An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India

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An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India J.E. Morvin Yabesh, S. Prabhu, S. Vijayakumar n PG and Research Department of Botany and Microbiology, AVVM Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous) Poondi, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India

art ic l e i nf o Article history: Received 10 April 2014 Received in revised form 1 May 2014 Accepted 4 May 2014 Keywords: Ethnoplants Traditional healers Silent valley Folk medicine

a b s t r a c t Ethnopharmacological relevance: Medicinal plants are treating and preventing a variety disease. There is urgency in recording such data. This is the first ethno botanical study in which statistical calculations Q12 about plants are done by ICF method. The present study was aimed to identify plants collected for medicinal purposes by the traditional healers of silent valley, located in Kerala district of India and to document the traditional names, preparation and uses of these plants. Materials and methods: Field study was carried out a period of 2 years in Kerala. The ethno medicinal information was collected through interviews among traditional healers. The collected data were analyzed through use value (UV) informant consensus factor (Fic) and fidelity level (FL). Results: A total of 102 species of plants distributed in 95 genera belonging to 53 families were identified as commonly used ethno medicinal plants by traditional healers in silent valley for the treatment of 19 ailment categories based on the body systems treated. Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts and most of the medicines were prepared in the form of paste and administrated orally. Fic values of the present study indicated that dermatological infections/diseases and gastro-intestinal disorders had highest use reports and 7 species of plants has the highest fidelity level of 100%. The most important species according to their use value were Moringa oleifera (2.62), Curculigo orchioide (2.5) Amorphophallus paconifolius, Vitex negundo (each 2.37), Carica papaya (2.12), Annona squamosa (1.87). Conclusion: Gathering the present study, we can recommended the plants Moringa oleifera, Curculigo orchioide, Amorphophallus paconifolius, Vitex negundo, Carica papaya, Citrus hystrix, and Tribulus terrestris (with high use values), Amorphophallus paconifolius, Aloe vera, Carum capticum and Discorea pentaphylla (newly reported claims with highest FL) for further scientific investigation based upon the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants can be an approach in the discovery and development of novel drug leads. Crown Copyright & 2014 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Traditional herbal medicine is still an important component of human healthcare in world-wide. According to the world health organization (WHO), about 80% of the world’s people depend on traditional indigenous medicines, since a large majority of rural people in the developing countries still use these medicines as the first defense in healthcare (Goleniowski et al., 2006). The reliance of people an ethno-medicine has been for seasons of cost-effectiveness, acceptability, biomedical benefits and accessibility. There has been a continuous growth of demand for herbal medicines globally (Haile et al., 2008). The demand has been increasing as a result of growth of human population, habitat loss and alteration, over exploitation, overgrazing, deforestation and the frequently

n

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 91 4374293523. E-mail address: [email protected] (S. Vijayakumar).

inadequate provision of modern medicine (Savikin et al., 2013). In recent years, use of ethnobotanical information in medicinal plant research has gained considerable attention in segments of the scientific community (WHO, 2008). During the last two decades, some notable progress has been made in the field of medicinal plants and their traditional use in different parts of India (Nimasow et al., 2012). Indigenous use of medicinal plants all over the world precedes the origin of modern medicine in healthcare system (Aburai et al., 2007). The flowering plants used for medicinal purpose worldwide are estimated to be about 50,000 out of total 422,000 flowering plant species (Govaerts, 2001; Schippmann et al., 2002). World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that prescribed drug (25%), consider drug (11%) and precursor compound produced as a result of various synthetic drugs are of plant origin (Rates, 2001). Treatment of diseases with medicinal plants is more beneficial than synthetic and modern medicines as, ease of use, treatment efficacy, affordable cost and minimal side effects.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004 0378-8741/Crown Copyright & 2014 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

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Silent valley is located in the Palakkad district of Kerala. Palakkad is one of the 14 districts in Kerala and also the richest state in India in terms of plant diversity; traditional healing systems are still popular here. The richness of silent valley flora is based on geographic, climatic, topographic and edaphic factor. The tribal region (traditional healers) is the remote area of Kerala where the people have no urgent access to modern medicinal facilities. Therefore, the traditional medicines are the preferred for such people. There is no hospital for intimate treatment of people in the remote area of silent valley, and people rely on indigenous medicinal plant for basic health care treatment. So far no systematic ethno botanical survey has been made in this area and this is the first report on the medicinal plants used by the local traditional healers. Life styles of people are poor and economically they depend on cattle grazing, agriculture and use of natural resources. The current study was aimed to explore and document the indigenous knowledge of plants and to evaluate the importance of medicinal plants used in local healthcare system. This study was also aimed to educate the traditional healers about conservation status of medicinal plants.

