An Emerging Industrial Business Model considering Sustainability Evaluation and using Cyber Physical System Technology and Modelling Techniques

An Emerging Industrial Business Model considering Sustainability Evaluation and using Cyber Physical System Technology and Modelling Techniques

1st IFAC Conference on Cyber-Physical & Human-Systems 1st on & 1st IFAC IFAC Conference Conference on Cyber-Physical Cyber-Physical & Human-Systems Hu...

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1st IFAC Conference on Cyber-Physical & Human-Systems 1st on & 1st IFAC IFAC Conference Conference on Cyber-Physical Cyber-Physical & Human-Systems Human-Systems December 7-9, 2016. Florianopolis, Brazil 1st IFAC Conference on Cyber-Physical & Human-Systems Available online at www.sciencedirect.com December 7-9, 2016. Florianopolis, Brazil December 7-9, 2016. Florianopolis, Brazil 1st IFAC Conference on Cyber-Physical December 7-9, 2016. Florianopolis, Brazil& Human-Systems December 7-9, 2016. Florianopolis, Brazil

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IFAC-PapersOnLine 49-32 (2016) 135–140

An Emerging Industrial Business Model considering Sustainability An An Emerging Emerging Industrial Industrial Business Business Model Model considering considering Sustainability Sustainability Evaluation and using Cyber Physical System Technology and AnEvaluation Emerging Industrial Business Model considering Sustainability and Evaluation and and using using Cyber Cyber Physical Physical System System Technology Technology and Modelling Techniques Evaluation and using Cyber Physical System Technology and Modelling Techniques Modelling Techniques Modelling Techniques 3 1 Edson H. Watanabe 1,2 1,2 , Robs on M. da Sil va3 , Fabricio Junqueira1 ,

