A concise Pahlavi dictionary

A concise Pahlavi dictionary

384 REVIEWS - COMPTES-RENDUS IX N. MACKENZIE, A concise Pahlavi dictionary. Pp. xviii and 236. London, New York, Toronto. Oxford University Press. 1...

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IX N. MACKENZIE, A concise Pahlavi dictionary. Pp. xviii and 236. London, New York, Toronto. Oxford University Press. 1971. 1 lo/- (4 5.50). Ever since, exactly two hundred years ago, Abraham-Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron published the hard-won results of his stay in India and his study of the Zoroastrian scriptures (Zend-Avesta . , . tradzcit es Franpois SW l’original Zend, 1771) with Parsee dasturs through the medium of Persian, the Middle Persian language, used for the composition of religious and secular wrilirlgs in Sasanian times, has been known to western orie;l!alists. ? he nineteenth century witnessed important progress in the interpretation of these materials written in what is commonly called Pahlavi @ahlawfg)J) Yet, clear understanding and analysis of this language for iinguistic as well as philological purposes has been comparatively slow. The reasrns for this derive from both incidental and essential origins. Amc ng the first category is, and has been, the relatively small number of people and institutions interested in Pahlavi and Zoroastrian studies. To the second belong such technical difficulties as are inherent in the Pahlavi writing system and in the frequent use of Aramaic ideograms. ‘The script of the Pahlavi books derives ultimately. from that of the official Aramaic of Achaemenian times’ (p. x) and in the general process of change and development, between that period and Sasanian times, a considerable number of signs acquired multiple values. This resulted, to quote only a few random examples, in numerous cases of homographs such ass) cigrift (written sgJfd’) ‘crime’ or &6ed (IiyZfit’) ‘teacher-priest’, d& (dyn’) ‘religion’ or Fw (yyw’) ‘consecrated milk’, &%(‘~4) ‘plough’ or kas (,Ys) ‘person, somebody’ or hadiS (hdS) name of a minor Zoroastrian deity,a) and, reiniorced by homonymy, tihaive(‘hn’) ‘iron’ or any (AHRN) ‘other’ or axw (‘hw’) ‘existence ; mind, will ; lord’ or xa’ut (4~‘) ‘house ; source’. Aside from problems which mainly concern the interpretation of the ideograms from the point of view of the Aramaic language and their historical development to ‘much distorted and disguised forms of the original Aramaic words’ (p, xii), the Iranian linguistic and semantic counterpart of the majority of them no 1) Abbreviations as used by MacKenzie and according to accepted practice. 2) Following MacKenzie’s transliteration and interpretation. 5) See Henning, BSOA S, xii, 1947, 60-I.

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offers too many difficJlties.4)

With these handicaps of e, of the use of ideograms, teration on the basis of one (~~~~~vi) for cjne (Roman) IettwS) hs proved to be as much of a block as the act ante of a historically justified trans-

In this dictiona v~abu~~ry~) ‘tm

,7) the first

a represrsn tat ive Pahlavi ‘such texts a!3 K a g 2’A rdaxsz’r, D&it&in hi& and the Pahlavi Texts edited by a Icsser extent, ‘the Pahlavi versions of ~~~~~U~~~l texts (lb h&ul, Yussza, and VispC~ed)’ (p. ix) and D&kard, ~~~~~~~~i~ has taken several decisive and bold steps ta strip Pakkkvi tra sliteration and transcription from their traditicnal, more often than not unnecessarily complicated, rebarbative garb. In the case of transliteration, the ideal but utopian principle of one-for-one transposition has been rightly abandoned for a more sensible approach ba on comparison with earlier scripts (table I) and linguistic cvide which, perhaps, is too rarely cited under the individual. entries of the dictionary - provided by Parthian and Persian inscriptions of early Sasanian times as well as by the Psalter to c5mpr

