An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey

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Journal of Ethnopharmacology ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Ethnopharmacology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jep

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey Seyid Ahmet Sargın a, Ekrem Akçicek b, Selami Selvi c,n a

Department of Elementary Education, Faculty of Science Education, Akdeniz University, 07058 Antalya, Turkey Department of Biology Education, Necatibey Education Faculty, Balıkesir University, 10100 Balıkesir, Turkey c Medicinal and Aromatical Plants Program, Altınoluk Vocational School, Balıkesir University, Edremit, Balıkesir 10870, Turkey b

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history: Received 20 July 2013 Received in revised form 6 September 2013 Accepted 12 September 2013

Ethnopharmacological relevance: This paper represents the first large-scale ethnobotanical study in the Alaşehir and its surrounding (Manisa/Turkey). There are scarcely any studies for using plants. There is urgency in recording such data. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are done by ICF (Informant Consensus Factor) method. This study aimed to identify plants collected for medicinal purposes by the local people of Alaşehir, located in the Aegean Region of Turkey, and to document the traditional names, preparation and uses of these plants. Materials and methods: Field study was carried out over a period of approximately 2 years (2010–2012) in Alaşehir. During this period, 137 vascular plant specimens were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, local plant names, utilized parts and preparation methods of the plants were investigated and recorded. In the scope of the study, medicinal plant species and related information were collected; herbarium materials were prepared; and the specimens were entitled. Field research was conducted by collecting ethnobotanical information during structured and semi-structured interviews with native knowledgeable people in territory. In addition, the relative importance value of species was determined and ICF was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Results: A total of 137 medicinal plants belonging to 58 families were identified in the region. Among them, 105 species are wild and 32 species are cultivated plant. The most dominant medicinal plant families were Asteraceae ( 413%), Lamiaceae ( 411%), Rosaceae (47%), and Fabaceae ( 44%), again; the most common preparations were infusion and decoction. It was found that Origanum onites L., Urtica urens, Thymus zygioides Griseb., Matricaria chamomilla L., Salvia tomentosa Mill., Cerasus avium (L.), Tilia argentea Desf. ex DC., Hyoscyamus niger L., Urtica pilulifera L., Anethum graveolens L., Euphorbia rigida Bieb., Hypericum perforatum L., Paliurus spina-christi Mill., Rosa canina L., Viscum album L. subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollman, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Elymus repens (L.) Gould and Juglans regia L. were the most commonly used species. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment respiratory tract diseases (14.1%), gastro-intestinal diseases (10%), kidney problems (7.3%), diabetes (7.1%), cholesterol (5%), rheumatism (4%), cancer various (4%), cardiovascular problems (3.1%) and burn (3%). Conclusion: Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Alaşehir areas. These plants, used in the treatment of many different diseases, are freely harvested in this region at abundant amounts. Due to the increasing health service facilities in the area, herbal medicine, seemed to be more related to health care and disease prevention than cure. & 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Alaşehir Ethnobotany ICF Medicinal plants Turkey UV

1. Introduction The use of plants and their products in curing diseases is known as herbal medicine, which is considered part of folk or

n

Corresponding author. Mobile: þ 905302212679; fax: þ 902663961509. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (S.A. Sargın), [email protected] (E. Akçicek), [email protected], [email protected] (S. Selvi).

traditional medicine. For many centuries, treatment with medicinal plants was the only resource available for numerous ethnic groups, and nowadays, plants are still used in traditional medicine to treat, alleviate or prevent many diseases (Gasparetto et al., 2011). More than 25% of medicines used by humans are extracted from tropical plants (Yörek et al., 2008). The use of plants to cure diseases and relieve physical sufferings has started from the earliest times of mankind's history (Hill, 1989). Nowadays, the use of plants as a way of treatment is still very important for

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Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i

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S.A. Sargın et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎

Fig. 1. A map showing the location of Alaşehir district in Turkey.

human beings (Kültür, 2007). Many researches have been done on plants which provide humans with extensive and fundamental uses (Kargıoğlu et al., 2008, Ugulu, 2011). Ethnobotany is defined as the study of the relationship between people and plants and most commonly refers to the study of indigenous uses of plants. In other words, it is the marriage between cultural anthropology and botany, a study that investigates the role of plants as medicine, nourishment, natural resources or gateway to the God. (Diksha and Amla, 2011). In general, ethnobotany is the scientific investigations of plants as used in indigenous culture for food, medicine, rituals, building, household implements, musical instruments, firewood, pesticides, clothing, shelter and other purposes (Ugulu, 2011). Turkey occurring in warm climate zone is distinguished from many countries situating its environments by the plant diversity. The number of plants distributed in Turkey is nearly those in Europe. The plant taxa in Turkey have reached to 12.000 by recently discovered new taxa. The richness of Turkish Flora is based on geographic, climatic, topographic and edaphic factors. Turkey is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of plant diversity. Turkey is also one of the richest countries in world with respect to endemism. The number of endemic taxa is more than 3000 and endemism ratio is 34.4% (Erik and Tarıkahya, 2004; Avcı, 2005; Özhatay et al., 2005; Duran et al., 2010). Traditional ethnobotanical knowledge, pharmacopoeia and prevalence of medicinal plants have been investigated in different areas of Turkey by Sezik et al. (1991, 1997, 2001), Baytop (1999), Ertuğ (2000), Tuzlacı and Tolon (2000), Tuzlacı and Aymaz (2001), Yeşilada et al. (2001), Ertuğ (2003, 2004), Özgen et al. (2004), Özgökçe and Özçelik (2004), Şimsek et al. (2004), Uzun et al. (2004), Everest and Özturk (2005), Özkan and Koyuncu (2005), Ecevit-Genç and Özhatay (2006), Cansaran et al. (2007), Akgül (2008), Kültür (2007), Satıl et al., 2007; Kargıoğlu et al. (2008), Koyuncu et al. (2009), Yeşil and Akalın (2009), Yapıcı et al. (2009), Ugulu et al. (2009), Bulut and Tuzlacı (2009), Cansaran and Kaya (2010), Deniz et al. (2010), Çakılcıoglu and Turkoglu (2010), Polat and Satıl (2010), Tuzlacı et al. (2010), Bulut (2011), Çakılcıoğlu et al. (2011), Güneş and Özhatay (2011), Öztürk and Ölçücü (2011), Ugulu (2011), Polat and Satıl (2012), Selvi et al. (2012), and Demirci

and Özhatay (2012). However, the present study is comprehensive the first to report on the extent of local ethnobotanical knowledge of the Alaşehir (Manisa) region. The present study deals with medicinal plants used by inhabitants of Alaşehir town in Manisa (Turkey). The aim of present study is to evaluate the traditional uses of local native plants to provide safe and efficient information for people who cannot afford prescription alternatives and to encourage the preservation of culture, tradition, conservation and sustainable utilization of medicinal plants.

2. Materials and methods 2.1. Study area Study area was located on the west of Anatolian diagonal, in the Aegean Geographic Region (one the seven subdivision of Turkey). Alaşehir in antiquity and the middle ages known as Philadelphia is a town of Manisa province. Alaşehir is bordered on the east by Sarigol, on the west by Salihli, on the south by Ödemiş (İzmir) and Nazilli (Aydın) on the North by Kula and is situated in the valley of the Kuzucay, at the foot of the Bozdag (Fig. 1). It belongs to the Mediterranean Plant Geography Region and falls within the B2 grid square according to the grid classification system developed by Davis (1965–1985). 2.2. Interviews with local people In the total of 152 people, 105 women and 147 men were interviewed. Although approximately 3–5% of general public in the research area, are knowledgeable regarding medicinal plants, we have been obtained valuable information from almost 75–80% of the interviewed (152) people regarding them. A questionnaire was administered to the local people, through face-to-face interviews (Appendix A). Mean age of the respondents was 49 years (in 26–86 years range). Interviews were made on the busy hours of the common areas (bazaars, herbal markets, pharmacies, tea houses) visited by the citizens of Alaşehir County, town and its villages. The respondents of the questionnaire are Turkish citizens. As we think that young people (25 age and lower) are not suitable for an

Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i

S.A. Sargın et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎

ethnobotanical study, the questionnaire was only administered to people over 25 who know about medicinal plants. The people who had knowledge of plants were visited at least for four times; one of these visits is particularly paid to their houses and farms. During the interviews, demographic characteristics of the study participants were recorded and given Table 1. In addition to, families, local names, utilized parts and preparation methods of the plants, UV (Use value) of plant species used for medicinal treatment of local peoples were recorded and presented in Table 2. The people who participated in the study were requested to indicate the wild plants they used.