2. Materials and methods 2.1. The study area and ethanobotanical survey Silent valley occupy Palakad districts of Kerala (Southern western Ghats) and cover an area of 236.74 km2 and lies between 110 03″ to 110 13″N latitude and 760 2″ to 760 3s″E longitude (Fig. 1). The vegetation is floristically rich compared to other regions of Western Ghats and represents several unique habitats. The study was conducted in 5 villages of silent valley (Agali, Kottathara, Mannarkad, Padavayal, Sholayur in palakkad district). The communities adjust to the forest have access right over the forest as stipulated in the village forest management plan by- laws. 2.2. Data collection The study area was investigated to get information from local traditional healers having practical knowledge of medicinal plants were interviewed in 5 villages during September 2011 to August 2013. During the course of the study, six field trips were carried out in the study area totally 60 days were spent with their local traditional healers. Methods of selecting informants depended upon the distribution of local people having sound knowledge. They were requested to collect specimens of the plants they know or to show the plant species on site. These informants were traditional healers themselves or had tradition of healing in their families and had knowledge of the medicinal use of the plants. The wealth of medicinal plant knowledge among the people of this district is based on hundreds of years of beliefs and observations. This knowledge has been transmitted orally from generation to generation. However it seems that it is vanishing from the modern society since younger people are not interested to carry on this tradition. 2.3. Interview with traditional healers In the total of eight informants or traditional healers six men and two women were identified between the ages of 42 to 75 to get the ethno-medicinal information through direct interviews or oral conservations (Appendix A). They were selected based on their knowledge of medicinal plants within their families and neighbors. The questionnaires were used to obtain information on medicinal plants with their local names, parts used any other plants/agents used as ingredients mode of preparation and

67 administration etc, were recorded for each collected ethno68 medicinal plants. A field data sheet has been prepared to record 69 the plant details with ethno-medicinal information gathered from the traditional healers (Fig. 2). Q4 70 71 72 2.4. Preservation of plant specimens 73 74 Standard method was followed with record to collection of 75 plant materials, drying, mounting, preparation and preservation of 76 plant specimens (Jain, 1964). Voucher specimens of medicinal 77 plants in triplicate were collected prepared and identified. Plants 78 with their correct nomenclature were arranged alphabetically by 79 family name, vernacular name ethno medicinal uses. The identi80 fication and nomenclature of the listed plants were based on The 81 Flora of Presidency of Madras (Gamble, 1935) and The Flora of 82 Tamil Nadu Carnatic (Matthew, 1983). They were later verified at 83 Botanical Survey of India, Southern Circle, and Coimbatore, India. 84 All the preserved specimens were deposited at the Herbariam of 85 AVVM Sri Pushpam Medicinal unit, Poondi. 86 87 2.5. Ailment categories 88 89 Based on the information obtained from the traditional healers 90 in the study area, all the reported ailments were categorized 91 into15 categories (Table 1) viz. gastro-intestinal ailments (GIA), 92 dermatological infections/diseases (DID), respiratory systems dis93 eases (RSD), genito-urinary ailments (GUA), fever (Fvr), skeleto94 muscular system disorders (SMSD), poisonous bites (PB), circula95 tory system/cardiovascular diseases (CSCD), endocrinal disorders 96 (ED), liver problems (LP), dental care (DC), hair care (HC), ear, nose, 97 throat problems (ENT), cooling agents (CA) and general health 98 (GH). Several diseases were placed in one ailment category based 99 on the body systems treated. 100 101 2.6. Data analysis 102 103 2.6.1. Informant consensus factor (Fic) 104 The informant consensus factor (Fic) was used to see if there 105 was agreement in the use of plants in the ailment categories 106 between the plant users in the study area. The Fic was calculated 107 using the following formula (Heinrich et al., 1998) 108 Nur  N t 109 F ic ¼ N ur  1 110 111 where Nur refers to the number of use-reports for a particular 112 ailment category and Nt refers to the number of taxa used for a 113 particular ailment category by all informants. The product of this 114 Factor ranges from 0 to 1. A high value (close to 1.0) indicates that 115 relatively few taxa are used by a large proportion of the infor116 mants. A low value indicates that the informants disagree on the 117 taxa to be used in the treatment within a category of illness. 118 119 2.6.2. Use value (UV) 120 The relative importance of each plant species known locally to 121 be used as herbal remedy is reported as use value (UV) and it was 122 calculated using the following formula (Phillips et al., 1994) 123 ∑U 124 UV ¼ n 125 126 where UV is the use value of a species, U is the number of use 127 reports cited by each informant for a given plant species and n is 128 the total number of informants interviewed for a given plant. The 129 UV is helpful in determining the plants with the highest use (most 130 frequently indicated) in the treatment of an ailment. UVs are high 131 when there are many use-reports for a plant and low when there 132 are few reports related to its use.

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

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Fig. 1. Location map of silent valley in Kerala, India.

2.6.3. Fidelity level (FL) To determine the most frequently used plant species for treating a particular ailment category by the informants of the study area, we calculated the fidelity level (FL). The FL was

calculated using the following formula (Friedmen et al., 1986) FL ð%Þ ¼

Np  100 N

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

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Fig. 2. Format of field datasheet used to record the plant details with ethnomedicinal information.