4) Recent cla.rification has been presented by MacKenzie in ‘CSheep’ and
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fragments of the seventh century A.D. Such comparison often gives a clue which makes it possible to distinguish between the multiple values of the ubiquitous vertical stroke (w, n, Y) or the equally fre+eni small hook (g, d, y), As for transliteration, the same principle of using comparative materials - in this case, the Middle Persian and Parthian Turfan texts written in the ‘near-phonetic’ (p. xiv) Manichean script - is applied to the reconstruction of the iihguistic realities which more often than not are hidden by the ‘rules’ of Pahlavi ortYographyY0) There can be no doubt that this approach has created a goodly measure of system where before existed an astonishing lack of that commodity. However mu.ch one might want to disagree with MacKenzie’s new or; raihcrj ‘modernizing’ system of transcription and transliteration or with his interpretation of single dictionary entrlesll) - and there will be no lack of such criticism - the dictionary can be recommended unhesitatingly, in the opinion of this reviewer, as a reliable introductory guide for the reading of Pahlavi text+) It will, thus, serve as an indispensable viaticum on the long road which via better editions and special wordlists of Pahlavi texts will ul rimately lead to a more comprehensive dictionary and a grammar. Given the nature of the dictionary there is no lack of additio~u~l materials. These came f o mind while using it. &kanfZh ,lMY4-hncyh] ‘drawing up of water’; MXr 57.11 9) The reconstruction is based on MacKenzie’s ‘hypothetical phonemic system for Middle Persian and Parthian’ (p. xiv) as established in an earlier article (‘Notes on the transcription of Pahlavi’, BSOA S, xxx, 1967, 17-29) and repeated on pp. xiv-xv of the dictionary. 10) Variant spellings of one and the same word are frequent, Among entries which do not mention such variants are : avzah, also Wlr G3d 57.3, ~80 C&l 56.11; bzfngin, ailsobymkyn- Pahl. Vend. 2.23; Bwn&fn,also $&tin DkM 16 1.17, aylmn DkM 784.10, ‘ylymn i;Bd 177.2; gtrgli[y,~SO gtok>sQuilorr ~;t.Jp+r p!ate: murnf&rz’dan, also dncyn- PN 14 (PT 44.1) : deadaoa, also w&, see FrP xxii.3 (p. 62) also pcwk’ Pahl. Rirv. Dd 21.9 (ed. Dhabhar 78) ; paygdm, also ptpm Jdrn. N. 44, 46 (ed. Messina, p. 73) : watiarad, tunnd for instance GBd 27.2, but (P&and) wlnnd GBd 50.4, ~66 Henning, JR&?, 1942, 247. 11) A spot-check made clear that It would be difficult to point to an entry for which the available literature has not be consulted. 1s) More cross-references would have been useful, such as abi8dytttuundto p&dyilwand, didom to dlud’Zgr tv, t%kal to kasY,hand&m to hcsnnnilm,waxr to .~~bl, 7., etc. ;

jhdigJ

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diilri~~~~t’ltocdbb~,u~i~~‘thernanufactureofbucketsand thedrawingup , ML4 v f 935, 18 far myh”wcyh. ect’, quoted by Bailey, &h)aspz’it [ Wbs$y~‘] ‘restless’ DRM f 61.3; see Bailey, ibid., 22. [+%yt’] ‘fE CBlflf3’ Lh4 S 49 (PT 113.12), thus for ‘yyt’, from %-, P(arthian) ‘(‘)s- ‘come’, sf”P Henning, BSOAS, xiii, 1950, 644, n. 13. i&56: [email protected] 25.12 (WI. AII~~EGU%, 93) &?bWd [Wpyhyt’] ‘is bayasfuivs : hl (aniehctan Middle Persian) by ‘sp%. asmirs : also .%‘MY) (Frl I .2, p. 4a), A(ramaic) .+ZJC CNU&&WZ: Zddsj~. ZE. lZi?(t~L P,ddg~gr!a, 93) &~&?g‘!p ” “*~Y*~..~chrkpn’ , GBd 66.6 Catid&- ‘cause to shrrke, ma.ke tremble’. &rfig&% [d Vuz~kd’tt]‘medicine chest’ DrA s 17 (PT 1 i&2), if not d&fig&z ‘mecihments’, see Henning, BSOAS, xiii, 1950, 643, n. 2. dt%z’dan:I)kM 746.11 I 13, 14 dWhFduPt [dysyhyt+z’] ‘be built’. dildav+di%[dldltyh] ‘humaneness’ DkM 550.9. iwc%tk’] ‘heretic DkM 2 16.19. ybt] ‘prosperity’ PT 47.1 I. man&h Chm-I)YNA-‘~n~~adlth] ‘unanimity’ GBd +. 9. t 1, see Henning, CGA, 1935, 11. hangt?xtafz: c[XV 22 1.1 1 Ju?~g&?fl- [II‘2gycynJ ‘arouse’. ha3agrtiag: M gmdg ‘lament’, see Hennit.~, BSOAS, ix, 1937, 83 and S&wart:<, JRAS, 1966, 121. @,& [yWg) ‘(wooden) mortar’ Dri”Qs 7 (PT 109.9, Njew Persian) i csW&, WYZ[J&W&T’]‘fsrxicator’, traditionally with k&-z-marz [kwndamite’ and d&&&s- cwz [dWPt-P)tlc’] ‘ who has intercourse with a menstru;Lfitl~ womaC Bv. &m. ASaw. 41 (ed. Anklesaria, 154-7). aving (other) people’(?) Hust. 10 (PT 27.16) ; neither dt?tg?dsfi t’] ‘finger’ or hdast [hwdst’] ‘skilful’ seems to fit thft second part of the graphic sequence. kardwn: Henning (t&J ) 1935, 9) suggested that kardan ‘do, act, Xgerfarm’ with ,a past participle indicates completed action as in ~a~~~~ warzfd ‘to complete tilling’ PN 6 (PT 434, kard nib& ‘he completed writing’ KA? 1.42 as is common in other Iranian languages; see Emmerick, SGS, I, 111 for Sogdian and Khotanese.