2.3. Plant materials Field study was carried out over a period of approximately two years (2010–2012). During this period, a total of 137 vascular plant specimens (including 112 naturally grows) were collected from the locality. The plants were pressed in the field and prepared for identification. Plants were identified with the help of the literature (Baytop, 1999; Davis, 1965–1985; Davis et al., 1988; Tanker and Tanker, 1990; Zeybek and Zeybek, 1994). Later, identified plants were compared with the specimens in Ege University Herbarium (EGE) and Ankara University Herbarium (ANK) in Turkey. The names of plant families were listed in alphabetic order and given in Table 2. Scientific names of plant species were identified according to the International Plant Name Index (IPNI: http:// www.ipni.org) and the Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/). We examined whether the plants used in had literature records or

Table 1 Classification of the informants according to their demographic features. Demographic features

Number of people

Gender of informants Female 105 Male 147 Age of informants Less than 30 11 Between 31 and 40 61 Between 41 and 50 79 Between 51 and 59 43 Over 60 58 Level of education Illiterate 5 Elemantary school 188 Secondary school 32 High school 13 University 14 Marital status Unmarried 52 Married 175 Divorced Widowed 25 Employment status Employed 26 Pensioned 41 Farmer 89 Not working or unemployed 96 Residence County (City center) 20 Town and district 60 Village 172 Duration of redidence in the surveyed area Less than 10 years 26 More than 10 years 226 Ethnic group Balkan immigrant 14 Romans (Gypsies) 6 Yürük 232

Percent (%)

58.3 41.7 4.37 24.2 31.3 17.1 23.01 2.0 74.6 12.7 5.2 5.5 20.6 69.4 0.0 10.0

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not. Primarily the domestic studies and then foreign studies were analyzed. The plant species lists were tabulated by cross-referencing folk names and voucher specimens from previous data-bases by Bourbonnais-Spears et al. (2005) and Treyvaud-Amiguet et al. (2005, 2006). 2.4. Surveys at schools 540 students in 23 local schools of the region were surveyed on “remedy herbs” used in the Alaşehir. First, various local useful plants, were introduced with slides and then questionnaires on medicinal plants were given to the students. In the field of research, a survey was made in town centers, and in the village schools on pharmaceutic plants. During the survey, the students were asked which pharmaceutical local plants their parents and Grand parents use and which parts of the plants, for which purpose, and how they use them (Appendix B). A total of 382 forms were returned by students, with information on medicinals. After the forms were evaluated, some of the families were visited and detailed information was obtained. These presentations and written surveys with students not only provide valuable information and the possibility for the quantification of most commonly used herbs, but also provide a bridge between school children and their families (Ertuğ et al., 2003). 2.5. Calculations Informant consensus factor (ICF) (Trotter and Logan, 1986) was calculated according to the following formula: ICF¼ Nur Nt/Nur 1, where Nur refers to the number of use citations in each category and Nt to the number of the speciesused. This method is to check homogeneity of the information. In otherwords, the medicinal plants that are presumed to be effective in treating a certain disease have higher ICF values (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007). Informant consensus factor was abbreviated as “FIC” in the previous articles (Akerreta et al., 2007; Camejo-Rodrigues et al., 2003a, 2003b; Cheikhyoussef et al., 2011; Kisagau et al., 2007; Okello et al., 2010; Polat and Satıl, 2012; Rokaya et al., 2010; Upadhyay et al., 2011; Cakılcıoglu and Turkoglu, 2010). The use value (UV) (Trotter and Logan, 1986), a quantitative method that demonstrates the relative importance of species known locally, was also calculated according to the following formula: UV¼U/N, where UV refers to the use value of a species; U to the number of citations per species; and N to the number of informants.

3. Results and discussion 3.1. Demographic characteristics of study participants

7.9 23.8 68.3

Demographic characteristics of the respondents were determined and recorded through face-to-face interviews. In addition to, these demographic characters are given Table 1. In the study area, 3 different ethnic group were determinated. These ethnic group were Balkan immigrant (5.5%), Romans (2.4%) and majority Yürük (92.1%). The 382 forms returned by the elemantary school studens were not evaluated as the questionnaires of the resource people, though we reached to some parents and grandparents through these forms.

10.3 89.7

3.2. Medicinal plants and associated knowledge

5.5 2.4 92.1

The plant used for medicinal purposes in the region are presented in Table 2 and arranged in alphabetical order of their family and botanical names, with the relevant information. As a

10.3 16.3 35.3 38.1

Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i

4

No

Plant species

Family

Vernacular name(s)

Plant part useda

Preparationb Use

Administration, dosage, duration of the treatment

UV (Use value)

1

Alcea biennis Winterl

Malvaceae

Gülhatmi, gülfatma, fatmagülü, üvendere, peygamber otu.

Flb, Flo

In, Ma

Bronchitis

0.09

2

Allium ampeloprasum L.nn

Liliaceae

Pırasa, pıransa

Sc, Bl

Dec, Raw

Blurred vision, diabetes

Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Drink one glass 3 times a day for 4–8 weeks

3

Allium cepa L.

Liliaceae

Taze soğan

Liliaceae

Sarımsak, sarımsak

nn

4

Allium sativum L.

5

Amaranthus retroflexus L.

Amaranthaceae

Bambıl, banpıl, pambıl, panbıl, pambul otu

Sc, Bl, Dec, Pa, Raw See Lea, Pa, Raw Bl, Flo Lea In

6

Amygdalus communis L.nn

Rosaceae

Badem

Fru

Raw, cream

7

Anethum graveolens L.nn

Apiaceae

Dereotu

See, Lea

In, Raw

8

Apium graveolens L.nn

Apiaceae

Kereviz

Who

In, Dec, Raw

9

Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. Subsp. pubens (Babington) Arenes Armeniaca vulgaris L.nn

Asteraceae

Bıtrak, bıtırak, pıtırak, pıtrak.

Aer

In

Rosaceae

Kayısı

Fru

Raw, Dec

11

Artemisia absinthium L.

Asteraceae

Karhan, garhan, karhan otu, garhan otu, karahan, karahan kökü, pamucuk, acı pelin

Lea

Dec

12

Asparagus acutifolius L.

Liliaceae

Kediyen, kedi kuyruğu, tilki kuyruğu, kuşkonmaz, tesbihdalı

Who

In, Oin

13

Asphodelus aestivus Brot.

Liliaceae

Kiriş otu

Aer, Tb

Dec

14

Avena barbata Pott ex Link subsp. barbata

Poaceae

Yulaf

Aer

Dec

15

Calendula arvensis L.nn

Asteraceae

Göbekli nergis

Aer

16

Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa Capparaceae

Gebre, gebere, kapari, kedi tırnağı

17

Brassicaceae

Çoban çantası

18

Capsella bursa - pastoris (L.) Medik. Castanea sativa Mill.

Roo, Fru, See Aer

In, Ms, medical oil, lo Dec, Raw, spice

Fagaceae

Kestane

Fru

Raw, Dec

19

Celtis australis L.

