02 Liquid fuels (derived liquid fuels) Method and apparatus for high-efficiency combus99101096 tion of liquid fossil fuels and production of fuel emulsions Sato, T. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 10 204,454 [98 204,454] (Cl. ClOLl/ 00), 4 Aug 1998, Appl. 97/12,856, 27 Jan 1997, 4 pp. (In Japanese) Water-liquid fossil fuel emulsions are obtained by adding liquid fossil fuel to activated water. which is susoended bv ultrasound irradiation and finelv mixed by microwave irradiation. These emulsions are then combusted by burners. The ultrasound is preferably 30,000-50,000 Hz and the emulsions produced can be stored in tanks. The process apparatus is also described and the method can be applied to petroleum, heavy oil, light oil and kerosene, etc.
Net energy and gross pollution from bioethsnol production in India
Prakash, R. et al. Fuel, 1998, 77, (14), 1629-1633. A method for grading different fossil fuels and their substitutes is proposed. The figure ofmerithnks net energy yield and gross pollution from such fuels. Typical results have been obtained by analysing all of the energy utilizations in a oarticular olant. The figure of merit for anhvdrous ethanol from molasses, produced :n India, haslbeen evaluated and compared with indicative figures for fossil fuels. The energy yield ratio was found to be about two. The potential of bioethanol as a petrol substitute in road transport has been estimated to be as high as 28% under Indian conditions.
Operation control of apparatus for manufacture of 99101096 fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastics Kaneko, T. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 10 204,443 [98 204,443] (Cl. ClOGl/lO), 4 Aug 1998, Appl. 97/9,176, 22 Jan 1997, 5 pp. (In Japanese) The operation of apparatus used for the manufacture of fuel from waste plastics is described. The apparatus consists of a cooling device between a pyrolysis tank and a reflux tank. The cooling device works for liquefaction of gaseous heavy components in gas generated from the pyrolysis tank. The pyrolysis tank heating is controlled so that the temperature of the gaseous light components at the exit of the cooling device is maintained within a desired temperature range. Separation of heavy components from light components can be achieved without contamination.
Preliminary examination of the concurrent synth99101099 esis of methanol in slurry phase Zhao, Y.-L. et al. J. Nat. Gas Chem., 1998, 7, (2), 108-112. In a one litre stirred autoclave, continuous carbonylation of MeOH and hydrogenolysis of Me formate (MeF) involved in the concurrent synthesis of MeOH via MeF were briefly examined. 99/01100
Recovery of microwaxes, paraffins and oils from plastics wastes or their mixtures
Gebauer. M. et al. Ger. Offen. DE 19.707.305 ICI. CO8J11/12). 13 Aue ” 1998, Appl. 19,707,305, 11 Feb 1997, 3 pp. (in German) The conversion of plastics wastes (predominantly polyolefins) to waxes and oils was completed by a multi-step cracking process. Firstly, liquefaction and cracking was performed at 350-390°C with the exclusion of oxygen, followed by degradative distillation at 400-450°C. Finally, conventional paraffin refining is carried out on the product and at least part of the cracking gases formed in the first two stages are recycled to the feeds in these steps. Thus, 6 tons/h of a polyolefin mixture, containing low-density polyethylene 65%, high-density polyethylene 26% and polypropylene 7.5% was liquefied and cracked at 350-39o”C, with 5 tons/h being recycled after reheating and 1 ton/h being heated to 400-41o”C and supplied to a second reactor for degradative distillation. All the cracking gases were recycled to the first cracking stage, forming between 2.5 and 4.8% of the feed. 99/01101
Reductive activation of catalysts for manufacture of dimethyl ether
Ogawa, T. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 10 192,710 [98 192,710] (Cl. BOlJ23/94), 28 Jul 1998, Appl. 96/351,582,27 Dee 1996,9 pp. (In Japanese) Using synthesis gas containing CO and hydrogen in the catalytic manufacture of DME, the catalysts are treated with CO and hydrogen (unreacted starting material) and COz (by-product) for reductive activation. Catalysts are activated without addition of other chemicals. Thus, 2:l mixture of copper-zinc-aluminium catalyst and copper-aluminium catalyst was reactivated by treatment with recycle purge gas consisting of Hz 24, CO 28 and COz 48 ~01%.
Research and development 99lO1102 synthesis reactors
Zhang, Y. Meitan Zhuanhua, 1997, 20, (4), 15-19. (In Chinese) The research and development of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactors is examined. Areas covered include: technique and structural characteristics of FT synthesis reactors; fixed-bed reactors and slurry-bed reactors for FT synthesis; technological and economical merits of new FT synthesis reactors; and prospects for development and application of FT synthesis reactors.