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

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Table 1 Ailments grouped by different ailment categories. Ailment categories

Biomedical terms

Tamil terms

Circulatory system/cardiovascular diseases (CSCD)

Blood purification Heart strength Memory power Body cooling Foul odour Teeth strength Toothache Worms in gums and teeth Burns Cuts Felon Fungal infection on head Itching Pimples Scabies Skin disease Wounds Ear ache Eye cooling Throat pain Diabetes Fever Dysentery Gastric problem Stomach ulcer Body shining Body strength Disease resistant Abortion Delivery pain Male fertility Sperm production Dandruff Hair growth Hair loss Piles Stone formation Jaundice Cancer Contraception Poison bites Scorpion sting Snake bite Asthma Bronchitis Chest pain Cold Cough Body pain Head ache Rheumatism Swellings

Rattha sutthigarippu Idhaya valimai Gnabaga sakthi Udal kulircchi Vai thurunatram Pal valimai Pal vali Pal sotthai Theekayam Vettukkayam Nagacchutthi Poochikkadi Arippu Mugapparu Sirangu Sarumanoi Kaayam Kaadhu vali Kan kulircchu Thondai pain Sarkkarai noi Kaicchal Seethabaethi Vayvu kolaru Vayitruvali Udal palapalappu Udal valimai Noi ethirppu sakthi Karu kalaippu Pirasava vali Aanmai sakthi perukkuthal Uyiranu urpathi Podugu Mudi valardhal Mudi uthirdhal Moolam Kal adappu Majal kamalai Kattigal Karuthadai Vishakkadi Thaelkadi Pambukkadi Moocchu thinaral Chali and irumal Nenju vali Jalathosham Irumal Udal vali Thalai vali Mootu vali Veekam

Cooling agents (CA) Dental care (DC)

Dermatological infections/diseases (DID)

Ear, nose, throat problems (ENT)

Endocrinal disorders (ED) Fever (FVR) Gastro-intestinal ailments (GIA)

Genaral health (GH)

Genio-urinary ailments (GUA)

Hair care (HC)

Hemorrhoids (HEM) Kidney problem (KP) Liver problem (LP) Oncology (ONC) Pills (PI) Poisonous bites (PB)

Respiratory systems diseases (RSD)

Skeleton-muscular system disorders (SMSD)

where Np is the number of use-reports cited for a given species for a particular ailment category and N is the total number of use reports cited for any given species. Generally, high FLs are obtained for plants for which almost all use-reports refer to the same way of using it, whereas low FLs are obtained for plants that are used for many different purposes (Srithi et al., 2009).

3. Result and discussion In the study, 102 ethno medicinal plants species belonging to 53 families distributed in 95 genera which were commonly used by the most of the local traditional healers for the treatment of 52 types of ailments. Among the families, Euphorbiaceae has the high number of species (7) followed by Fabaceae with six species, Rutaceae and Solanaceae with each five species and Lamiaceae with four species. For each reported species we provide botanical

name of the plant, family, voucher specimen number, local name (Tamil), life form, use value, parts used, ailment treated, and method of preparation and mode of administration (Table 2). The earlier studies of medicinal importance corroborates well with information’s collected from various regions of India. We found that there were 34 claims from the plants were reported for the first time from the study area (New claims were given with asterisk mark in Table 2). However, no plants were reported as a new medicinal plant as all plants were reported with different uses. Herbs (37.0%) were found to be most used plants followed by tree (28%) and climbers in descending order (12%) (Fig. 3). The frequent use of herbs among the indigenous communities is a result of wealth of herbaceous plants in their environs (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2011; Giday et al., 2010; Uniyal et al., 2006) and Agasthiyar hills harbours more number of herbs as compared to trees, shrubs, and climbers (Prakash et al., 2006). The most

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

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Table 2 List of medicinal plants used by local traditional healers in Silent valley, Palakkad district of Kerala. No

Botanical name/family name

Local name

Life form Use Parts used Ailment category: no value of use reports

Preparation

Application

1. Abrus precatorius. Linn. PHC-5 FABACEAE 2. Acacia nilotica. Linn. PHC-12

Kundumani

Climber

0.87

Root

Powder

Topical

Karuvelam

Tree

1.00

Stem

Raw

Tooth brush

Juice Decoction Juice Juice Juice Paste

Oral Oral Oral Oral Oral Topical

Paste Paste Paste Paste Decoction Paste Decoction

Oral Oral Topical Topical Oral Oral Oral

Paste

Oral

Juice

Topical

Decoction

Oral

Juice Paste Paste Juice Soup Paste paste Paste Paste Raw Soup Soup

Oral Topical Topical Oral Oral Oral Topical Topical Oral Oral Oral Oral

Decoction

Bath

Paste Juice

Oral Oral

Raw

Oral

Paste Raw (endosperm) Raw

Topical Oral

Paste

Topical

Powder

Oral

SMSD:2 (body pain)

Juice

Oral

GH:7 (body refreshment) HC:6 (hair growth) GH:2 (body refreshment) DID:2 (burns) PB:6 (insect bites)a GIA:2 (stomach ache, ulcer) GH:4 (disease resist) DID:1 (scabies) SMSD:6 (rheumatism)