Ulmaceae

Çıtlık, çitlembik, menengeç?

Fru

Raw, spice

10

nn

Ms, Raw

0.24

Gastrointestinal diseases, renal colic, Menstrual pain

0.37

Diabetes, Cold & flu

0.32

Take 3–4 clove a day for 2 weeks Cold & flu, hypercholesterolemia Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Diabetes, hypercholesterolemia Take a handful a day for 3–4 weeks Hemorrhoids, Diuretic, hiccup, headache Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Renal colic, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, rheumatism, sexual Drink one glass inadequacy 3 times a day for 4 weeks hypercholesterolemia, incontinence Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Costiveness and intestinal spasm. Take 2–3 handfuls a day for 2–3 days Intestinal parasites, dyspepsia, renal colic Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Prostatitis rheumatism, flu, Cardiotonic & vasodilator. Take one bunch a day for 3–4 weeks Gastrointestinal diseases, ulcers, cancer Drink one glass 1–2 times a day for 4–8 weeks Bronchitis Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Skin cancer, Burn wound care Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 8–12 weeks Hemorrhoids, Athlete's foot Take a handful a day for 3–4 weeks Burn wound care, costiveness and intestinal spasm, rheumatism Take 1/2 bunch a day for 4 weeks Asthma, rheumatism Take 1–2 handful a day for 4 weeks Gastrointestinal diseases

0.09

0.31

0.30

0.32

0.03

0.37

0.05

0.24

0.08

0.03

0.11

0.32

0.11 0.34 0.08

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Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i

Table 2 List of the medicinal plants used by local people in Alaşehir.

Centaurea cyanus L.

Asteraceae Gentıanaceae

Oğlan düğümü, düğüm, oğlan çiçeği, dağ karanfili, peygamber çiçeği Kırmızı kantaron

Flo, Lea Aer

In, Dec, Ms

Gastrointestinal diseases

21

Centaurium erythraea Rafn

In, Dec, medical oil

Gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, Antiinflammatory

22

Cerasus avium (L.) Moenchnn

Rosaceae

Kiraz, Napolyon kirazı

23

Chelidonium majus L.

Papaveraceae

Siğil otu

Pt, Lea, Fru Aer, Lea

Raw, Dec

Diuretic, Nephralgia & kidney stones, Cardiotonic & vasodilator, diet & debilitating

In, Ms

Wart treatment, Gastrointestinal diseases.

24

Cicer arietinum L.nn

Fabaceae

Nohut

Fru

Ma,tincture

Nephralgia & kidney stones, Ringworm treatment, Wart treatment

25

Cichorium intybus L.

Asteraceae

Karakavuk [hindiba)

Who

Dec, lo

Hypertension & tachycardia, fatty liver disease, blood cancer.

26

Cistus creticus L.

Cistaceae

Pambulcuk, pamucak, garahan?

Lea

Fume, Dec

Costiveness and intestinal spasm, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, Antipyretic & diaphoretic

27

Cistus laurifolius L.

Cistaceae

Karahan, garahan, garahan otu, karahan otu, tavşancıl, tavşanak.

Dec, Ms

Costiveness and intestinal spasm, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, Antipyretic & diaphoretic

28

Cnicus benedictus L.

Asteraceae

Devedikeni, şevketi bostan, şevketi bostan otu.

Roo, Bd, Lea Who

29

Coriandrum sativum L.

Apiaceae

Kişniş

Aer, See

In, Dec, ts

Caminative

30

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Rosaceae

Kızılcık

Fru, Lea

Raw, Ms, Dec, In

Diabetes, Cardiotonic & vasodilator, arythmia.

31

Crataegus orientalis Pallas ex Bieb.

Rosaceae

Alıç, dikenli alıç, yemiş

Raw, Ms, Dec, In

Diabetes, Cardiotonic & vasodilator, Nephralgia & kidney stones

32

Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir.

Cucurbitaceae

Bal kabağı

Fru, Lea, See Fru

Raw, Ms, Dec, In

Diuretic, carminative

33

Cupressus sempervirens L.

Cupressaceae

Selvi, servi, yılbaşı ağacı

Co

Dec

Wart treatment, toothache

34

Cydonia oblonga Mill.

Rosaceae

Ayva, ayva otu.

Raw, Dec, In

Cold & flu, Bronchitis, Asthma, Diuretic, Gastrointestinal diseases.

35

Cynara scolymus L.

Asteraceae

Enginar

Fru, Lea, See Flo, Lea

Dec

Anorexia & appetizing, 36diuretic & cholagogue, Nephralgia & kidney stones, cancer

36

Cynoglossum creticum Mill.

Boraginaceae

Köpek dili

Lea

Ms, Dec

Wart treatment.

37

Dianthus anatolicus Boiss.

n

Caryophyllaceae

Dağ karanfili

Aer

Ms

Wart treatment.

38

Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin

Dioscoreaceae

Acı ot, vicirne, kabarcık, kapırcık, kapurcuk, mıcık, bıcık.

Raw, Boi

Diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension & tachycardia, Respiratory tract diesases & flu, rheumatism

39

Diospyros kaki L.nn

Ebenacea

Cennet elması, cennet hurması, hurma

Root, Flo, Flb Fru

Raw, Ms

Diuretic, Cardiotonic & vasodilator

40

Dracunculus vulgaris Schott

Araceae

In, Dec, spice Nephralgia & kidney stones, Anorexia & appetizing, Antipyretic & diaphoretic, Hypertension & tachycardia.

Dec, Ms, Raw

0.08 0.17

0.36

0.05

0.20

0.02

0.13

0.17

0.15

0.02

0.15

0.23

0.16

0.03

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Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i

20

Take a handful a day for 3–4 weeks Take 2–3 pinches for 2–3 days Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 1–3 days Drink one glass 3 times a day for 4–8 weeks Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Take 1–2 handfuls a day for 4–8 weeks Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 8–12 weeks Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Drink one glass 3 times a day for 2–3 days Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Drink one glass 2-3 times a day for 1 week Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Apply 2 times a day for 7–10 days Apply 2 times a day for 7–10 days Take one bunch a day for 3–4 weeks Eat 3–4 fruits a day for 4 weeks

0.17

0.11

0.01 0.01 0.26

0.18 0.09 5

6

No

41

Plant species

Family

Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. Cucurbitaceae nn

Vernacular name(s)

Plant part useda

Yılan pancarı, yılanebesi, yılan burçağı, yılan bırçağı, Fru, yılan burçağı otu, yılan başı, yılan darısı, yılan otu. Lea, Roo, See Cırtlak otu, eşek hıyarı, acı hıyar Fru

Elaeagnaceae

İğde

Fru

Elymus repens (L.) Gould

Poaceae

Ayrıkotu, ayrık, çayır, çayırotu

Roo

44

Equisetum arvense L.

Equisetaceae

Kırk kilit otu

Aer

45

Erica manipuliflora Salisb.nn

Ericaceae

Püren, püren otu, süpürge otu, sükürte otu, süpürtge otu.

Flb

46

Euphorbia rigida Bieb.

Euphorbiaceae

Sütlü, sütlü ot, sütleğen

Aer

47

Ficus carica L. subsp. carica (All.) Schinz et Thell.

Moraceae

İncir, yemiş, yemişen

48

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.nn

Apiaceae

Arapsaçı

49

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Fabaceae

Meyan

Bra, Lea, Fru Aer, Roo, See Lea, Roo

50

Helianthus annuus L.nn

Asteraceae

Ayçiçeği

51

52

Asteraceae Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench subsp. aucheri (Boiss.) Davis et Kupicha Heliotropium europaeum L. Boraginaceae

53

42

Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

43

Fru, Lea, See Gözlübaba, gözlübaba otu, daşdüşüren, daşdüşüren Aer ot, altın otu, kaya otu.

