A Textbook of Orthodontics

A Textbook of Orthodontics

DEPARTMENT Edited OF REVIEWS AND ABSTRACTS by T. M. Graber, D.M.D., Ph.D. Kenilworth, Ill. All inquiries regarding information on reviews and abs...

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T. M. Graber, D.M.D., Ph.D. Kenilworth,


All inquiries regarding information on reviews and abstracts should be directed to the respective authors. Articles or books for review in this department should be addressed to Dr. T. M. Graber, 450 Green Bay Road, Kenilworth, Illinois 60043.

The Life and Times of G. V. Black Charles N. Pappas

be other than a continuous student. ” Is there a more important challenge today?

Chicago, 1983, Quintessence Publishers. 128 pages. illustrated

This little paperback volume rekindles the reverence that dentistry justifiably feels for the “father of modem dentistry,” G. V. Black. Not much has been written about this great man since the volume, From Pioneer to Scientist, was published in 1940 by his direct descendents, Carl and Bessie Black. The author, a graduate of Northwestern University, which is steeped in G. V. Black tradition, relies heavily on this book for much of his information. The five chapter headings are “Chicago’s Guest of Honor, ’ ’ ‘ ‘Nature and Science, ” “Community, ’ ’ ‘ ‘Purpose, ” and “Service.” It is perhaps unavoidable to romanticize the life of a man who has given so much in so many areas. The eulogy is well deserved, if perhaps a bit overdone, as far as the early settlers and pioneer spirit, are covered. The picture of the first ship at Jamestown has nothing to do with the Black family, who was Scotch-Irish and almost certainly landed at Philadelphia, according to Elizabeth Hubert, a direct descendent. They spent a few years in Pennsylvania, where William Penn allowed them to settle on some land at March Creek, before going to North Carolina. The battle of King’s Mountain, pictured in the book, has nothing to do with the Black family; it was in South Carolina, not North Carolina. The G. V. Black office is no longer at Northwestern, but part of it is now at the Smithsonian Institute. It also would have been nice to have a photograph of the monument in Lincoln Park in Chicago. But these and other minor errors do not detract from the recounting of Dr. Black’s professional career as nature lover, practitioner, researcher, author, teacher, dean, and organizational man. Pappas recounts his exploits, as well as the recognition given him by a grateful dental profession. The book is easy to read, well produced, and leaves the reader with a feeling of great pride in his profession, knowing the caliber of men who made it what it is today. More than anything else, G. V. Black exemplified his own maxim, “The professional man cannot 266

T. M. Graber

A Textbook

of Orthodontics

T. D. Foster Second Edition, London, 1982, Black-well Scientijc Publications

When the first edition of this book was published in 1975, this reviewer questioned the marketability of such a text in the United States. The new edition of the Foster’s A Textbook of Orthodontics does not come significantly closer to being a standard reference for an American scholar. In the preface to the second edition, the author writes that he expanded the scope of the book largely in those areas where an American reader might need additional information and more complete coverage of the subjects. These include the sections on cephalometrics, on fixed appliances, and on treatment of several common occlusal traits. Unfortunately, the text still falls short in these same areas if it were to be used as a reference textbook by the clinical orthodontist, as Foster suggested. Several texts, written or edited by our American colleagues, are far superior in providing more complete and more updated information on diagnostic procedures, including cephalometrics, and particularly in describing all aspects of construction, activation, and intended usages of various appliance systems. As expected (and following the similar treatment in his first edition), Foster has done a very fine job in the chapters on development of occlusion, etiologic factors creating malocclusion, and the need for orthodontic treatment. This reviewer is impressed by the logical and reasonably convincing division of etiologic factors into skeletal, dental, muscular, and localized influences . One specific objection is Foster’s frequent use of the word distortion of arch wires or elastic springs to achieve the desired movements of teeth. The difference in accepted terminology on the two sides of the ocean

Reviews and abstracts

Volume 84 Number 3

might be responsible for a strong preference for the term dejection. Technically, the book is, once again, well done. Print and illustrations are good and clear. The book is indexed and contains a large list of references. Mladen

M. Kuftinec

Changes in Length and Torque of the Masticatory Muscles Produced by the Activator Appliance J. Ahlgren and M. Bendeus Swed,


J. Supp.

15, pp. 15-35,


The purpose of this study was to measure cephalometrically the change in muscle length and torque of the masticatory muscles as a result of the wearing of an activator appliance. The sample consisted of ten cases with a distoclusion type of malocclusion. Muscle length and force arm (leverage) were measured on two lateral cephalograms for each subject, one in habitual occlusion and one with the activator inserted between the upper and lower teeth. The construction bite was taken at 2 to 3 mm. below rest position, with the mandible advanced 5 to 6 mm. The study showed that the temporal, masseter, and medial pterygoid muscles increased in length 5 to 15 percent, while the lateral pterygoid decreased 25 percent in length when the activator was in place. Thus, there was a relatively greater foreshortening of the disk and condylar protracting muscle. The effect on the force arm of the temporal muscle was small, a decrease of 3 to 6 percent. On the masseter muscle, the 21 to 22 percent decrease was more dramatic. Thus, as far as the torque of the temporal muscle is concerned, the small decrease in force arm is well compensated for by the increased muscle tension due to the stretching produced by the activator action. The authors then discuss the clinical implications of these findings as they relate to optimal construction bite determination. T. M. Graber


The Effect of Continuous Bite Jumping With the Herbst Appliance on the Mastlcatory System: A Functional Analysis of Treated Class II Malocclusions H. Panchen and M. Anehus-Pancherz Eur. J. Orthod.



A group of twenty boys with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion was studied after they had worn the Herbst mandibular protraction appliance for 6 months. The range of mandibular movement and TMJ dysfunction symptoms were analyzed clinically, along with an assessment of associated musculature. Masticatory function was evaluated by electromyographic registrations of temporal and masseter muscle activity, combined with a masticatory efficency test. Lateral mandibular movement limits were reduced by an average of 1.9 mm, during the 6-month treatment time. By 12 months after appliance removal, the range of excursive movement had returned to normal. The frequency of TMJ muscle tenderness increased during the first 3 months, but most symptoms had disappeared after the full 6-month period of Herbst appliance treatment. Masseter and temporalis muscle activities were significantly reduced for the first 3 months of the bitejumping procedure but returned to pretreatment levels, on the average, after 6 months of therapy. The patients experienced chewing and biting difficulties only during the first 7 to 10 days of treatment. The conclusion was drawn that treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusions with the Herbst appliance for 6 months, maintaining a continuous protractive influence on the mandible, resulted in minor functional disturbances in the stomatognathic system. These disturbances were temporary, however, occurring mainly at the beginning of treatment. T. M. Graber