Raw

Oral

Raw Raw

Oral Oral

Paste Infusion Decoction

Topical Topical Oral

Paste Paste Paste

Topical Topical Topical

DID:3 (scabies) CSCD:2 (blood purifier) GUA:1 (delivery pain) SMSD:4 (body pain)

Paste Juice Decoction Juice

Topical Oral Oral Oral

FABACEAE 3. Acorus calamus. Linn. PHC-63

Vasambu

Herb

1.62

Bark Leaves Root

ARACEAE 4. Acalypha indica. Linn. PHC-43

Kuppaimeni

Herb

1.25

Leaves

EUPHORBIACEAE 5. Achyranthus aspera. Linn. PHC-54

Nayuruvi

Herb

1.87

Adathoda

Shrub

0.75

AMARANTHACEAE 6. Adathoda vasica. Nees. PHC-59

Whole plant Root

ACANTHACEAE 7. Aegle mermelos. Linn. PHC-88

Leaves Leaves Seed Root Whole plant Leaves

Vilvam

Tree

1.37

Vengayam

Herb

0.37

Leaves Fruit Fruit Bulb

Katralai

Herb

1.75

Leaves

10. Alternanthera sessils. Linn. (R.Br) PHC-62 ASCLEPIADACEAE

Ponnankanni

Herb

0.62

Leaves Flower

11. Amaranthus spinosus. Linn. PHC-39 AMARANTHACEAE 12. Amorphophallus paconifolius. (Dennst) Ni PHC-96

Mulluchedi

Shurb

0.25

Leaves

Karnaikilangu

Herb

2.37

Rhizome

ARACEAE 13. Anacardium occidentale. Linn. PHC-11

Munthiri

Tree

1.37

Fruit

RUTACEAE 8. Allium cepa. Linn. PHC-25 LILIACEAE 9. Aloe vera. Linn. PHC-4 LILIACEAE

Seed ANACARDIACEAE 14. Ananus comosus. (L) Merr. PHC-73 BROMELIACEAE 15. Andrographis paniculata. Burm. F PHC-79 ACANTHACEAE 16. Annona squamosa. Linn. PHC-1

Annachi

Herb

0.37

Fruit

Nilavembu

Herb

1.75

Leaves Leaves

Seetha pazham

Tree

1.87

Whole plant Fruit

ANNONACEAE 17. Areca catechu. Linn. PHC-82

Kottaipakku

Tree

0.5

Fruit

ARECACEAE 18. Azadirachta indica A. Juss PHC-10

Vembu

Tree

1.62

Stem Flower Leaves

MELIACEAE 19. Bambusa arundinaceae. (Retz) wild. PHC-55 POACEAE 20. Boerhavia diffusa. Linn. PHC-40 NYCTAGINACEAE 21. Cardiospermum halicacabum. Linn. PHC-87

Moongil

Shrub

0.75

Seed

Mookarattai

Shrub

0.62

Mudakkathan

Climber

1.00

Root Leaves Leaves

PB:7 (scorpion sting, snake bite) DC:4 (foul odor, teeth strength) GIA:2 (dysentery) RSD:2 (cough) RSD:2 (cough)a ONC:8 (cancer)a FVR:3 (fever) DID:2 (fungal infection on head, itching) LP:4 (jaundice) RSD:4 (chest pain) PB:3 (scorpion bits) DID:3 (cuts, wounds) GH:6 (body strength) PB:2 (dog bits)a KP:1 (kidney stone)a RSD:1 (asthma, cough, bronchitis) ENT:2 (ear ache) GIA:3 (intestinal worms) CSCD:1 (blood purifier) SMSD:7 (swellings) DID:3 (heal wounds) CSCD:1 (blood purifier) GIA:2 (indigestion) CA:8 (body cooling)a DID:2 (pimples, burns) SMSD:1 (rheumatism) ONC:2 (cancer)a GIA:1 (constipation) HEM:3 (piles) GH:2 (increasing energy) DID:2 (skin allergy) RSD:4 (cough) CSCD:8 (heart disease)a LP:7 (liver pain) RSD:2 (asthma) SMSD:2 (head ache) DID:2 (burns)a GUA:5 (male fertility) GUA:3 (abortion, venereal disease) PB:8 (scorpion bite, snake bite) ED:6 (diabetes)

Oral

SAPINDACEAE

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

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Table 2 (continued ) No

Botanical name/family name

22. Carica papaya. Linn. PHC-53 CARICACEAE 23. Carum capticum. Benth and Cook. PHC-62 UMBELLIFERAE 24. Cassia alata. Linn. PHC-2 FABACEAE 25. Cassia auriculata. Linn. PHC-80

Local name

Life form Use Parts used Ailment category: no value of use reports

Pappali

Tree

2.12

Omam

Shrub

1.75

Latex Leaves Fruit Leaves

Seemai agathi

Shrub

0.5

Flower

Avaram poo

Shrub

1.37

Fruit

Nithya kalyani

Shrub

0.37

Vallarai

Shrub

1.62

Whole plant Leaves

CAESALPINIACEAE 26. Catharanthus roseus G. Don PHC-36 APOCYNACEAE 27. Centella asiatica urb PHC-18