Preparationb Use

Hemorrhoids, rheumatism, costiveness and intestinal spasm, intestinal cancer

Fruit juice

Lea

Heracleum platytaenium Boiss.n Apiaceae

Ayı kulağı

St

54

Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. caucasica Rousi

Elaeagnaceae

Tesbih ağacı, tesbih otu

55

Hordeum vulgare L.nn

Poaceae

Arpa

56

Hyoscyamus niger L.

Solanaceae

Kurtluca, kulak otu

Fru, Lea, See Aer, See See

57

Hypericum perforatum L.

Guttiferae

58

Inula britannica L.

Asteraceae

Katran, katran otu, gatran, gatran otu, gangren otu, Aer, kangren otu, gantıran, kantıran, kantoran, kantoron, Flb kantoron otu, sarıkantaron. Andız, anduz, andız otu, anduz otu, andız kökü Roo

Dec

59

Iris germanica L.

Iridaceae

Nevruz çiçeği

Pa

In, ms Fume, Ms In, medical oil

Sinusitis, rheumatism.

Intestinal regulatory, diarrhea, Anorexia & appetizing

UV (Use value)

Take 3–4 ickers a day for 3–5 weeks

Take 1 drop a day for 1 week In, Genital & urinary tract infection, diabetes, Drink one glass hypercholesterolemia 2–3 times a day for 2–3 weeks In Nephralgia & kidney stones, Gastrointestinal diseases Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 1–2 weeks In Nephralgia & kidney stones, Gastrointestinal diseases, Drink one glass Hypertension & tachycardia 3 times a day for 4–8 weeks Dec Nephralgia & kidney stones, Gastrointestinal diseases, Diuretic Drink one glass 3 times a day for 4–8 weeks Lo Eczema, Burn wound care, Wart treatment, Itch & rash Apply 2 times a treatment tedavisi, Scorpion stings. day for 7–10 days Plaster, Ms, Cancer, flu, wart treatment, callus treatment. Take 1-2 handfuls lo, Raw, pa a day for 4–8 weeks Raw, In, Dec, Gastrointestinal diseases, rheumatism. Drink one teacup Ms, ts 2–3 times a day for 1–2 weeks Dec, In, spice Respiratory tract diesases & flu, Bronchitis, analgesic, Drink one teacup Gastrointestinal diseases, smoking addiction 3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Ms, Raw, lo Respiratory tract diesases & flu, Bronchitis Take 1–2 dessert spoon for 2–3 weeks In Hepatitis, Nephralgia & kidney stones, Gastrointestinal diseases Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Ms Scorpion stings Apply 2–3 times a day for 2–3 days Raw Gastrointestinal diseases Apply 2–3 times a day for 2–3 days Ms, raw Ringworm treatment Apply 1-2 times a day for 4 weeks

Siğilotu, sirken, akrep otu

Rhi

Administration, dosage, duration of the treatment

Apply 1–2 times a day for 3–4 days Earache, Sinusitis Apply 2–3 times a day for 2–3 days Burn wound care, cancer, Gastrointestinal diseases, Antipyretic Drink one teacup & diaphoretic 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Asthma Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Toothache

0.31 0.09

0.41

0.19

0.28

0.44 0.42

0.31

0.37

0.05

0.33

0.13 0.08 0.02

0.15 0.47 0.46

0.05

0.01

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Table 2 (continued )

Juglans regia L.

Juglandaceae

Ceviz

61

Juncus acutus L.

Juncaceae

Kova otu, kofaotu, hasırotu, saz, hasır otu, kamış.

62

Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus L.

Cupressaceae

Ardıç

63

Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.

Cucurbitaceae

Su gabaa, su kabaa, kaşıkçı su kabaa, kaşıkçı su gabaa

64

Laurus nobilis L.

Lauraceae

Defne

65

Lavandula stoechas L.

Lamiaceae

Karabaş, karabaş kekiği

66

Leontice leontopetalum L. subsp. leontopetalum

Berberidaceae

Aslan pençesi çiçegi

67

Lepidium sativum L. subsp. sativum nn

Brassicaceae

Tere, tere otu.

68

Logfia arvensis (L.) Holvb

Asteraceae

Çayır güzeli

69

Lupinus hispanicus Boiss. et Reuter Lysimachia punctata L.

Fabaceae

Acıbakla

Primulaceae

Karga otu

70

71

Malva neglecta L.

Malvaceae

Ebegömeci, ebegömeci,

72

Malva sylvestris L.

Malvaceae

Ebegömeci, ebegömeci, gömeç, ebi gömeç otu.

73

Matricaria chamomilla L.

Asteraceae

Dişi papatya

74

Medicago polymorpha L.

Fabaceae

Bıtırak

75

Mentha aquatica L.

Lamiaceae

Suotu, su nanesi

76

Mentha x piperita L.

Lamiaceae

Nane, bahçe nanesi, nana

77

Morus rubra L.

Moraceae

Kırmızı dut

78

Myrtus communis L. subsp. communis

Myrtaceae

Mersin

79

Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

Brassicaceae

Su gêdimesi

0.38

0.01 0.24

0.01

0.13

0.25

0.09

0.29

0.06

0.01 0.02

0.39

0.19

0.48

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60

Apply 2-3 times a day Lea, Dec, ma. Diabetes, 60hypercholesterolemia, Cardiotonic & vasodilator, Drink one teacup Fru Hair care 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Aer Dec, fruit Antihemorragic, nasal bleeding Take 3–7 drops a juice day for 1–2 days Fru, Pi Dec, Oin Gall stones, Asthma, rheumatism. Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 3–4 weeks See Pa Cancer Take 3–4 dessert spoon for 8–12 weeks Lea, lo, dec, ca Gastrointestinal diseases, rheumatism, Asthma. Drink one teacup See 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Flo In Gastrointestinal diseases Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 1–3 days Aer In, Ms Headache, Ovaritis & ovarian cysts Drink one glass 3 times a day for 40 days Aer, In, pa Gastrointestinal diseases, Nephralgia & kidney stones Take 1–2 dessert See spoon for 2-3 weeks Aer Ms Gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes Drink one teacup 2-3 times a day for 2-3 weeks Fru, Dec Cardiotonic & vasodilator Take 3-4 seeds a See day for 1 week Aer Oin Burn wound care, abscess treatment Take 1–2 dessert spoon for 2–3 weeks Flo, In, ma Gastrointestinal diseases, Bronchitis, diabetes, Drink one teacup Lea hypercholesterolemia. 3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Drink one teacup Aer, In, ms, ma Diet & debilitating, Gastrointestinal diseases, ulcer, Asthma, 2–3 times a day Roo diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, Bronchitis, Tonsillitis and for 2–3 weeks throat ache, toothache, Eczema Aer In, lo Gastrointestinal diseases, headache, respiratory tract diesases & Drink one teacup flu, cancer 2–3 times a day for 2–3 days Aer In hypercholesterolemia, Incontinence. Drink one glass 1–2 times a day for 2 weeks Lea In Asthma, rheumatism Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Aer In, lo, ca Gastrointestinal diseases, Cardiotonic & vasodilator Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Fru, Raw, sirup, In Diabetes Drink one teacup Lea 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Lea, In, Raw Incontinence, bladder infection Drink one glass Fru 1-2 times a day for 2 weeks Aer Raw Gastrointestinal diseases, Diuretic, Take one bunch a Anorexia & appetizing, Eczema day for 1–2 weeks

0.23

0.23

0.26

0.11

0.11

0.14

7

8

Preparationb Use

No

Plant species

Family

Vernacular name(s)

Plant part useda

80

Nerium oleander L.

