Book Reviews Chemistry a n d Physics of Carbon. Vol. 4. Edited by Philip L. Walker, Jr. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1968. xii -f- 399, illus., $20.75. This volume is the latest in a monograph series which, as stated in the preface, is concerned with recent advances and with comprehensive reviews in important areas of carbon science and technology. The particular areas discussed in this volume are: X-ray diffraction, crystallization of graphite, formation of cokes, vaporization and catalytic gasification of carbon, and internal friction of graphite. The chapter by W. Ruland is a very thorough review of the theoretical problems in the X-ray diffraction from noncrystalline materials with particular emphasis on the uses of Fourier transforms. This chapter is a logical sequel to the review of experimental X-ray techniques by Ergun in Volume I I I of this series. Palmer and Shelef, after perusing 138 references for their review of the "Vaporization of Carbon," concluded that "the uncertainty that exists is quite intolerable and must be cleared up." This is particularly the case with regard to the nature of evaporating species and the triple point data, for which, according to the authors, the most likely values are 100 atm. and 4600-4800°C. The evidence for the value of 170 kcal/mole as the heat of sublimation is becoming rather overwhelming. The chapter on "Growth of Graphite Crystals from Solutions," by Austerman briefly describes the experimental and theoretical aspects of crystal growth from solutions of carbon in metals. The main emphasis is placed on the characterization of the crystals by optical crystallography. Many aspects of crystal morphology cannot yet be explained in terms of any simple growth mechanism but the process seems to be the same for both natural and synthetic crystals. "Internal Friction Studies of Graphite" by Tsuzuku and Saito is a very comprehensive summary of the field to which the authors are the main contributors. Pinning effects of lattice defects, caused by irradiation and by doping with bromine or boron, on the internal friction, resonant frequency, and relative dynamic modulus are interpreted in terms of the Granato~Lucke theory which seems to account for most results, in spite of the simplicity of the vibrating spring model on which it is based.
The review by Brooks and Taylor of "The Formation of Some Graphitizing Carbons" is concerned with the formation of cokes from liquid pitch. The authors contributed significantly through original investigations to the understanding of the role played in this process by the socalled mesophase which is formed at around 425°C by coalesing of spherulites of pitch. The spherulites are formed from the aromatic molecules linked by methylene or diaryl bridges and oriented on semi-spheroidal surfaces. The consecutive stages of transformation from liquid, isotropic pitch to anisotropic graphitized coke have been observed by electron and optical microscopy. The catalysis of carbon gasification is discussed in the final article by Walker, Shelef, and Anderson. A critical, systematically arranged survey of the field provides a backdrop for the authors' own work on the catalysis of carbon-carbon dioxide reaction by iron, nickel, and cobalt. The results, viewed in terms of the oxygen-transfer and electron-transfer processes, cannot be explained in terms of any simple mechanism. Additional "significant experiments which will lead to the final quantitative understanding" are still to be conceived. m. DIDCHENKO Union Carbide Corporation Carbon Products Division Parma, Ohio
Adsorption from Aqueous Solution. Advances in Chemistry Series No. 79, Edited by ROBERT F. GOULD, American Chemical Society Publications, Washington, D. C., 1968, 212 pp. $10.00. The book consists of 15 relatively short papers. A short introductory paper by F. C. Goodrich points out the convenience of the method of undetermined multipliers in generating thermodynamic excess quantities under various conventions. This is followed by a rather irrelevant paper on kinetics of gas adsorption under chromatographic conditions, and by a short, obscure set of data on adsorption of PoCI~2- at the aqueous solution-air interface. The book then picks up interest with a useful treatment of the chromatographic behavior of interfering solutes, by F. Helfferieh, and proceeds through a series of papers dealing with the adsorption from aqueous media of various
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Voh 3i. No. 4, December1969
BOOK R E V I E W S kinds of ions (Hf(IV), Co(II), group I and I I ions, SeO3~-) on surfaces, such as glass, silica, MnO~, and goethite. The second half contains a relatively long paper on coagulation of silica dispersions, a rather interesting discussion of the reaction of hydrated protons with active carbon by V. L. Snoeyink and W. J. Weber, Jr., followed by a study of surfactan~ adsorption on Graphon and a useful semi-theoretical paper on the t r e a t m e n t of adsorption where electrical double-layer effects are present, by If. Van Dolsen and M. J. Vold. There follows a brief report on the adsorption of aqueous sulfonates (a relatively poorly studied class of surfactants) on alumina, by T. Wakamatsu and D. W. Fuerstenau. The next paper deals with the spectra of cyanine dyes adsorbed on silver halide, silver, and mica surfaces, and the concluding one briefly presents some data on anion adsorption at the aqueous dodecyl-ammonium acetate-air interface. The first general impression is t h a t the book is just what it purports to b e . . . a collection of symposium papers, of an average or somewhat above average symposium. A second impression is that for the most part the papers consist of specific research reports and are, therefore, rather narrow. On the one hand, the contents should be of use to a reader whose direct interests are engaged, as well as to the person wishing to maintain his library in the field. On the other hand, however, the collection is too s p o t t y to be of much value to anybody wishing to become acquainted with current general advances in the field of adsorption from solution. ARTHUR W. ADAMSON
Department of Chemistry University of Southern California Los Angeles, California 90007
Dispersionen synthetiseher Hoehpolymerer, Tell I: Eigenschaften, Herstellung und Priifung.
(Dispersions of Synthetic High Polymers, P a r t I: Properties, Manufacture and Testing. By Fm~nRIcn HSLSCHER. Springer, Berlin, 1969. 182 pp.) This volume, the first of a series of two, is a well written, concise treatise of about 150 pages dealing with aqueous dispersions of polymers. As indicated in the title, the properties, manufacture, and testing of the commercially important latexes are covered. Nonaqueous dispersions are not discussed. The author has succeeded in correlating the more modern theories of colloid chemistry with the practical effects encountered with raw material and process variables, and the expected end properties of the various latex systems. The book is well organized and contains an extensive index and numerous bibliography references to the original literature. I t is an excellent reference volume for laboratory and production people as well as students, reading German, who are concerned with modern latex technology. Although the book is not intended to be an encyclopedia, the separate subjects are covered in sufficient depth to allow general conclusions to be drawn. Thus, a summary, rather than a very detailed description of the various problems encountered in latex manufacture and evaluation is obtained. Emphasis is placed on the practical rather than the theoretical aspects of the pertinent technology. However, sufficient theoretical factors involved in latex colloid chemistry are summarized to allow general conclusions to be drawn, or where more detail is required, the recent literature is cited. The book emphasizes European technology, but for the most part this is paralleled sufficiently in the United States to make this a valuable quick reference book for the latex technologist's library. W. K. ASBECK
Chemicals and Plastics Union Carbide Corporation Charleston, W. Virginia
Journal of Colloidand InterfaceScience,Vol. 31, No. 4, December 1969