THERIOGENOLOGY A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE EFFICACY OF PERGONALm FOR IN VITRO FERTILIZATION (lVF) AND GAMETE INTRAFALLOPL4N TRANSFER (GIFT’) IN THE WRS’IERN LOWLAND GORILLA (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) N.M. Loskutofp’, B. Yee’, R.C. Cambre’, P.P. [email protected]
, S.L. Huntress*, TX Bowsher’, RR. Chaco$, B.L. Raphael’, J.M. Putman and D.C. Kraemer’ ‘Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas AgricukuraJ Experiment Station, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843 USA, ‘Dallas Zoo, Dallas,= 75203 USA, ‘Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CA 92668 USA, ‘Denver Zoological Gardens, Denver, CO 8MD5 USA, ‘Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Colorado Springs, CO SO906USA, department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas TX 7.5246USA
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an exogenous gonadotropin treatment regimen for induction of follicular maturation in the Western Lowland gorilla. Three nonreproductive female gorillas (32,33 & 34 yr old) were used in an attempt to salvage viable gametes for artificial reproductive technology. Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG; Pergonalm; Serono Lab., Inc., Randolph, MA) was administered (ii) at a dosage of 4 ampules/day (75 IU FSH + 75 lU LH/ampule) for 6 consecutive days At 36 h after the last hMG injection, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; Rugby Lab., Inc., RochviIle Centre, NY) was admiitered (ii) at a dosage of 2QC00IU. Oocyte retrieval was scheduled approximately 32 h after hCG administration. Oocyte retrieval in the 33 yr old gorilla was scheduled concurrently with unilateral ovariectomy. The right ovary of this gorilla had been excised approximately 50 days previously owing to its involvement in an endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The contralateral ovary at that time appeared inactive. Exogenous gonadotropin therapy was initiated at an undefined stage of the menstrual cycle. At ovariectomy, a total of seven antral follicles were detected on the remaining only: two large preovulatory (>20 mm diameter) follicles, four I.516 mm follicles and oat small (10 mm) follicle. A total of 3 oocytes were recovered from the follicles by mpture and lavage. The oocytes were placed in Hams F-10 medium supplemented with 75% v/v heat-inactivated autologous senmr and incubated for 4 h at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 90% No 5% CO, and 5% 0, prior to insemination. Approximately 2,000 motile spermatozoa were added to the oocytes from a cryopreserved/thawed epididymal semen sample collected post-mortem. At 18 h post-insemination, one ovum was fertilized (pronuclei and polar bodies were visible), the second showed evidence of polyspermia (~4 pronuclei) and the third was unfertilized. No further embryonic development was observed after an additional 32 h in culture. The 32 vear old gorilla demonstrated active. vet irregular ovarian cyclicity as determined by urinary concentrations of Geganediol-3 alpha-glucukide @G), LH (Ovustickr? Moaoclonal Antibodies. Inc.. Mountain View. CA) and occult blood Giemastix? Miles Laboratories, Inc., Elkhart, IN). Bxogenous gonadotropin tre’atment in this animal was initiated 4 days following the first day of menses. Tramvagkl ultrasoaography at the time of oocyte retrieval revealed multiple (> 10) small antral follicles (X2-I5 mm) on each ovary. Several follicles were aspirated via laparoscopy, a total of 4 immature oocytes (densely compacted cumulus) were recovered Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) was performed using the highest quality oocyte-cumulus complex and spermatozoa freshly collected by electroejaculation; pregnancy was not established. The 3 remaining oocytes were placed in culture overnight, after which time signs of degeneration were evident. Urinary PdG and estrogen conjugate measurements in the 34 yr old gorilla disclosed ovarian [email protected]
prior to the initiation of exogenous gonadotropin therapy. After 6 days of hMG treatment, transvaginal ultrasonography revealed multiple (>lO) small antral follicles (g-12 mm) on each ovary. To promote further follicular development, an additional 4 ampules were administered 25 h after the last hMG injection. At 33 h after hCG admiitratioa, two corpora hemorrhagica, 7-9 luteinized follicles (15-u) mm) and several smaller antral follicles (5 12 mm) were found, suggesting that the extended stimulation protocol exceeded the optimal time limit for oocyte recovery. These data suggest that hMG and hCG are effective for the induction of folliculogenesis in the infertile gorilla. Further studies are in progress to determine optimal treatment intervals for in viva oocyte maturation and timing for oocyte retrieval. Supported by the Dallas Zoological Society and the Institute of Museum Services.
1989 VOL. 31 NO. 1