Apocynaceae

Acı hayıt, deli hayıt, acı ağaç, patlangeç, zakkum

Flo, St In, lo, fruit juice

Cancer

81

Ocimum basilicum L.nn

Lamiaceae

Feslihan, fesliğen, mesliğen

Lea

In, ms, ca

Diabetes, Scorpion stings

82

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. europaea cv. “Gemlik”nn Origanum onites L.

Oleaceae

Zeytin

Lamiaceae

Kırkbaş kekik, koca Lealı kekik, tokalı kekik, bilya kekik, arı kekiği

Lea, Fru, See Aer

Diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension & tachycardia, In, Raw, lo, Oin, Ms, fruit Cardiotonic & vasodilator juice, Dec In, lo, cr Gastrointestinal diseases, Bronchitis, Respiratory tract diesases & flu, Hypertension & tachycardia.

83

84

Origanum majorana L.nn

Lamiaceae

Mercanköşk, nane kekiği

Lea

In, cr

Respiratory tract diesases & flu, Asthma.

85

Paliurus spina-christi Mill.

Rhamnaceae

Çaltı, çaltı dikeni

See

Dec

Diabetes, Nephralgia & kidney stones, Diuretic

86

Picnomon acarna (L.) Cass.

Asteraceae

Çakırdikeni

Lea

In

Cancer

87

Pinus brutia Ten.

Pinaceae

Çam, kızılçam

Dec, Raw, Oin

Diabetes, Bronchitis, Asthma, tuberculosis, cancer

88

Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. şeneriana (Saatçioğlu) Yalt.n Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. terebinthus L.

Pinaceae

Fesleğen çamı, fesleğan çamı, top çamı.

Ba, Co, Res, Tr Res, Tr

Gum

Diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, Asthma, rheumatism

Anacardiaceae

Menengeç, çitlembik

Fru, Res

Ms

Gingivatis, Asthma.

89

90

Plantago major L.

Plantaginaceae

Kırksinir otu

Aer

91

Platanus orientalis L.

Platanaceae

Çınar, çınar ağacı

Lea, Flo

92

Polygonum cognatum Meissn.

Polygonaceae

Keçimemesi

Flo, Roo

93

Populus alba L.nn

Salicaceae

Akkavak, beyaz kavak?

94

Portulaca oleracea L.

Portulacaceae

Semizlik, semiz otu, temizlik

Ba, Lea Aer

95

Prunus divaricata Ledeb.

Rosaceae

Deli erik

Fru

96

Punica granatum L.nn

Punicaceae

Nar, hicaz narı

Fru

Administration, dosage, duration of the treatment

UV (Use value)

Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 4–8 weeks Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 2 weeks Drink one glass 1–2 times a day for 3–4 weeks Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 2 weeks Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 3-4 weeks Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 4–8 weeks Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks

0.02

Apply 3 times a day for 3 weeks

Take 1/2 handful a day for 3-4 weeks Ms, In, Raw Eczema, cancer Take 1/2 bunch a day for 4–8 weeks Dec, In, Antipyretic & diaphoretic, Nephralgia & kidney stones, Drink one glass Rheumatism and arthritis, Burn wound care, abscess treatment. 3 times a day for 4–8 weeks In Gastrointestinal diseases Drink one teacup 1–2 times a day for 1–3 days Dec, lo, Antihemorragic, anti-dandruff Apply 2 times a day for 7–10 days Raw, Ms, Oin. Diabetes, cancer, Heatstroke, kidney stones, Anorexia & Take 3–4 appetizing, costiveness and intestinal spasm handfuls a day for 3-4 weeks Raw, Dec Cardiotonic & vasodilator, atherosclerosis, diabetes, Take 2–3 hypercholesterolemia. handfuls a day for 2–3 days Raw, Dec. Gastrointestinal diseases, Diabetes Drink one glass 1–2 times a day for 2 weeks

0.28

0.26

0.56

0.26

0.44

0.04

0.21

0.20

0.03

0.22

0.07

0.08

0.06 0.28

0.22

0.26

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Table 2 (continued )

Quercus cerris L. var. cerris

Fagaceae

Çalı meşesi, uzgurt, saçlı meşe

Roo

Dec, lo

Burn wound care.

98

Quercus coccifera L.

Fagaceae

Piynar, piynar meşesi

Dec

Burn wound care, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia

Quercus ithaburensis Decne. subsp. macrolepis (Kotschy) Hedge et Yalt. 100 Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (Mill) J. Kern.nn

Fagaceae

Palamut, palamut meşesi, hakiki palamut, esas palamut.

Cu, Fru, Roo Cu, See

Dec

Respiratory tract diesases & flu

Brassicaceae

Kara turp

Lea, Tb

In, Dec

Gastrointestinal diseases, Asthma, Bronchitis.

101 Rhus coriaria L.

Anacardiaceae

Somak otu, sumak

Ms

Gastrointestinal diseases

102 Rosa canina L.

Rosaceae

Kuşburnu, itburnu, itgülü, kozalak, kozalak ağacı.

Dec

Diabetes, Asthma, Cardiotonic & vasodilator, Respiratory tract diesases & flu, cancer.

103 Rosa spp.

Rosaceae

Gül

Fru, Lea Frb, Fru, Lea, See, Flo

oil

Burn wound care.

104 Rosmarinus officinalis L.nn

Lamiaceae

Kuşdili, biberiye

Lea

In

105 Rubus canescens DC.

Rosaceae

Orman, orman üzümü, kür, gür üzümü, böğürtlen

Bd, Fru, Lea, Roo Fru

In, Raw, Dec

Gastrointestinal diseases, anti-inflammatory, Cardiotonic & vasodilator, atherosclerosis, rheumatism, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia. Gastrointestinal diseases, Diabetes

Dec

Nephralgia & kidney stones

Ca, Ms, lo

Gastrointestinal diseases, Tonsillitis and throat ache, diabetes, Athlete's foot.

Dec, lo

Vaginal itching, Athlete's foot

99

106 Rubus ulmifolius subsp. sanctus Rosaceae (Schreb.) Sudre

Akböğürtlen, dikenbaşı, moradikeni

107 Rumex spp.

Polygonaceae

İlibada, ilibada otu

108 Salix alba L.

Salicaceae

Aksöğüt, sorkun, sorgun

109 Salvia tomentosa Mill.nn

Lamiaceae

Yakı otu, yakı şablası, yakı şalbası, sancı otu, ellik otu, kancık şalba

Lea

In, Ca, Ms

110 Sambucus nigra L.

Caprifolıaceae

Köpek üzümü

Fru

Ms, lo

Respiratory tract diesases & flu, Bronchitis, diarrhea, Asthma, rheumatism, Tonsillitis and throat ache, toothache, Gastrointestinal diseases. Urinary tract infection, Prostatitis Nephralgia

111 Satureja cuneifolia Ten.nn

Lamiaceae

Arı kekiği

Aer

In, cr

Respiratory tract diesases & flu

112 Scandix pecten-veneris L.

Apiaceae

Kişkiş, kişniş, zühre tarağı?

Aer

In.

Carminative

113 Scolymus hispanicus L.

Asteraceae

Şevketi bostan, sarıtiken, diken pamuğu, kegeçen, kegecen.