GRAMINEAE 40. Datura metal. Linn. PHC-56 SOLANACEAE 41. Delonia elata. Linn. PHC-61 CAESALPINIACEAE 42. Discorea pentaphylla. Linn. PHC-51 DISCOREACEAE

HC:3 (dandruff)a GIA:3 (stomach ache) DID:5 (skin irritation, Itching) ED:3 (diabetes)a

Paste Juice Paste

Topical Oral Topical

Paste

Oral

Paste or juice

Oral

Paste Paste

Topical Oral

Paste Juice Juice Paste Boiled Juice Juice Juice

Topical Oral Oral Topical Inhalation Oral Topical Topical

Juice

Oral

Tree

0.75

Stem Leaves Leaves

Tree

2.00

Fruit

Pieinari sangu

Herb

0.37

Leaves

Naaikadugu

Herb

0.75

Leaves

DID:6 (wounds)

Paste

Topical

a

Juice Juice Paste Raw Raw

Oral Oral Topical Oral Oral

Juice

Oral

Paste

Topical

Paste Juice Infusion Juice mixed with water Inhalation Soup

Topical Oral Oral Bath

Paste Paste

Oral Topical

Decoction

Oral

Kovaipazham

Climber

1.62

Leaves Fruit

Karpura valli

Herb

0.87

Tuber

Thenga chedi

Herb

0.25

Stem

Nilapanai

Herb

2.5

Root

CUCURBITACEAE

37. Curcuma domestica. Valeton. PHC-41 ZINGIBERACEAE 38. Cyclea peltata. Arn. ex wight PHC-66 MENISPERMACEAE 39. Cynodon dactylon. Linn. (Pers) PHC-60

Oral Tropical Oral Oral Oral Oral

1.12

RUTACEAE

LAMIACEAE 35. Commelina benghalensis. Linn. PHC-86 COMMELINACEAE 36. Curculigo orchioide. S. Gaerth PHC-20 AMARYLLIDACEAE

Raw Juice Raw Juice Raw Decoction

GH:3 (body refreshment) GUA:6 (easy delivery) FVR:5 (viral fever) ENT:6 (eye cooling) GIA:8 (indigestion)a ONC:6 (cancer)a GUA:4 (abortion)

Shrub

28. Cissus quadrangularis. Linn. PHC-19 Pirandai VITACEAE 29. Citrus aurantifolia (Christm and swingle. L) sw PHC- Elumitchai 49 RUTACEAE 30. Citrus hystrix. DC PHC-69 Kaffir elumitchai

34. Coleus aromaticus. Benth PHC-65

Application

CSCD:4 (memory power) SMSD:2 (headache) GIA:4 (stomachache)a GIA:3 (indigestion) GH:5 (bone breakage) GIA:4 (stomach ache) FVR:2 (fever) SMSD:3 (headache) RSD:1 (cold) ONC:6 (anti-cancer) DID:3 (skin generation) HC:4 (dandruff, hair loss) FVR:3 (fever)

APIACEAE

31. Cleodendrum inerme. Linn. (Gaertn) PHC-29 LAMIACEAE 32. Cleome viscosa. Linn. PHC-83 CAPPARACEAE 33. Coccinia indica. Linn. (voigt) PHC-26

Preparation

ED:4 (diabetic) LP:2 (jaundice) DID:2 (skin disease)a GH:3 (body strength) GUA:2 (sperm production) RSD:4 (heavy cold, cough, asthma) FVR:3 (fever) DID:2 (wounds) PB:1 (snake bite) CSCD:2 (anemic)a GIA:3 (stomach ache) DID:4 (leprosy)a

Manjal

Shrub

0.37

Rhizome

FVR:3 (fever) GUA:4 (urinary disease)a LP:3 (jaundice) DID:3 (skin eruption)

Seenthil kodi

0.25

Stem

FVR:2 (fever)

Arugam pul

Climbing herb Herb

0.62

GIA:2 (gastric problem) Juice

Oral

Oomathai

Herb

0.37

Whole plant Leaves Leaves

CSCD:3 (blood purifier) ENT:2 (ear ache) PB:1 (dog bite)a HEM: 4 (piles)a

Juice Juice Paste Paste

Oral Topical Topical Topical

RSD:2 (asthma) GH:8 (body refreshment)a CA:5 (reduce body heat) SMSD:2 (head ache) HC:4 (hair growth) RSD:2 (asthma, cough) PB:1 (snake bites)a DID:3 (lip cracks)

Juice

Oral

Paste

Topical

Paste Paste Infusion (Latex mixed with water)