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karkt?han : PahL. Riv. Dd49.6 karkghan& [KIkyhnyn’] ‘ofchabxia~~~L RudGzag [kwtynk’] ‘(washerwoman’s) mallet, roller’ Paht. Vd, xiv. 7 8s already suggested by Bartholomae (Az’W, 1344); M [q]wdy&z, N kudz’n(e), see Henning, Sogdiea, 57. kulbf: also k&h [kwl’h] lbhm. Yt. 6.3. (cd. Anklesaria, 45). md*f [m’nyy] ‘Mani’ DkM 216.19; man&zg [m’nyyyk’] ‘Manichcan’ Dk,M 152.3. mari [mli] ‘belly’ Pahl, Riv. Dd., 7 1.1 ; Av. mar&- ; scc mddn. nix- [n+j ‘be proud, boast’ PT 54.8 ; M n%-, N na’z. nt?kt%z’dan[“lzywkynytn’; ’ make better, improve’ DkM 190. lb. nigiir- : niga’rrh- [nk’lyh-] ‘be formed’ ZAcls#~.xxx. 23 (ed. Anklesaria, I 15). &ger- : nigeffdbrz’Cz[nkylyt31yh] ‘observance, obedience’ DkM 58.20, nirfs-: nirfs&- [nZ#syn-] ‘make decrease’ DkM 87.3, &bz-: d&&z [‘w’s%&‘] ‘what is thrown off’ Ztids$r. xxx, 51 (ed. Anklesaria, 126), Gsa’nz’h-[‘ws’nyh-] ‘be thrown down’ DkM 167.18. fiGkfzag: Piikfzagzlz [p’kyckyh] ‘purity’ DkM 550.14, paywandig (fitwndykj pad [PWN] ‘according to, connected with’ fikM 232.2. $:&%a’n bGtz’!xinsn’ii’r[*@.aStykfiWsrdFJ ‘commander of the bodyguard’ KN 1d.7. rasidan : ras&- ‘be brought, reach’ ; rasi’hCd [ YHM Y’WNytlyt’] DkM 324.22, 939.4. *sanjabz’l [*zsigypyZ] ‘ginger’ Husr. 46 (IT 3 1.&I), N zan/abl”l ; see Alan S. C. Ross, Ginger, 1952, 18. saxtan: also spelled TG(K)L WN, A tql, see Henning, BSQAS, xxiv, 1961, 355. *sin/ad [*slnct] ‘jujube’ GBd 118.15, N sot/&; see Bailey, BSQAS, xiii, 1951, 933. schistan : sdhfh- [swhyh-] ‘be touched, felt’ iX&I” 122-10, 11, sCh&- [swhyn-] Dd xv. 2 (ed. Anklesaria, 33). stung: sttivgz’lz[st(w)lgyh] ‘fierceness’ etc, DkM 58.11, 550.10, tahm(ag) [thm(k)] ‘brave’, M thtia, N tah(a)m. tuSt-mennibafh [twit’-mynbzyh] ‘silent=rl~indec2nsss,secrecy’ Dk&{

58.21. w&t [wyn’]: rather wt?w[wyw’], P wyw GBH 189.15; see Henning, apud Boyce, BSBAS, xiii, 1951, 914, n. 4. wihtin(ag): wihtinagifn- [wh’nkyn-] ‘cause (to become) a reason’ DkM 602.20.

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’ DKM 550.13, amp. N .243.8), where M guGda-

‘cheerful, happy’, not (Benzing, Das

P xix. 7 (p. SB),