1,2 11 , Edson on da va Junqueira 1,2 ,, Robs 1 Robs on M. M. da11 ,Sil Sil va33 ,,, Fabricio Fabricio Junqueira Edson H. H. Watanabe Watanabe , Robs on M. da Sil va Fabricio ,, Edson H. Watanabe Paulo E. Mi yagiJunqueira Diolino J. 1,2 dos Santos Filho 1 11 , Paulo 3 E. Mi yagi 11 Diolino J. dos Santos Filho Paulo E. Mi yagi Diolino Santos Filho , Robs on M. da ,,Sil va , Fabricio Junqueira1 , Edson H. Watanabe Paulo E. Mi yagi Diolino J. J. dos dos Santos Filho  Filho1 , Paulo E. Mi yagi 1 1 Diolino J. dos Santos of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil  1 University of Sao Paulo, Sao SP, 11 University University of of Sao Sao Paulo, Paulo, Sao Paulo, Paulo, SP, Brazil Brazil usp.br,  University Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil e-mail: 1{edsonh.watanabe, fabri, diolinos, pemiyagi}@ e-mail: {edsonh.watanabe, fabri, diolinos, pemiyagi}@ usp.br, 2 e-mail: {edsonh.watanabe, fabri, diolinos, pemiyagi}@ usp.br, University ofofSao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil e-mail: {edsonh.watanabe, fabri, diolinos, pemiyagi}@ usp.br, Institute Santa Catarina, Joinville, SC, Brazil 2 Federal 22 Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Joinville, SC, Brazil Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Joinville, SC, Brazil e-mail: {edsonh.watanabe, fabri, diolinos, pemiyagi}@ usp.br, Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Joinville, SC, Brazil e-mail: edsonh.ifsc.edu.br 2 e-mail: edsonh.ifsc.edu.br 3 Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Joinville, SC, Brazil e-mail: edsonh.ifsc.edu.br e-mail: ofedsonh.ifsc.edu.br Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA, Brazil 3 State University 33 State University of Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA, Brazil State University of Santa Cruz, e-mail: edsonh.ifsc.edu.br State University of Santa Cruz, Ilheus, Ilheus, BA, BA, Brazil Brazil e-mail: [email protected] 3 e-mail: [email protected] e-mail: [email protected] State University of Santa Cruz, Ilheus, e-mail: [email protected] BA, Brazil [email protected] Abstract: There is a kind of movemente-mail: for people to consider sustainability in all their daily activit ies, Abstract: There is a kind of movement for people to consider sustainability in all their daily activit ies, Abstract: is for people sustainability all daily activit Abstract: There is aa kind kind of ofofmovement movement forservices people to to consider sustainability in health. all their theirThis dailyinduces activit ies, ies, not only inThere the acquisition goods and butconsider including the care forin the not only in the acquisition of goods and services but including the care for health. This induces the not only only in inThere theaacquisition acquisition ofmovement goods and services but including the care for for health. This induces the Abstract: isnew a kind ofof for people sustainability in health. allshould theirThis daily activit ies, not the goods and services but including the care induces the emergence of business model. Any type to ofconsider production system (PS) thus consider emergence of a new business model. Any type of production system (PS) should thus consider not only in the acquisition of goods and services but including the care for health. This induces the emergence of a new business model. Any type of production system (PS) should thus consider emergence of a new business model. Any type of production system (PS) should thus consider sustainability in all its activities and a relationship, which includes not only customers but suppliers, and sustainability its aa relationship, includes not only customers but suppliers, and sustainability in aall allfrom its activities activities and relationship, which includes not only customers butthe suppliers, and emergence ofin new business and model. Any typewhich of production system (PS) should thususeconsider sustainability in all its activities and a relationship, which includes not only but suppliers, partners involved conception, design, manufacturing and provide ev en customers service after andand the partners involved conception, design, manufacturing and provide ev en service after use and the partners of involved from conception, design, manufacturing and provide ev en customers service after the use andand the sustainability allfrom its activities andan a evaluation relationship, which includes only butthe suppliers, partners involved from conception, design, manufacturing and ev en service after the use and the disposal theinproducts. Therefore, procedure for provide PS isnot proposed to monitor four aspects of disposal of the products. Therefore, an evaluation procedure for PS is proposed to monitor four aspects of partners involved from conception, design, manufacturing and provide ev en service after the use and disposal of of the thenamely products. Therefore, an evaluation evaluation procedure fortechnological. PS is is proposed proposed toframework monitor four four aspectsthe of disposal products. Therefore, an procedure for PS monitor aspects of sustainability, : environ mental, social, economical and A to is considered sustainability, namely :: environ mental, social, economical and technological. A framework is considered sustainability, namely environ mental, social, economical and technological. A framework is considered disposal of the products. Therefore, an evaluation procedure for PS is proposed to monitor four aspects of sustainability, namely : environ mental, social, technological. A framework is considered to deal with the concepts of sustainability andeconomical to evaluate and performance in industrial PSs considering the to deal with the concepts of sustainability and to evaluate performance in industrial PSs considering the to deal with the concepts of sustainability and to evaluate performance in industrial PSs considering the sustainability, namely : environ mental, social, economical and technological. A framework is considered to deal with concepts sustainability and to evaluate in industrial PSs considering the indicators to the qualify and toofquantify their sustainability. It performance adopts the Petri net technique and extensions indicators to qualify and to quantify their sustainability. It adopts the Petri net technique and extensions to dealANSI/ISA95; with concepts sustainability and to evaluate in industrial considering the indicators to qualify and to quantify their It adopts Petri net technique and indicators to the qualify and toofPhysical quantify their sustainability. sustainability. It performance adopts the Petri netare technique and extensions extensions of the Cyber System (CPS) and Smart Gridthe resources alsoPSs considered to treat of the ANSI/ISA95; Cyber Physical System (CPS) and Smart Grid resources are also considered to treat of the ANSI/ISA95; Cyber Physical System (CPS) and Smart Grid resources are also considered to treat indicators to qualify and to quantify their sustainability. It adopts the Petri net technique and extensions of the ANSI/ISA95; Cyber Physical andeach Smart Grid resources alsoa considered to treat informat ion processing, storage and System access (CPS) flows by system co mponentareand Cloud Co mputing informat ion processing, storage and access flows each system co and Cloud mputing informat ion processing, storage and System access flows by by each system co mponent mponent and Cloud Co Co mputing of the ANSI/ISA95; Cyber Physical (CPS) and Smart Grid process resources alsoaaa considered to treat informat ion processing, storage and access flows by system co mponent and Cloud Co System to connect dispersed PSs. In addition, an each evaluation is are systematized to mputing support