114 Fuel and Energy Abstracts
Research and development of liquid fuels from coal
Zhang, Y. Meitan Zhuanhua, 1997, 20, (3), 30-34. (In Chinese) A review on research and development of liquid fuels from coal. Highlighted are the current situation of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies and the economic and social benefits from coal liquefaction.
The role of solvent-power and hydrogen donor ability in coal primary liquefaction in a flowing-solvent reactor
Moreea, R. et al. IChemE Res. Event, Two-Day Symp., 1998, 636-642. During the liquefaction of Point of Ayr coal, a flowing solvent reactor was used to study the effects of solvent power and hydrogen donating ability. Experiments were carried out at 350 and 450°C using Point of Ayr coal. The data showed that the conversions obtained in I-methylnaphthalene were similar but slightly higher than those obtained in Tetralin, whereas at a higher temperature the converse was true. However the yields obtained in hexadecane were very low at either temperatures. The extracts obtained were characterized using UV fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography.
Slurry bed reactor for synthesis of dimethyl ether 99101105 from synthesis gas Ogawa, T. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 10 192,689 [98 192,689] (Cl. BOlJ8/00), 21 Jul 1998, Appl. 96/358,618, 27 Dee 1996, 6 pp. (In Japanese) . The layout of the title reactor and its operation is described.‘
Slurry extracting apparatus
Asakura, M. and Goto, T. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 10 168,468 [98 168,468] (Cl. ClOL1/32), 23 Jun 1998, Appl. 96/346,727, 10 Dee 1996, 9 pp. (In Japanese) Slurry extracting apparatus is used in withdrawing slurries from a highpressure slurry container to a low-pressure slurry container with a pressure drop in coal liquefaction or reforming processes. It comprises a highpressure slurry container, a first chamber, a middle pressure-drop tank, a second chamber and a low-oressure slurrv, container. which are seauentiallv , arranged from a higher position to a lower position. A first pressureequalizing tube is connected between the top of first chamber and the top of middle pressure-drop tank. A second equalizing tube is connected between the top of the middle pressure-drop tank and the top of the second chamber. The pressure of both the first chamber and the middle pressuredrop tank is equalized by the first equalizing tube during the transport of slurry between them. Likewise, the pressure of the middle pressure-drop tank and the second chamber is equalized by the second equalizing tube during the transport between them. 99/01107
Slurry hydrocarbon synthesis with external product
filtration Degeorge, C. W. and Chang, M. US 5770,629 (Cl. 518-700; CO7C27/00), 23 Jun 1998, Appl. 857,604, 16 May 1997, 7 pp. In a slurry hydrocarbon synthesis process, a slurry filtration vessel external of the slurry reactor is employed. Slurry from the reactor is passed through 21 gas and solids disengaging zones, 21 of which may be present in the reactor and vessel, to reduce the gas and solids content of the slurry before it contacts the filter in the vessel. The filter separates the slurry hydrocarbon liquid from the gas and solids as a filtrate which is sent to upgrading. Valves in gas and fluid conduits enable the filtration vessel to be isolated from the reactor for maintenance, to replace filters and to aid in controlling slurry flow through the vessel. A hydrogen-rich gas may be injected into the filtration vessel to prevent catalyst deactivation. Due to density differences while the reactor is operating slurry is hydraulically circulated between the reactor and vessel. A cross-sectional schematic side view of a slurry-type hydrocarbon synthesis unit is included.
Solvent deashing from heavy roduct of brown coal liquefaction using toluene: 2. Concentrat Pon and separation of ash with a continuous deashing system
Okuma, 0. et al. Fuel Process. Tech&., 1998, 56, (3) 229-241. An investigation was made, using toluene solvent in a continuous system, into solvent deashing of heavy liquefaction product derived from two-stage liquefaction of Victorian brown coal. Insoluble solid particles including ash in toluene solution formed the boundary of ash content in the settling unit of a continuous deashing system and in a batch deashing system. The deashing performance in the continuous system was enough to prepare a feedstock for secondary hydrogenation as the ash content of the heavy products recovered from the overflow of the settling unit was less than 3000 ppm. The settled ash (solids) was concentrated at the bottom of the settling unit. By using the characteristic parameter of the organic components of the coal liquid bottoms, the underflow of the settling unit and the temperature an equation expressing the maximum ash content in the underflow of the settling unit was derived. The validity of the equations that described stable operating conditions of the continuous deashing plant were confirmed by experimental results from pilot plant operations.
99lO1109 Study of coal gasification liquor by GC-MS and solid phase extraction Pissolatto, T. M. et al. Cienc.-Tee.-Pet.. Sec. Quim., 1997, (l), 165-171. For the solid phase extraction of a sample of carbon gasification liquor, results are being submitted. Differences are being discussed in three different procedures. Different compositions have been obtained depend-