In, Raw, Dec

Nephralgia & kidney stones, Renal insufficiency, hypercholesterolemia

114 Senecio vulgaris L.

Asteraceae

Kanarya otu

In

Bronchitis, diuretic

115 Sesamum indicum L.nn

Pedaliceae

Susam

Aer, Lea, Roo Flb, Flo, See See

Lo, Oin

Burn wound care

116 Sideritis sipylea Boiss.n

Lamiaceae

Ca otu, Ca şalbası, Ca şablası

Aer

In, Ms

Dyspepsia, diarrhea, Respiratory tract diesases & flu, Athlete's foot, Gall stones

117 Sideritis tmolea P. H. Davisn

Lamiaceae

Balbaşı, balşalbası, balşablası

Aer

In, Ms

Respiratory tract diesases & flu, diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastrointestinal diseases

Lea, Roo, See Ba, Lea

Apply 2 times a 0.02 day for 7–10 days Take 1–2 seeds a 0.05 day for 3 weeks Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 1–2 weeks Take 1–2 dessert spoon for 2–4 weeks Take 2–3 pinches for 2–3 days Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks

0.03

0.32

0.17 0.48

Apply 2 times a 0.26 day for 7–10 days Drink one teacup 0.35 3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Drink one teacup 0.08 2 times a day for 2–3 weeks Drink one glass 1–2 times a day for 4–8 weeks Take 1/2 bunch a day for days

0.34

Drink one teacup 2 times a day for 2–3 weeks Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 1–2 weeks Drink one cup 1– 2 times a day for 3–4 weeks Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 1–2 weeks Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 3 days Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 1–2 weeks Apply 2 times a day for 7–10 days Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 1–2 weeks

0.19

0.18

0.51

0.06

0.23

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Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i

97

0.17

0.19

0.03

0.31 0.13

0.29 9

Plant species

Family

Vernacular name(s)

Plant part useda

Preparationb Use

118 Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Asteraceae

Sütlü kenger, deve dikeni

St, See Raw, In, Dec

119 Sinapis arvensis L.

Brassicaceae

Yabani hardal, delice hardal, hardal rokası

See

Dec

120 Spinacia oleracea L.nn

Amaryllidaceae

Ispanak

Lea

In, Ms

121 Stellaria media (L.) Vill.

Caryophyllaceae

Kuş otu

Aer

In, Raw

122 Thymbra spicata L. var. spicata

Lamiaceae

İnce kekik, sivri kekik, mor kekik, dağ kekiği

Aer

In, ca, cr

123 Thymus zygioides Griseb.

Lamiaceae

Yabani kekik

Aer

In, cr

124 Tilia argentea Desf. ex DC.nn

Tiliaceae

Ihlamur, ıhlamur ağacı

In, Ma, Dec.

125 Tribulus terrestris L.

Zygophyllaceae

Çoban çökerten, demirdikeni, demir pıtrağı, demir bıtırağı, kızılbacak, demirotu.

Ba, Flo, Fru Aer

126 Urtica pilulifera L.

Urticaceae

Çakır, çakırlı, çakır otu, çakırlı ot, ısırgan, gicirgen, devegicirgeni, eşekçakırı

127 Urtica urens L.

Urticaceae

Akıllı çakır, akıllı gicirgen

128 Verbascum spp.

Scrophulariaceae Sığırkuyruğu, tozkulak, tozluk, calba, kancık calba.

129 Vicia faba L.nn

Fabaceae

130 Viscum album L. subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollman

Loranthaceae

131 Vitex agnus-castus L.

Verbenaceae

132 Vitis vinifera L.nn

Vitaceae

Asma, kırmızı üzüm, çekirdeksiz üzüm, çekirdekli üzüm.

133 Xanthium spinosum L.

Asteraceae

Pıtrak, dikenli pıtrak

134 Xanthium strumarium L.

Asteraceae

Domuz pıtrağı

Aer, Roo, See Aer, Roo, See Aer

Bakla

Lea, Fru Burç, buruç, armut burçu, ahlat burçu, çam purucu, Lea çam puruncu, çam puruşu, çam burcu, güvelek, puruç, puruş, ahlak, öksü otu, ökse otu. Hayıt, ayıt, hayıt otu, hayık. See, Flb Lea, Fru, See, Bra Roo, See Fru

Dec, In, lo

In, Dec

In, Dec

In, lo, Ms

Raw, Dec Dec

In, Dec,

In, Oin

Administration, dosage, duration of the treatment

Drink one glass 2–3 times a day for 1–2 weeks Rheumatism, Hepatotonic, Anorexia & appetizing, diuretic Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Bronchitis, pneumonitis Drink one cup 3 times a day for 10 days Gastrointestinal diseases Drink one glass 1–2 times a day for 3 days hypercholesterolemia Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 2–3 weeks Drink one teacup Diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, costiveness and intestinal 2–3 times a day spasm, headache, Respiratory tract diesases & flu, for 2–3 weeks atherosclerosis Gastrointestinal diseases, Respiratory tract diesases & flu Drink one teacup 2-3 times a day for 1-2 weeks Respiratory tract diesases & flu, Tonsillitis and throat ache, Drink one teacup Bronchitis, deafness, costiveness and intestinal spasm 1–2 times a day for 1–3 days Hemorrhoids, Eczema, Athlete's foot, Wart treatment, Gall Drink one glass stones 2 times a day for 2–3 weeks Cancer, rheumatism, immune tonic, intestinal spasm, Analgesic, Drink one teacup Hepatotonic, Asthma, Gastrointestinal diseases. 2–3 times a day for 3–4 weeks Cancer, rheumatism, toothache. Drink one teacup 3 times a day for 4–8 weeks Hemorrhoids, urinary tract infection Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 1–2 weeks Athetosis, Gastrovascular disorders Take a handful a day for 3 days Drink one teacup Toothache, Tonsillitis and throat ache, Headache, Asthma, 2–3 times a day prostatitis diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension & for 1–2 weeks tachycardia, Bronchitis, brain cancer. Gastrointestinal diseases, menstrual pain, Vaginal itching, Drink one teacup respiratory tract diesases, diarrhea, vomiting and poisoning. 2–3 times a day for 1–2 weeks Burn wound care, anemia, Bronchitis, Respiratory tract diesases Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day & flu, Gastrointestinal diseases, Costiveness and intestinal for 1–2 weeks spasm, anti-inflammatory, Antipyretic & diaphoretic

Dec

Kidney pain, Gastrointestinal diseases

Ms

Hemorrhoids, asthma

Drink one teacup 2–3 times a day for 1–2 weeks Drink one glass 2 times a day for 2-3 weeks

UV (Use value)

0.42

0.37

0.08

0.11

0.22

0.53

0.46

0.24

0.45

0.52

0.12

0.26 0.44

0.35

0.31

0.18

0.02

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Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i

No

10

Table 2 (continued )

Endemic plant (The endemic plants were numbered 38,53,92,95,126,133 and 147). Cultivar plants. a Plant part(s) used: Aer, aerial parts; Ba, Bark (Stem), Bra, Branches; Bl, Bulb, Bd,Bud, Co, Cone, Cr, Cormus, Cu, Cupula, Flo, flos; Flb, flowering branches, Fru, fruits; Frb, Bark of mature fruit, Lea, Leaves; Pi, Juniper pix, Pt, Pedicel, Res, Resin; Rhi, Rhizomes; Roo, Roots; Sc, Scapa, See, Seed; St, Stem, Tb, Tuber (Root), Tr, Pine tar, Who, Whole plant. b Preparations: Boi; aerial parts boiled; Cr, aerial parts crushed; Dec, Decoction; Ca, Cataplasm, Fc, the fruits are crushed; Hea; heated; In, Infusion; Lr, latex is removed; Lc, the leaves are crushed; Lo, Lo; Ma, Maceration; Ms, Mash; Oin, Oinment; Ps; Paste; Ra, Raw (uncooked), Ts, the Sees are crushed and powdering. nn

Gastrointestinal diseases, Respiratory tract diesases & flu In Aer Nane kekiği Lamiaceae 137 Ziziphora tenuior L.

n

0.23

0.23 Gastrointestinal diseases, Respiratory tract diesases & flu In Aer Lamiaceae 136 Ziziphora taurica Bieb. subsp. taurica Bieb.