System to connect dispersed PSs. In addition, an evaluation process is systematized to support informat ion processing, storage and access flows by each system co mponent and a Cloud Co mputing System to connect dispersed PSs. In addition, an evaluation process is systematized to support System to connect dispersed PSs. In addition, an evaluation process is systematized to support sustainable PSs by the rational use of production resources and the environment, to guarantee the safety sustainable by rational of production resources and the environment, to the safety sustainable PSs by the the rational use use ofeconomic production resources and the process environment, to guarantee guarantee thesupport safety System to PSs connect PSs. In addition, an evaluation is thus, systematized sustainable PSs by the rational use production resources and the environment, to guarantee the safety of employees and todispersed maintain theof profitability of the company, making to production of employees employees and to maintain maintain theofeconomic economic profitability of the the company, thus, thus, making production production of and to the profitability of company, making sustainable PSs by the rational use production resources and the environment, to guarantee the safety of employees to maintain the economic profitability of the company, thus, making production processes more and efficient. processes more and efficient. of employees to maintain the economic profitability of the company, thus, making production processes more efficient. processes more efficient.manufacturing, perfo rmance evaluation, business model, cyber physical system, Keywords: sustainable © 2016, IFAC (International Federation ofperfo Automatic Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. processes more efficient.manufacturing, Keywords: sustainable rmanceControl) evaluation, business model, cyber physical system, Keywords: sustainable Keywords: manufacturing, perfo perfo rmance rmance evaluation, evaluation, business business model, model, cyber cyber physical physical system, system, Petri net. sustainable manufacturing, Petri net. Keywords: Petri Petri net. net. sustainable manufacturing, perfo rmance evaluation, business model, cyber physical system,  Petri net.  framework to systemize the PS sustainability performance  framework to to systemize systemize the the PS PS sustainability sustainability performance performance 1. INTRODUCTION framework  framework systemize the PS indexes. sustainability 1. INTRODUCTION evaluation to using sustainability The performance framework 1. 1. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION evaluation using sustainability indexes. The framework framework to systemize the PS sustainability performance evaluation using sustainability indexes. The framework evaluation using sustainability indexes. The framework adopts the Petri net technique and extensions of the People are concerned about considering sustainability in their 1. about INTRODUCTION adopts the Petri net technique and extensions of the the People are concerned considering sustainability in their adopts the Petri net technique and extensions of evaluation using sustainability indexes. The framework Peopleactivit are concerned concerned about considering considering sustainability inshould their adopts the Petri net it technique and extensions of ANSI/ISA95 norms; also considers simulation as the an People are about their daily ies. Production system (PS)sustainability as a whole in ANSI/ISA95 norms; it also considers simulation as an daily activit ies. Production system (PS) as a whole should ANSI/ISA95 norms; it also simulation as an adopts the Petri netdata and Life extensions of daily activit ies. system (PS) as People are concerned about considering sustainability inshould their ANSI/ISA95 norms; it technique also considers simulation as the an daily activit ies. Production Production system (PS) asandaa awhole whole should consider sustainability in all their activ ities relationship, analysis correlation toolconsiders (e.g., Cycle Impact consider sustainability in all their activ ities and a relationship, analysis correlation data tool (e.g., Life Cycle Impact norms;isdata itbased also considers simulation as the an analysis correlation correlation data tool (e.g., Life Cycle Impact consider sustainability all activ ities relationship, daily activit ies. not Production system (PS) asand should ANSI/ISA95 consider sustainability in customers all their their activ ities anda aawhole relationship, analysis tool (e.g., Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCiA) on "indicators", in which which includes onlyin but suppliers, and partners Assessment (LCiA) is based on "indicators", in which the which includes not only customers but suppliers, and partners Assessment (LCiA) is based on "indicators", in which the consider sustainability in all their activ ities and a relationship, analysis correlation data tool (e.g., Life Cycle Impact which includes not only customers but suppliers, and partners (LCiA)use is based on "indicators", which the effects of resource and emissions generatedinare grouped which includes only customers but suppliers, and partners involved fro mnotconception, design, manufacturing and Assessment of use and emissions generated grouped involved fro mnotconception, design, manufacturing and effects effects of resource resource use and number emissions generated are grouped Assessment (LCiA) is based on "indicators", inare which the involved fro conception, manufacturing which includes only after customers butand suppliers, and partners of resource and emissions are grouped involved fro m m service conception, design, manufacturing and providing even thedesign, use the disposal ofand the effects and quantified in a use limited of generated impact categories that providing even service after the use and the disposal of the and quantified in aa use limited number of impact categories that effects of resource and emissions generated are grouped and quantified in limited number of impact categories that providing even service after the use and the disposal of the involved fro m conception, design, manufacturing and providing even service after the use and the disposal of the and quantified in a limited number of impact categories that may be of weighted importance (Otero, 2011)) and decisionproducts. The need to include sustainability in the PS may be weighted importance (Otero, 2011)) and products. The need to include sustainability in the PS may quantified be of ofmethod weighted importance (Otero, 2011)) and decisiondecisionproviding the use and such the disposal of the and in (e.g. a limited number of impact categories that products. The need toafter include sustainability in the PS may be of weighted importance (Otero, 2011)) and decisionmaking Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis products. The need to include sustainability PS conceptioneven was service brought up by entities as in the the United making method (e.g. Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis conception was brought up by entities such as the United making method (e.g. Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis may be of weighted importance (Otero, 2011)) and decisionconception wasand brought up byCoentities entities suchonas asEnviron the the United products. The need include sustainability in PS making Criteria Decision Analysis conception was brought up by such the United Nations (UN) thetoWorld mmission ment (MCDA)method chooses(e.g. the Multiple best alternative fro m a range of Nations (UN) the World mmission ment (MCDA) chooses the best fro a range of Decision Analysis (MCDA)method chooses the Multiple best alternative alternative fro m m range of Nations (UN) and the Co mmission on Environ ment conception wasand brought up1987), byCo suchon asEnviron the United Nations (UN) and the World World Coentities mmission on Environ ment (MCDA) chooses the best alternative fro m range of environment ofCriteria conflicting andaa competing alternatives in an (e.g. and Development (WCED, and events such as Rio 92, making environment of conflicting and competing alternatives in an and Development (WCED, 1987), and events such as Rio 92, environment of conflicting and competing alternatives in an Nations (UN) and the World Co mmission on Environ ment (MCDA) chooses the best alternative fro m a range of and Development (WCED, 1987), and events such as Rio 92, environment of conflicting and competing alternatives in an (Otero, 2011)), and a sustainable PS register based on and Development (WCED, 1987), and2015. events such as Rio Kyoto 97 and, more recently, Doha Currently, the 92, PS criteria criteria (Otero, 2011)), and aa sustainable PS register based Kyoto 97 and, more recently, Doha Currently, the PS criteria (Otero, 2011)), and sustainable PSof register based on on environment ofelements conflicting and competing alternatives in seal. an Kyoto 97 more Doha 2015. Currently, the PS and Development (WCED, 1987), and2015. events such as Rio (Otero, 2011)), a sustainable PS register based on Kyoto 97 and, and,must more recently, Doha 2015. Currently, the 92, PS criteria green product To and define the the framework performance berecently, concerned not only with productivity green product seal. To define the elements of the framework performance must be concerned not only with productivity criteria (Otero, 2011)), and a sustainable PS register based on green product seal. To define the elements of the framework performance must be concerned not only with productivity Kyoto 97 and, more recently, Doha 2015. Currently, the PS seal. To define the elements of the performance not only with productivity and itsproduct functionalities, a modelling approach is framework adopted to aspects but must also be withconcerned sustainability indicators, such as green and itsproduct functionalities, modelling approach is framework adopted to to aspects but must also with sustainability indicators, such as and aaa verify modelling approach is greenits seal. Totodefine theand elements of the performance only with productivity aspects also with sustainability indicators, such as and its afunctionalities, functionalities, modelling approach istheadopted adopted to formal way to validate dynamic aspects but also be withconcerned sustainability indicators, such and as ensure reductionbut of negative impacts onnot energy conservation ensure a formal way to verify and to validate the dynamic reduction of negative impacts on energy conservation and and to validate the dynamic ensure a formal way to verify and its functionalities, a modelling approach is adopted to reduction of negative impacts on energy conservation and aspects but also with sustainability indicators, such as ensure a formal way to verify and to validate the dynamic reduction of negative impacts on energy conservation and natural resources, safety assurance of employees’ behavior of the system. The evaluation processes treat behavior of the system. The evaluation processes treat natural resources, safety assurance of employees’ ensure a formal way to verify and to validate the dynamic behavior of the system. The evaluation processes treat natural resources, safety assurance of employees’ reduction of negative impacts on energy conservation and behavior of the system. The evaluation processes treat natural resources, safety assurance of employees’ informat ion processing, storage and access flows by each communit ies and consumers, viability and profitability of informat ion processing, storage and access flows each communit ies and consumers, viability and of informatco ion processing, storage andCyber accessPhysical flows by by each behavior of the system. The the evaluation processes treat natural resources, safety assurance employees’ communitand ies and policies consumers, viability and ofprofitability profitability of informat ion processing, storage and access flows by each system mponent considering System communit ies and consumers, viability and profitability of business best for using of equipment and tools. system co mponent considering the Cyber Physical System business and best policies for using of equipment and tools. system co mponent considering the Cyber Physical System informat ion processing, storage and access flows by each business and best policies for using using ofnew equipment andmodel. tools. communit ies best and consumers, viability andbusiness profitability of system Smart co mponent considering CyberCoPhysical business and for equipment and tools. (CPS), Grid resources and the a Cloud mputing System This induces the policies emergence of a of (CPS), Smart Grid and aa Cloud Co mputing System This induces the emergence of aa ofnew business model. co mponent considering the Cyber (CPS), Smart Grid resources resources and Cloud CoPhysical mputing System This induces the emergence of business model. business andindustrial best for using equipment and tools. (CPS), Smart Grid resources a Cloud Co mputing System This induces the policies emergence ofand a new new business model. to connect dispersed PSs. Toand evaluate the sustainability of However, norms standards such as system to connect dispersed PSs. To evaluate the sustainability of However, industrial norms and standards such as to connect connect dispersed PSs. Toand evaluate the sustainability of Smart Grid resources a Cloudthe Co mputing This inducesindustrial the not emergence ofand aconsider new business However, norms standards as to PSs. PSs, a set ofdispersed indicators mustTo beevaluate computed tosustainability quantifySystem and of to However, industrial norms and standards such as (CPS), ANSI/ISA95 do exp licitly how such tomodel. treat PSs, a set of indicators must be computed to quantify and to ANSI/ISA95 do not exp licitly consider how to treat PSs, a set of indicators must be computed to quantify and to to connect dispersed PSs. To evaluate the sustainability of ANSI/ISA95 do not exp licitly consider how to treat However, industrial norms and standards such as a set indicators must related be computed to quantify and to ANSI/ISA95 do not exp licitly consider treat PSs, qualify theofPS performance to them. The indicators sustainability indicators in PS design and its how controltosystem qualify the PS performance related to them. The indicators sustainability indicators in PS design and its control system PSs, a set of indicators must be computed to quantify and to qualify the PS performance related to them. The indicators sustainability indicators in PS design and its control system ANSI/ISA95 do not exp licitly consider how to treat the on PS information performance fro related them.data Theacquisition indicators sustainability in PS design its control systema qualify are based m a to s mart (ANSI/ISA, indicators 2005). Therefore, thisandpaper proposes m ss mart (ANSI/ISA, 2005). Therefore, this paper proposes are based based on information fro m aaa to mart data acquisition qualify the on PS information performance fro related them.data Theacquisition indicators sustainability in PS design its control systemaaa are (ANSI/ISA, 2005). this proposes are based on information fro m s mart data acquisition (ANSI/ISA, indicators 2005). Therefore, Therefore, thisandpaper paper proposes (ANSI/ISA, 2005). Therefore, this paper proposes a are based on information fro m a s mart data acquisition