Topical Topical Topical

Vadhanarayananan Tree

Leaves

Kattu kilangu

Climber

1.25

Tuber

43. Eclipta prostata. Linn. PHC-52 ASTERACEAE

Karisalankanni

Herb

1.37

Root Leaves

44. Euphorbia hirta. Linn. PHC-37 EUPHORBIACEAE

Amman pacharisi

Herb

1.5

Leaves Leaves Latex

Nose Oral

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132

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Table 2 (continued ) No

Botanical name/family name

Local name

Life form Use Parts used Ailment category: no value of use reports Leaves

45. Ficus benghalensis Linn. PHC-13 MORACEAE

Alamaram

Tree

1.37

Latex Fruit Root Young bark Stem Latex

46. Ficus racemosa. Linn. PHS-70 MORACEAE

Athithimaram

Tree

1.00

47. Glycyrrhiza glabra. Linn. PHC-30 FABACEAE

Athimadhuram

Herb

1.25

Fruit Root Leaves

48. Gymnema sylvestre. R.Br. PHC-96

Sakkaraikolli

Woody climber

1.25

Leaves

ASCLEPIADACEAE 49. Heliotropiam indicum. Linn. PHC-38 BORAGINACEAE 50. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. PHC-64 ASCLEPIADACEAE 51. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Linn. PHC-67 MALVACEAE 52. Hybanthus ennespermus. F. Muell PHC-57 VIOLACEAE 53. Hygrophilla auriculata. Heine. PHC-71 ACANTHACEAE 54. Ipomea batatus. Linn. PHC-68

Thelkodukku

Shrub

0.62

Nannari

Climber

1.00

Chembaruthi

Herb

1.12

Orithal thamarai

Shrub

0.25

Neermulli chedi

Shrub

1.12

Sakkara valli kizhangu

Climber

1.00

Root Leaves Whole plant Root Whole plant Leaves Flower Whole plant Root Leaves Stem Tubers

CONVOLVULACEAE 55. Jutropha gossypiifolia. Linn. PHC-31 EUPHORBIACEAE 56. Lantana camera. Linn. PHC-78 VERBENACEAE 57. Lawsonia inermis. Linn. PHC-21 LYTHRACEAE 58. Leucas aspera. Spreng. PHC-44

Shrub

0.25

Unni chedi

Shrub

0.37

Latex and Stem Leaves

Maruthani

Shrub

0.87

Leaves

Thumbai

Herb

1.12

Leaves

LAMIACEAE 59. Lippia nodiflora. Mich. PHC-14 VERBENACEAE 60. Mangifera indica. Linn. PHC-58 ANACARDIACEAE 61. Manihot esculenta. Crantz. PHC-22 EUPHORBIACEAE

62. Mimosa pudica. Linn. PHC-84 MIMOSACEAE 63. Moringa oleifera. Lampk. PHC-23 MORINGACEAE

Poduthalai

Shrub

1.12

Leaves

Maamaram

Tree

0.25

Maravalli kizhangu Shrub

0.37

Thotta sinungi

Herb

0.75

Young leaves Rhizome Leaves, Stems and Twigs Leaves

Murungai

Tree

2.62

Leaves Bark Bark Leaves Seed Flower

64. Mukia maoderaspatana. Linn. Roenar PHC-32 CUCURBITACEAE

Musu-Musukkai

Climber

0.37

Leaves

65. Murraya koenigii. (L). Spreng PHC-91 RUTACEAE 66. Nelumbo nucifera. Linn. PHC-45

Karuvaeppillai

Tree

1.25

Leaves

Thamarai

Aquatic herb

0.37

Rhizome

Preparation

Application

GIA:2 (anti-ulcer) FVR:4 (cholera) DID:4 (heel cracks) GUA:3 (sperm production) DC:2 (teeth strength) DID:2 (wound healing)

Juice Soup Paste Powder

Oral Oral Topical Oral

Raw Paste

Tooth brush Topical

DID:1 (heal cracks) GUA:2 (sperm production) ONC:5 (cancer) SMSD:2 (body pain) CA:1 (cooling agent) RSD:3 (cough) ENT:4 (throat pain) ED:4 (diabetes)

Paste Juice (Mixed with milk) Paste Decoction Decoction Juice

Topical Oral Oral Oral Bath Oral

Paste

Oral

PB:2 (poison bite) LP:4 (jaundice) DID:5 (wound, skin disease) LP:3 (jaundice) CA:2 (cooling agent) SMSD:3 (body pain) HC:5 (hair growth, dandruff) GUA:4 (over bleeding) RSD:2 (cough)

Paste Juice Paste

Oral Oral Topical

Juice Paste Decoction Paste

Oral Oral Oral Topical

Juice Paste

Oral Oral

PB:2 (scorpion bite) GIA:1 (indigestion) CSCD:6 (heart strength) FVR:1 (fever)

Paste Juice Juice Paste

Topical Oral Oral Oral

RSD:3 (bronchitis) GH:4 (body strength) GIA:2 (ulcer)

Raw

Oral

Juice

Oral

SMSD:3 (head ache, swellings, rheumatism) ONC:5 (cancer) DID:4 (wounds) HC:3 (hair growth) DID:3 (chronic skin eruption, Psoriasisa) RSD:4 (cough, cold) SMSD:2 (head ache) DID:5 (wounds) SMSD:4 (swellings) ED:1 (anti-diabetes) RSD:1 (cough) GH:2 (body strength) GIA:1 (stomach ache, diarrhea, indigestion)

