus. Biomass Energy, Environ., Chemical, Fibers Mater. Proc. Biomass Conf. Am. 3rd, 1997, (2), 1641-1649. Edited by Overend, R. P. and Chornet, E. Potential marketing advantages offered by the co-production of electricity and ethanol are focused on specifically in this paper. To date there have been relatively separate efforts to develop advanced technologies for producing electric power from biomass, a-r producing ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. This study assesses the economic returns of increasing the boiler (or gasifier) size, fuel handling equipment capacity and turbine-generator capacity for such an ethanol plant in order to take advantage of markets for the sale of surplus electricity to the grid. The ethanol plant is based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for converting lignocellulosic biomass materials to ethanol. The ethanol plant modelled in this study would produce 57.9 million gal per year of ethanol fuel using wood as the feedstock. For the base case, 36.1 MW of power would be generated with a steam turbine using various organic waste streams from the ethanol process as fuel for producing electric power and process heat. Cost/benefit scenarios are evaluated for 36.1 MW, 53 MW and 77.8 MW of generating capacity, where the capacities of the boiler, steam turbine, and wood handling equipment are increased; and where the boiler is replaced with a high efficiency gasifier/combustion turbine system.
Egyptian Unified Grid hourly load forecasting using artificial neural network
Mohameda, E. A. et al. Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 1998, 20, (7), 443-451. An artificial neural network (ANN) based hourly load forecasting application to the Egyptian Unified Grid (EUG) is the subject of this paper. The ANN involved is designed using the multilayer back propagation learning technique. The ANN input layer receives all relevant information that can contribute extensively to the prediction process, excluding weather information.. Also, the ANN output layer provides the predicted hourly load. The ANN load forecasting model is trained based on a historical domain of knowledge. The required knowledge patterns were obtained for the EUG during the winter of 1993. When testing the trained ANN, it is proved that it can be applied to the prediction of hourly load very efficiently and accurately.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts January 1999
Fagundes de Almeida, E. D. Energy Policy, 1998, 26, (8). 643-653. The limits of market forces as the exclusive driving force for energy efficiency are addressed in this paper. The electric motor market in France is analysed, with particular emphasis on the structure and functioning of the market, as well as the decision-making practices of the main agents. The study reveals that market forces are constrained by the variety of transaction types and by the decision-making practices of agents, in an environment characterized by lack of information and split incentives for adopting energy-efficient technological options. The paper argues that public intervention is a necessary condition for organizing the market and promoting energy efficiency. The article points out the main obstacles to the diffusion of efficient electric motor technologies and suggests some initiatives for market transformation.
Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared with power generation from coal in the Netherlands
Faaij, A. et al. Biomass Bioenergy, 1998, 14, (2) 125-147. Investigated and compared for the Dutch context were externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal. Effects on economic activity and employment were investigated with help of input/output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from other studies. In addition external costs are estimated for nitrogen leaching and for the use of agrochemicals for energy crop production. It is assumed that biomass production takes place on fallow land. Coal mining is excluded from the analysis. Indirect economic effects (increment of gross domestic product) and the difference in COz emissions are the most important distinguishing factors between coal and biomass in economic terms. Damage costs of other emissions to air (NO,, SOz, dust and CO) are of the same order of magnitude for both coal and biomass. In this analysis environmental impacts of energy farming are compared mainly with fallow land focused on the use of fertilizers and agrochemicals The related damage costs appear to be low but should be considered as a preliminary estimate only. The quantitative outcomes should not be considered as the external costs of the two fuel cycles studied. Many impacts have not been valued and large uncertainties persist, e.g. with respect to the costs of climate change and numerous dose-response relations. The results serve as a first indication, but the outcomes plead for the taxation of coal-based power generation and/or the support of bioelectricity production. 99100496 India offers ideal fit for refinery-generated electricity Falsetti, J. S. et al. Oil Gas 1.. 1998, 96, (21) 31-35. The ways in which the refining industry in India can help cut the country’s major electricity deficit, while meeting environmental and fuel needs are described in this paper. The prospects for the development of coal bed methane, a much needed new energy resource, and the conditions required for meeting the demands of a petrochemical market are also covered.
99100499 An innovative approach to real time emission compliance and generation cost minimization Jam, P. K. and Parkes, J. B. EC (Am. Sot. Mechanical Eng.), 1997, 5, (1) 23-36. In the current deregulated and privatised market power generation at minimal cost and simultaneous emission compliance have become the goal of the Electricity industry world-wide. The challenge posed by the adverse impact of emission control on plant efficiency can be addressed by the use of software products. An integrated product called EnergiTools provides an innovative advisory system. This enables the industry to simultaneously meet the two objectives. It offers six productivity enhancement tools from a single integrated environment. All tools operate from a single integrated environment using the plant measured data in real time. Its client server architecture provides a least heat rate load dispatch advisory service to the utility by simultaneously monitoring the heat rates of individual plants. A 3% reduction in heat rate achievable by the application of EnergiTool, while meeting NO, compliance, can bring about an annual savings of up to $2 million in fuel cost alone for a 600 MW unit with a heat rate of 10,000 Btu/kwh firing a 12,000 Btu/lb coal at $30 per ton.