2405-8963 © 2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [email protected] 2016 IFAC 135Control. Peer review under responsibility of International Federation of Automatic [email protected] 2016 IFAC 135 [email protected] 2016 135 [email protected] 2016 IFAC IFAC 135 10.1016/j.ifacol.2016.12.203 [email protected] 2016 IFAC 135

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system that reads environment signals using sensors connected to the production machinery. These indicators must be used to monitor, to guarantee or to imp rove certain grade of sustainability for PS, ensuring a positive impact on the environment, employees’ satisfaction, proper use of technology and profitable manufactured products. Thereby, the framework also supports product classification based on the sustainability seal. This proposal is based on the scope that innovative solutions to improve process or physical structures in PSs are achieved by exploring new technologies and different approaches, but based on substantiated theories and techniques. Usually, a PS is seen only as a system that processes materials for manufacturing physical products; yet it should now be treated as a service-oriented system so that service-oriented business practices are applied to optimize production processes to meet customer demand considering product features, deadline, costs, security, reliab ility, logistics, resource-efficient production, and sustainability. The text is structured as follows: section 2 presents a review of manufacturing systems and sustainability indicators. Section 3 shows the framewo rk considered for the systematizat ion of the performance evaluation process and presents the green seal to register sustainability in PSs . Section 4 describes an examp le case of use of the simulation and analysis procedure. Section 5 produces the conclusions and proposes further works. 2. MANUFACTURING SYSTEM S AND SUSTAINA BILITY M ETRICS 2.1 Sustainable Manufacturing System Es maeilian et al. (2016) describe manufacturing conceptually as an industrial productive process in which raw materials are transformed into finished products which will be placed in the market. These processes are in constant innovation due to the development of technology, new tools and manufacturing methods. A sustainable manufacturing system is a productoriented system and ensures positive aspects related with economical, social, environ mental and technological points of view, which is usually considered three dimensions (economical, environ mental and social) called Trip le Bottom Line (TBL) by Elkington (1997). Th is approach can be extended to PS so that sustainable PSs take into account all the production stages and associated services, besides the product life cycle, fro m the acquisition of resources to the end of the production process and recycling the product in its obsolescence. (Otero et al., 2011) The main objective of sustainable PSs is not to unbalance the environment, but to maintain the quality of life for present generations without causing irreparable damage to the ecosystem for future generations. By the wise use of economical, social, environ mental and technological aspects, it wants to achieve a balance. Thus, it keeps the economic profitability of the company by the production process efficiency. In this context, Zhang et al. (2013), Jayal et al. (2010) describe the 6R methodologies: reduce, remanufacture, reuse, recover, recycle and redesign. 136