Paste

Topical

Paste Paste Paste

Topical Topical Topical

Juice Paste Paste Paste Juice

Oral Topical Topical Topical Oral

Raw Paste

Oral Oral

DID:6 (cuts, wounds)

Paste

Topical

ENT:2 (eye cooling) RSD:2 (cold, cough) GUA:4 (uterine disorder PI: 4 (female contraception) ONC:6 (cancer) CA:1 (cooling agent) GUA:2 (sperm production) RSD:1 (cold, cough) HC:2 (hair growth)

Decoction Juice Juice Juice

Oral Oral Oral Oral

Decoction Juice Raw

Oral Oral Oral

Paste Paste

Oral Topical (Mixed with coconut oil) Topical Oral Oral

HC:5 (hair growth) ENT:5 (eye disorders) GIA:1 (stomach ache, diarrhea)

Paste Juice Paste

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132

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9

Table 2 (continued ) No

Botanical name/family name

NYMPHACEAE 67. Nerium oleander. Sol. PHC-90 APOCYNACEAE 68. Ocimum tenuiflorum. Linn. PHC-85

Local name

Life form Use Parts used Ailment category: no value of use reports

Arali

Herb

0.12

Thulasi

Herb

1.75

LAMIACEAE

Preparation

Application

GUA:2 (abortion) Stem, Bark ENT:1 (ear ache)

Juice Paste

Oral Topical

Leaves

Paste Paste Juice

Topical Topical Oral

Juice

Oral

Paste Juice

Topical Oral

Paste Decoction Paste

Topical Oral Topical

Decoction

Oral

Infusion Juice Powder Decoction

Oral Oral Oral Oral

Powder Juice Raw

Oral Topical Oral

Raw Raw Raw Powder

Topical Oral Topical Oral

Juice

Oral

Paste

Topical

Decoction

Oral

Infusion

Oral

Paste Juice

Topical Oral

Juice Paste Decoction

Oral Topical Topical

Seed Leaves

69. Odina wodifer. Roxb. FL PHC-98 ANACARDIACEAE 70. Opuntia dillenii. Linn. PHC-102 CACTACEAE 71. Passiflora foetida. Linn. PHC-97 PASSIFLORACEAE 72. Peddalium murex. Linn. PHC-6 PEDALIACEAE 73. Phyllanthus amarus. Schum and Thnn. PHC-74

Uthiyam

Tree

0.37

Leaves

Sappathi kalli

Herb

0.87

Stem

Mupparisavalli

0.12

Yanai nerinchil

Climbing Herb Herb

1.25

Whole plant Seed

Keelanelli

Herb

1.00

Periya nelli

Tree

1.5

Vetrilai

Climber

0.62

Milagu

Climber

0.37

Netilingam

Tree

0.62

Punga maram

Tree

0.62

Koyya

Tree

0.75

Maadhulai

Tree

0.37

Amanakku

Shrub

0.75

EUPHORBIACEAE 74. Phyllanthus emblica. Linn. PHC-9 EUPHORBIACEAE 75. Piper betle. Linn. PHC-24 PIPERACEAE 76. Piper nigrum. Linn. PHC-92 PIPERACEAE 77. Polyalthia longifolia. (Sonn) Thwaits PHC-46 ANNONACEAE 78. Pongamia glabra. Vent. PHC-72 FABACEAE 79. Psidium gujava. Linn. PHC-94 MYRTACEAE 80. Punica granatum. Linn. PHC-33 PUNIACEAE 81. Ricinus communis. Linn. PHC-34 EUPHORBIACEAE

82. Ruta graveolens. Linn. PHC-99 RUTACEAE 83. Santalum album. Linn. PHC-93 SANTALACEAE 84. Sesamum indicum. Linn. PHC-75 PEDALIACEAE 85. Sesbania grandiflora. Pers. PHC-15 FABACEAE 86. Sida acuta. Burn. PHC-16 MALVACEAE 87. Solanum nigrum. SW. PHC-27

Aruvatham thalai

Herb

0.25

Santhanam

Tree

1.12

Ellu

Herb

1.25

Agathi

Tree

1.12

Arival manai poondu Manathakkali

Shrub

0.62

Herb

0.5

SOLANACEAE 88. Solanum surrattense. Bumr. f PHC-47

Kanda kathiri

Herb

1.12

RSD:3 (cough, cold) SMSD:5 (head ache) GIA:1 (dysentery, diarrhea, stomach ache) RSD:4 (asthma, bronchitisa) DID:1 (skin diseases) GUA:3 (venereal diseases) DID:3 (burns) ED:4 (diabetes) SMSD:1 (head ache)a