Nane kekiği

Lamiaceae 135 Ziziphora taurica Bieb. subsp. cleonioides (Boiss.) Davisn

Nane kekiği

Aer

In

Gastrointestinal diseases, Respiratory tract diesases & flu

Drink one teacup 1–2 times a day for 1–3 days Drink one teacup 1–2 times a day for 1–3 days Drink one teacup 1–2 times a day for 1–3 days

0.23

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11

result of study, 137 medicinal plant species belonging to 58 families were found in the resarch area. Among them, 105 species are wild and 32 species are cultivated plant. The most common medicinal plant families were Asteraceae (413%), Lamiaceae (411%), Rosaceae (47%) and Fabaceae (44%) (Fig. 2). The most frequently used medicinal plant species were Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Urtica urens, Thymus zygioides Griseb., Origanum onites L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Salvia tomentosa Mill., Cerasus avium (L.) Moench, Tilia argentea Desf. ex DC., Hyoscyamus niger L., Urtica pilulifera L., Anethum graveolens L., Euphorbia rigida Bieb., Hypericum perforatum L., Paliurus spina-christi Mill., Rosa canina L., Viscum album L. subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollman, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Elymus repens (L.) Gould and Juglans regia L. The most frequently used parts were aerial parts (19%), leaves (18%), fruits (15%), seed (13%), flowering branches and flos (10%) and roots (8%) (Fig. 3). There are various methods of preparation and application for different types of ailments and they have various preparation forms like infusion, decoction, raw, maceration, mash, fresh application, powdering, paste, chewing (gum), crushing, lotion, oinment tincture. Infusion (22%) and decoction (17%) are the methods mostly used for the preparation of the remedies (Fig. 4). In the researches conducted, it has been determined that Hypericum perforatum and Centaurium erythraea are often kept in olive oil and used as solutions. Again, it has been recorded that to scalp ring worm of Cicer arietinum and Allium cepa are used as tincture. During the study a total of 137 medicinal uses were obtained. Local people are choosing to use herbal remedies mainly for the treatment of gastro-intestinal complaints such as respiratory tract diseases (cold, flu, bronchitis and asthma) (14.1%), gastrointestinal diseases (10%), kidney diseases (nephritis, nephrolith, nephralgia) (7.3%), diabetes (7.1%), cholesterol (5.0%), cancer (4.0%), rheumatism (4.0%), cardiovascular diseases (3.1%) and burn (3%) (Fig. 5). Another form of usage for the natural medicinal plants in the region is herbal water (thyme water). The research in the region have revealed that a number of villages still extract the herbal water and sell them for medicinal purposes in local markets despite the decrease in the activity when compared with the past. The common thyme species used for extracting juice are Origanum onites. Thyme water is sold public market and herbalist for especially diabetes treatment. Number of identical taxa and similarity percentages of neighboring studies are given in Table 3. The similarity percentage change from 35% to 65%. The most similarity was with the nearest resarch area (Gez and Şimşek, 1999). These similarities could be because of the similarities between the habitats and flora as well as the populations. Taxa such as, Alcea lavateriflora, Allium ampeloprasum, Amaranthus retroflexus, Arctium minus, Bituminaria bituminosa, Centaurea cyanus, Centaurea virgata, Cheiranthus cheiri, Cucurbita moschata, Cynoglossum creticum, Dioscorea communis, Diospyros kaki, Dracunculus vulgaris, Elymus repens, Helichrysum arenarium subsp. aucheri, Hypericum triquetrifolium, Inula britannica, Lagenaria siceraria, Logfia arvensis, Lupinus hispanicus, Lysimachia punctata, Medicago arabica, Medicago polymorpha, Colchicum atticum, Morus rubra, Onopordum myriacanthum, Ornithogalum orthophyllum, Picnomon acarna, Quercus cerris var. cerris, Senecio vulgaris, Sideritis sipylea, Sideritis tmolea, Thymbra spicata var. spicata, Urtica pilulifera and Ziziphora spp. whose medical use has been documented, but have not been recorded in the nearby areas, and comparisons about these taxons are made. It was observed that ten medicinal plant taxa were extensively used for commercial purposes as a result of the research conducted at the Alaşehir and surrounding. Ziziphora taurica subsp cleonioides, Z. taurica subsp. taurica, Tribulus terrestris, Tilia argentea, Thymbra spicata var. spicata, Sideritis tmolea, Sideritis sipylea, Satureja cuneifolia, Rhus coriaria, Hypericum perforatum. Collecting

Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i

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and trading these species that grow in vast localities in the region have become the source of income for hundreds of local people. Rosa canina, Salvia tomentosa, Origanum onites, Satureja cuneifolia, Ziziphora taurica subsp. cleonioides and subsp. taurica. are among the herbs extensively collected and consumed as medicinal tea in the area. Besides, in study region, stem pith of milk thistle (Silybum marianum, Sütlü kenger, deve dikeni) is commonly consumed as raw. This plant is used in cases of liver diseases as raw by local people. Again, in this region, Henbane seed (Hyoscyamus niger, kurtluca, kulak otu) are widely used as worm drop. Using of this plant is illustrated in detail in Fig. 6. Previous laboratory studies conducted in Turkey and other parts of the world indicated the activity of some medicinal plants, which were also reported by the current study: Artemisia absinthium L. (intestinal parasites) (Youssefi et al., 2012), Capparis spinosa L. (hemorrhoids) (Jiang et al., 2007), Cerasus avium (L.) Moench (diuretic) (Hooman et al., 2009). Cydonia oblonga Mill. (gastrointestinal) (Minaiyan et al., 2012), Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. (sinusitis and rheumatism) (Ekici et al., 1998; Sezik and Yesilada, 2004), Hypericum perforatum L. (gastrointestinal) (Woelk et al., 1994), Inula britannica L. (Asthma) (Khan et al., 2010), Juglans regia L. (diabetes) (Sarahroodi, 2009), Matricaria chamomilla L. (flu, cancer) (Srivastata et al., 2010), Morus rubra L. (diabetes) (Sharma et al., 2010), Platanus orientalis L. (analgesic, nephralgia, rheumatism) (Hajhasnemi et al., 2011). Rhus coriaria L. (gastrointestinal) (Kossah et al., 2009), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (hypercholesterolemia), (Ibarra et al., 2011), Paliurus spina-christi Mill. (diabetes) (Mosaddegh et al., 2004).

Fig. 3. Distribution percentage of plant organs used as traditional medicine. Lea, leaves; Aer, aerial parts; See, Seed; Flo, flos; Fru, fruits; Roo, Roots; Flb, flowering branches, Who, Whole plant; Ba, Bark (Stem), Bl, Bulb. Others consist of Branches, Bud, Cone, Cormus,Cupula, Bark of mature fruit, Juniper pix, Pedicel, Resin, Rhizomes, Scapa,Stem, Tuber (Root) and Pine tar.

3.3. Data analysis People under 30 years of age in the study area were found to be less knowledgeable on the use of medicinal plants as compared to over 50 ones due to the higher level exposure of the former ones to modernization. Similar results were reported in the studies conducted in Turkey. According to the results of the questionnaire of students (Appendix B), the most used taxa are Origanum onites, Thymus zygioides, Urtica urens, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Cerasus avium, Hypericum perforatum, and Rosa canina. According to the calculation made on the basis of the use value UV (Trotter and Logan, 1986), Origanum onites L. (0.56), Thymus zygioides Griseb. (0.53), Urtica urens L. (0.52), Salvia tomentosa Mill. (0.51), Rosa canina L. (0.48), Matricaria chamomilla L. (0.48), Hyoscyamus niger L. (0.47), Hypericum perforatum L. (0.46), Tilia argentea Desf. ex DC. (0.46), Urtica pilulifera L. (0.45), Viscum album L. subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollman (0.44), Paliurus spina-christi Mill. (0.44), Euphorbia rigida Bieb. (0.44) and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (0.42) were reported to be of the highest use value (Table 2).