2.2 Indicators of sustainability Sustainability indicators have three main object ives: raising awareness and understanding, informing decision-making, and measuring progress toward established goals (Veleva et al., 2001). O'Brien (1999) says that indicators are qualitative or quantitative values used to evaluate the sustainability aspects of a system. According to Amrina and Yusof (2011), there are different approaches to be considered besides measuring a set of indicators, such as defining the actions set, in which the indicators must be verified. The objective of the measurement is to identify a specific area to apply improvements related to sustainability in PS activit ies. (Joung et al., 2013). A fundamental stage is the analysis and interpretation of the data achieved, when the difficu lties lie in the complexity related to the number of indicators selected (OECD, 2001; OECD, 2011). Table 1 shows a reduced list of four sustainability aspects indicators, in which the indexes of each indicator should be calculated based on the demand of the production data. Table 1 - S ustainability aspects and indicators Item 1 2 3 4 5

Economical indicators Material Cost Energy Cost Labour Cost Production Investment Cost Trainingt Cost

Item 1 2 3 4 5

Social indicators Work Days Lost Labor Productivity Employee Trained in Sustainability Customer Complaints Publication of Sustainability Report

Item 1 2 3 4 5

Environmental indicators Greenhouse Gas Emissions Materials Reused / Recycled used in Products Waste materials Discarded Total Energy Consumed Water Reuse

Item 1 2 3 4

Technological indicators Protective Equipment and Personal Safety Innovation and Investment in R&D Updated Software and Hardware Service Providers with Environmental Certification Maintenance Program Policy

5

The degree of sustainability may be also used as a metric to evaluate the performance of PS (Joung et al., 2013). According to ISO (2010) and ISO (2014), the performance measure is treated as part of an industrial process creation value. 3. FRAMEW ORK

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According to the hierarchical control structure of PS presented in ANSI/ISA (2005), a Manufacturing Execution System (MES) (level 3) processes the production informat ion; the business level (level 4) receives the results fro m the production performance analysis executed at the MES and assists managers in making decisions. In this work, level 3 is reviewed and re-interpreted to include a Sustainability Management System (SuMS) to treat sustainability. This is responsible for p rocessing the data collected fro m the lower levels to calculate the sustainability indicators using informat ion fro m a smart data acquisition system in the PS infrastructure. In case of any indicator discrepancy, the SuMS notifies the higher level and sends commands to lower levels according to the decision making directive established by the business level (e.g. MCDA (Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis)). Fig. 1 shows this structure. Production Level 4

MES Database Read and Write Data Flow Production KPI Database

adopted as a tool to systematize the modelling procedure, analysis and control specification. In fact, there are other techniques to model DES, but when the specificat ion and implementation of control solutions in industrial process is relevant, according to Morales et al., (2007) and Villan i et al., (2007), control solutions based on models of PN are considered the most effective and easy way to program industrial controllers. Even though the introduction of the sustainability concept does not change the nature of PS, its consideration at the system design stage is not trivial. Therefore, Fig. 2 presents the procedure for the performance evaluation of sustainable PSs (da Silva et al., 2015). It also shows additional informat ion about the tasks, tools, and methods considered.

Business (ERP)

Production Level 3

137

ISA – IEC/ISO Interface Standards

Operations, Requests SuMS and Responses Data Flow Sustainability Indicators Selection Sustainability Analysis Data Exchange Data Collect

Scenario Database

Database Read and Write Data Flow

Sustainability Data Execution Management Operational Commands and Responses Data Flow

Production Level 2 Monitoring Supervisory Control and Automated Control of the Production Process

IEC, OPC, & OMAC Interface Standards

Sustainability KPI Database

ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning MES – Manufacturing Execution System SuMS – Sustainability Management System

Fig. 1. ANS I/IS A-95 norm and the proposed S uMS . Fig. 2. Analysis procedure of performance in sustainable PS .

The SuMS is co mposed of the following submodules:  Sustainability indicators defini tion - is the interface that provides information about the performance and evaluation of sustainability indicators of the PS and ensures data compatibility among others PSs;  Sustainability analysis - calculates the performance and sustainability indicators of the PS based on data received fro m both the MES and ‘Data Co llect’ module;

The procedure proposed considers: 



 Data collect - stores the data from the ‘Sustainability data execution management’ module;  Sustainability data execution management - coordinates the data flow into SuMS, i.e., interactions among the SuMS sub-modules, and equipment located at inferior levels to collect data to calculate the sustainability indicators. It is responsible for receiv ing indicators data co ming fro m a s mart data acquisition system, based on a microprocessed system and sensors. 3.1 Analysis Procedure of Performance in Sustainable PS Miyagi (2001); Morales et al., (2007) and Villani et al., (2007) approach PSs as a Discrete Event System (DES) and based on this, the Petri net (PN) technique (Silva, 2013) was 137



Specifications of physical machine operations and the types of technologies involved in the processes. Based on these specifications, data are extracted; the environmental resource data, materials and processes compose the environmental information and are previously defined. The processes in the PS described by the PFS (Production Flow Scheme - an interpreted PN p roper to model a process at high abstraction conceptual level) (M iyagi, 2001) (Villan i et al., 2007) and then detailed by IOPT (Input Output Place-Transition net - another interpreted PN proper to detail signals exchanged during a process execution (Pereira and Go mes, 2013). The resulting models are analy zed including simulat ion techniques for quantitatively evaluating different scenarios. The expected KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) related to sustainability, obtained from the PN models, are stored in the SuMS database and used to compare the informat ion collected fro m the productive plants on-line. Information about the current status of the productive plants is expectedly available at the MES database; however, there are cases in which direct co mmunicat ion

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fro m SuMS to the supervisory level (lower level) is necessary. This is shown in Fig. 1. The evaluation of the differences among the expected values of KPIs and measured values are reported to a superior level (level 4). Although there are cases in which some activation commands are previously established (evidently derived fro m an upper level decision). In this case, a message must be sent to MES to update the tasks to be carried out in the PS.

3.2 Cyber-Physical System The cyber-physical system (CPS) concept is explored in PS to support a Smart Grid infrastructure for data processing and acquisition, connecting elements to monitor data that compose the sustainability indicators. According to NIST (2012); Sundmaeker et al., (2013) and Colo mbo et al., (2013), these systems form the basis of emerging and future smart services, and imp rove quality of life in many areas, providing the foundation of this proposal, including its critical infrastructure (Fig. 4). A PS must explore CPS to assure a collaborative environment to (re)configure online productive processes executed in disperse PSs independently of their geographical location using a cloud computing approach. The users (system manager, engineer and production manager) are able to access PS data at the business level interface, to evaluate the performance and new scenarios to improve the system. In this environment, all production and sustainability data are accessed from wherever they are via Internet (Ferreira, 2013).

PS Access Communication Interface

PS Access Communication Interface

System Access Communication Interface

System User 1

PSn

System Access Communication Interface

System User 2

4. M ODELLING AND ANA LYSIS The procedure proposed specifies how to execute the evaluation process of sustainability indicators and it could be applied to any type of PS considering its particularity and complexity. The framework associated with the procedure proposed supports the specification for data acquisition system of equip ment, sensors and for networking all the informat ion about the industrial infrastructure. The data acquisition systems work continually while the production is operating. The staff in charge of production admin istration can “log” the system and monitor the performance in any device in the network at any time. As an analysis tool, Petri net editors/simu lators or any other discrete event system evaluation tool can be used. This approach ensures a formal way to verify and to validate the dynamic behavior of the system. The analysis and reports are sent to the upper level system for decision making 4.1 IOPT tool The IOPT (Input and Output Place Transition) Tools, a webbased Petri net tool, is an academic project to edit a model in IOPT and to simulate it (Go mes et al., 2013). To analyse the system using simulation, the processes are divided into three parts:   

Material flow part; Measurement flow part ; Synchronization and commun ication of both parts.

The approach adopted herein to model and to analyse a process consists in describing the productive processes at conceptual level in PFS, and then derive the detailed model in IOPT. The material flow part is modelled separately to measure the flow part. The simu lation is made by executing the transition firing rules of IOPT. The data flow between both parts (material flo w and measurement flow) specified by the IOPT element called “guard” establishes the synchronization of activ ities.

PS2

PS1

something for the welfare of people and of nature, with an extra motivation for its emp loyees and local commun ity.

Production and Sustainability Information Data Center at Cloud

4.2 Example of the Acquisition and Analysis of Sustainability Indexes

System User n

Fig. 4. CPS technology to disperse productive systems.

Checking Productive Station

3.3 Green Seal The "green seal" is an initiative to encourage industries to produce in accordance with sustainability factors, such as economical, social, environ mental and technological. Th is seal is also a register that the PS is in wo rking order. All customers that buy products with green seal must have the guarantee that they are helping to make the world a better place to live. This way, the industry can show it is doing

Transport Productive Station

Production direction

Cylinder Base Distribution Productive Station

Cover Pin

Spring Assembling Productive Station

Fig. 5. Didactic flexib le manufacturing system. 138

Cylinder Base Assembled

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Figure 5 depicts an example of a didactic flexib le manufacturing system, in which the workpiece has a sequence of transportation, manipulation processes. The workp iece is a cylinder base, going from distribution, checking and assembling stations up to the final stage. On the upper side of Figure 6 there is a model in IOPT of the productive process (material flow) executed at the distribution station. At the bottom of the figure, there is a representation of the processes (measurement flow) conducted in data acquisition, as well as the evaluation system. The measurement flow part modelled in IOPT depicts a sensor read and data store operations, besides other operations related to data evaluation and comparison, which are used to assess the environment indicators. These data are read by smart sensors connected in strategic places in the line production environment. Distribution Productive Station