Fig. 2. Distribution percentage according to taxa of families.

Fig. 4. Percentage forms of herbal preparations. In, Infusion; Dec, Decoction; Ra, Raw (uncooked), Ms, Mash; Ma, Maceration; Ca, Cataplasm; Cr, aerial parts crushed (as spice); Ps; Paste; oth, others uses (aerial parts boiled; the fruits are crushed; heated; the leaves are crushed; Lotion, Tincture, Oinment; chewing (gum), Sees are crushed and powdering).

The reported ailments were grouped into 8 categories based on the information gathered from the interviews. Table 4 indicates ICF values of the category of ailment. Gastrointestinal diseases had the highest ICF score 0.72. Asphodelus aestivus Brot., Centaurium erythraea Rafn., Elymus repens (L.) Gould., Equisetum arvense L., Erica manipuliflora Salisb., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Hypericum perforatum L. and Laurus nobilis L. were reported to be among the plant remedies indicated for these diseases. Kidney diseases was recorded to have the second highest ICF value 0.66, Respiratory tract diseases recorded by its all images like the third group ICF was 0.62, while the fourth level of ICF values 0.51 was recorded for Diabetes category. Cardiovascular diseases, were ranked as the fifth ailment with ICF value of 0.42. An ICF value of 0.36 was recorded for the Rheumatism. The last citations of this ranking were reported for plants used to treat Cholesterol and Cancer gastro-intestinal disorders with ICF value of 0.36, 0.21. There is just 1 study conducted by people from west of Anatolia (Turkey), in which the ICF value is calculated. When the articles in which the informant consensus factor (ICF) is calculated are examined,

Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i

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Fig. 5. Disease conditions versus the number of plant species used to treat them. (in graphic, the most frequently used plant for various diseases are shown).

Table 3 Similarity percentages of neighboring studies. Studies

Number of Total medicinal Similarity identical taxa taxa percentage (%)

Deniz et al. (2010) Polat and Satıl (2012) Ugulu (2011) Bulut and Tuzlacı (2008–2009) Uysal et al. (2010) Satıl et al. (2008) Gez and Şimşek (1999) Çelik et al. (1999) Yücel and Tülükoğlu (2000) Satıl et al. (2006)

25 61 23 55 23 27 13 29 4 81

70 118 37 90 44 46 20 52 8 130

35.7 51.7 62.2 61.1 52.3 58.7 65 55.8 50 62.3

it is seen that, for example in the study from west of Turkey by Polat and Satıl, the category blood pressure diseases had the highest ICF score (0.87), followed by Anorexia 0.84 ICF, hemorroids have 0.80 ICF, healing cut and wounds diseases have 0.74 ICF (Polat and Satıl, 2012). When we looked a study from east of Turkey by Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, the category hemorrhoids have the highest 0.82 ICF, followed by diabetes 0.56 ICF, gastroinestinal diseases have 0.48 ICF, respiratory and throat diseases have 0.28 ICF (Cakilcioglu and Turkoglu, 2010). In the another study from east of Turkey by Cakilcioglu et al., the category rheumatism have the highest 0.58 ICF followed by the cardivascular disorders 0.51 ICF and hemorrhoids have 0.48 ICF, diabetes have 0.40, respiratory and throat diseases have 0.36 ICF and gastroinestinal diseases have 0.31 ICF (Cakilcioglu et al., 2011). When we looked other studies done by calculating ICF value; Akerreta et al., the ICF value was found to be 0.65 (Akerreta et al., 2007). It was stated that this value was high; however, it is lower than the values obtained in the studies conducted in various areas of the Iberian Peninsula: 0.85 and 0.91 for a Portuguese and a Catalan region respectively (Bonet and Valles, 2003; CamejoRodrigues et al., 2003). It is seen that the ICF values are high. In other words, the ICF value is close to 1. The medicinal plants that are presumed to be effective in treating a certain disease have higher ICF values (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007). AlQura'n examined the diseases in 10 categories. In these categories, the highest ICF value was reported to be 0.55 while the lowest ICF value was reported to be 0.25 (Al-Qura'n, 2009).

4. Conclusion 137 medicinal plant species belonging to 58 families were found in the resarch area. Among them, 105 species are wild and 32 species are cultivated plants. These plants are used in the treatment of many diseases. By drying and making infusion or decoction of

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these plants, local people use them during the whole year. Middleage population (30–50 ages) is in majority in our field of study. But, elder people (over 60) have more information about herbs compared to the younger ones. Also, women know more about herbs than men. The most frequently used medicinal plants species were Origanum onites, Urtica urens, Thymus zygioides, Matricaria chamomilla, Salvia tomentosa, Tilia argentea and Urtica pilulifera. The most frequently used parts were aerial parts (19%), leaves (18%), fruit (15%), seed (13%), flos and flowering branches (10%) and roots (8%) (Fig. 3). Many plants are used for the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract diseases, wounds healing, diabetes, hemorrhoid etc. There was some consistency in the use of local names between Alaşehir and other regions of Turkey. However, it was also found that several different species were referred to by the same local names in different regions. Relative importance value of plant species and ICF for plants was calculated. While ICF value was calculated over 0.5 for some illnesses, it was calculated somewhere between 0.2 and 0.5 for some other illnesses. Few plants of this locality possess potential of better economic exploitation. Some of them are Amygdalus communis L, Castanea sativa Mill., Cerasus avium (L.) Moench, Cicer arietinum L., Diospyros kaki L., Satureja cuneifolia Ten., Sesamum indicum L and Vitis vinifera L. In the study area six endemic medicinal plants have been recorded. As presented in Table 2 (marked with asteriks); Dianthus caryophyllus, Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana var. şeneriana, Heracleum platytaenium, Ziziphora taurica subsp. cleonioides, Sideritis sipylea and Sideritis tmolea are endemic and medicinal plants growing in Alaşehir. Sideritis sipylea, Sideritis tmolea and Ziziphora taurica subsp. cleonioides are sold as herbal tea in herbal markets, bazaar and public market.

Appendix A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Name and surname of the participant. Age and sex of the participant. Telephone and address of the participant. Educational level of the participant. Date of interview. Place of residence of the participant. Duration of residence of the participant. What is the local name of the plant used? For which diseases do you use the plant? Which parts of the plant do you use? (root, stem, flower, leaves, fruit, etc.) How do you prepare the plant for use? How and when do you use the plant? Approximately what dose do you use? How long does the convalescence period take? Did any complication occur from the plants you used?

Appendix B. 1. Which pharmaceutical local plants their parents and grand parents use? 2. Which parts of the pharmaceutical plants they use? 3. Which purpose they use? (for which diseases.) 4. How they use them?

Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i

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Fig. 6. Used as worm drop of Henbane seed (Hyoscyamus niger). (A) To obtain the ember, firewood is fired (usually oak branch and pine cone) in the stove. (B) Henbane seeds are removed from fruit capsule. (C) A number of embers are put on the spade and the seeds are strewed on the embers. (D) After the seeds are strewed, a broad stewpot is closed on the seeds. (E) Potable water is put into a bowl, and then the bowl is put on a broad tray (containing water) and the spade (contains henbane seed and ember). (F) The patient is covered with a blanket and the face of the patient is allowed contact with the smoke. After a certain time, worms are showed that decrease into the bowl water.

Table 4 ICF values of category of ailments. No.

Ailments

Use citations

All use citations (%)

ICF

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Respiratory tract diseases Gastrointestinal diseases Kidney diseases Diabetes Cholesterol Cancer Rheumatism Cardiovascular

64 45 33 32 23 19 18 14

25.8 18.1 13.3 12.9 9.2 7.6 7.2 5.6

0.62 0.72 0.66 0.51 0.36 0.21 0.36 0.42

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Please cite this article as: Sargın, S.A., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040i