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IP2 IP3

Analog Input

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Analog Input

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+ -

Convert

Data Type Conrversion

A

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The data obtained by measuring are loaded in an electronic spreadsheet prepared to calculate the indexes and to evaluate the sustainability of the PSs. Figure 8a shows an examp le of the evaluation of the flexib le manufacturing system. Sustainability limits were adopted as a reference. Weights classify the importance of indexes, and the indexes are measured and surveyed directly fro m the PS. Fig. 8b and 8c show the evaluation results in graphic form and to clearly indicate the needs to improve PS.

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P4 EA – Start and Final of Production Signal

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 P – Place  T – Transition  EA – Enabling Arc

a) Sustainability evaluation result.

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T9 P10 Data EA – Start Selection Read Data Data from Evaluation Database T7

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Compare Data Out

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Store Data in Database

Fig. 6. Processes modelling of “Distribution productive station”, “data acquisition system” and “evaluation system”.

b) Result depict in bar.

The collected/read data are co mpared with stored reference values in a database and the results are stored in another database to be sent to a decision-making mechanis m at level 4 of ANSI/ ISA95. The indicator monitoring during the activation of each production station until. In the overall productive process model, which comb ines the models of each work station of the flexible manufacturing system, the activation of the indicator mon itoring is made by the enabling arc. The measurement flow part related to data acquisition and the evaluation system are considered when the sustainability indexes values are relevant to evaluate the production line. To imp lement the measure, the values of environ ment indicators similar to the scheme in Mat Lab shown in Fig.7 can be adopted.

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Data Store Write

Fig. 7. Information flow part of data acquisition system in MatLab.

T4

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1 P1

Truth Table

Subtract

c) Result depict in Venn diagram Fig. 8. Example of evaluation results .

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5. CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER W ORKS In general, the sustainability data of the PS are not available publically, because the companies consider these data strategic information to be used to market ing in their market positioning. The case example and the results shown here is to confirm the feasibility of the proposal to evaluate sustainability performance in PS. In the approach adopted, i.e. the proposed framework and the modelling process describe a practical and systematized way of assessing the performance of a sustainable PS by monitoring the indicators defined in accordance with four aspects of sustainability: environ mental, economical, social and technological. The systematization proposed specifies how to execute the evaluation process of sustainability indicators, which could be applied in any type of PS considering its particularity and co mplexity. The evaluation process is systematized to support sustainable PSs, by the rational use of production resources and the environment, guarantee the safety of employees and maintain the economic profitability of the co mpany, thus making production processes more efficient, providing a new business model. In the framework description, the use of an analysis decision making tool is mentioned; it needs to be better explored. The case shown with a small sample o f simulat ion and analysis features will be detailed in further works . REFERENCES Amrina, E. and Yusof, S.M. (2011). Key performance indicators for sustainable manufacturing evaluation in automotive companies. IEEM - IEEE Intern. Conf. on Industrial Eng ineering and Engineering Management, pp.1093-1097.. ANSI/ISA (2005). 95.00.03.2005 A merican National Standart Institute and The Instrumentation Systems and Automation Society. Enterprise-Control System Integration Part 3: Activity Models of Manufactu ring Operations Management. Colo mbo, A.W., Karnouskos S. and Bangemann T. (2013). A system of systems view on collaborative industrial automation. ICIT - IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Cape Town. da Silva, R.M.; Watanabe, E.H.; Blos, M.F.; Junqueira, F.; Santos Filho, D.J. and Miyagi, P.E. (2015). Modelling of mechanis ms for reconfigurable and distributed manufacturing control system. IFIP Advances in Information and Communicatyion Technology 450:93100. Elkington, J. (1997). Cannibals with forks The triple bottom line of 21st century business. Capstone Publishing Ltd, Oxford. Es maeilian, B., Behdad, S., and Wang, B. (2016). The evolution and future of manufacturing: a review. Journal of Manufacturing Systems 39: 79– 100. Ferreira, L., Putnik, G., Cunha, M., Putnik, Z., Castro, H., Alves, C., Shah, V. and Varela, M.L.R. (2013). Cloudlet architecture for dashboard in cloud and ubiquitous. Procedia CIRP 12: 366-371. Go mes, L., Moutinho, F. and Pereira, F. (2013) IOPT-Tools a web based tool framework for embedded system controller delo ip ment usinhg Petri nets. FPL – 23rd Int. Conf. on Field Programmable Logic and Applications, Porto. 140

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