GUA:5 (in continuous of urine)a ENT:5 (gleets)a Leaves LP:1 (jaundice) Leaves ENT:4 (eye cooling) Fruit CSCD:3 (anemic disease)a Fruit RSD:3 (cold, cough) HC:5 (hair growth) GIA:4 (gastric complaints) Leaves FVR:1 (fever) RSD:2 (cough) SMSD:2 (head ache) Fruit GIA:3 (stomach ache, indigestion) Stem, Bark, GIA:5 (indigestion, Flower dysentery) Bark and DID:5 (skin disease) seed Leaves DC:6 (worms in gums and teeth) Root GIA:3 (intestinal warms)a Leaves GIA:1 (stomach ache) GUA:3 (increase breast milk)a Seed GIA:2 (constipation) PB:1 (scorpion sting)a Seed RSD: 2 (bronchitis) Stem Root Seed Bark Leaves Flower Leaves Whole plant Leaves Whole plant

SOLANACEAE

FVR:6 (fever) RSD:3 (asthma)a CA:5 (cooling agent) GIA:5 (stomach ache) DID:4 (small pox)a RSD:3 (sore throat) GIA:2 (dysentery) SMSD:3 (head ache)a DID:2 (cuts, wounds) RSD:1 (cough)

Paste

Oral

Oil Oil Decoction Juice Soup Paste Paste Juice

Topical Topical Bath Oral Oral Topical Topical Oral

HEM:1 (piles)a ED:2 (diabetes) GIA:5 (stomach ache)

Juice Juice Juice

Oral Oral Oral

Paste Paste Juice Paste Paste Paste Juice

Oral Oral Oral Oral Topical Topical Oral

89. Solanum trilobatum. Linn. PHC-7 SOLANACEAE

Thoothuvalai

Climber

0.87

Leaves

90. Solanum torvam. SW. PHC-76 SOLANACEAE 91. Strychnos nux-vomica. Linn. PHC-50 LOGANIACEAE 92. Syzygium cumini. Walp. PHC-100 MYRTACEAE

Sundaikaai

Shrub

0.12

Leaves

RSD:1 (asthma) ENT:3 (throat pain) RSD:1 (asthma)a ENT:2 (throat pain) GH:3 (body strength) DID:1 (itching)a CA:1 (body cooling)

Ettimaram

Tree

0.5

Seeds

ONC:4 (liver cancer)a

Powder

Oral

Naaval

Tree

0.62

Fruit Bark

ED:1 (diabetes) CA:2 (body cooling) SMSD:2 (swelling)

Raw Raw Paste

Oral Oral Topical

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132

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10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Q5 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

Table 2 (continued ) No

Botanical name/family name

93. Tamarindus indica. Linn. PHC-48

Local name

Life form Use Parts used Ailment category: no value of use reports

Puliya maram

Tree

1.00

CAESALPINIACEAE

94. Tectona grandis. Linn. PHC-94 VERBENACEAE 95. Terminalia chebula. Retz PHC-28 COMBRETACEAE 96. Trianthema portulacastrum. Linn. PHC-89 AIZOACEAE 97. Tribulus terrestris. Linn. PHC-35

Fruits (Unripe pods) Bark

Thekku maram

Tree

0.75

Leaves Seed

Kadukkaai

Tree

0.75

Fruit

Saaranai

Herb

1.00

Root

Nerinchil

Herb

2.00

Whole plant Fruit

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE

Fruit

Root 98. Tridax procumbans. Linn. PHC-101 ASTERACEAE 99. Vetiveria zizanoides, Nast. PHC-17 POACEAE 100. Vitex negundo. Linn. PHC-77 VERBENACEAE

101. Zizgifer officinalae. Linn. PHC-81 ZINGIBERACEAE 102. Zizyphus jujupa. Linn. PHC-95 RHAMNACEAE a

Vettu kaaya poondu Vetiver

Herb

0.87

Whole plant Root

Shurb

0.87

Notchi

Tree

2.37

Leaves Root

Zinger

Herb

1.12

Root

Elanthai

Tree

1.62

Leaf Bark

Preparation

Application

ENT:1 (eye infection)a

Raw

Oral

GUA:2 (abortion) DID:3 (wound healing, skin irritations) SMSD:2 (joint pain) HC:6 (dandruff)

Powder Paste

Oral Topical

Paste Powder

Topical Topical

Powder

Oral

Decoction Juice Juice

Oral Orals Oral

Soup

Oral

Powder

Oral

GIA:6 (dysenterya, indigestion) GIA:1 (constipation)a RSD:7 (asthma) CA:4 (body cooling) CSCD:6 (heart strength)a KP:5 (stone formation, urinary trouble, liver disease) GUA:1 (venereal disease)a DID:7 (wounds)

Juice

Oral

Paste

Topical

GIA:7 (stomach ache)

Juice

Oral

SMSD:8 (head ache) RSD:4 (cold, cough) FVR:2 (fever) PB:3 (snake bite)a SMSD:2 (rheumatism) SMSD:1 (swellings) ONC:8 (cancer) SMSD:7 (body pain) DID:6 (wounds)

Paste Juice Paste Juice Paste Juice Decoction Decoction Powder

Topical Oral sTopical Oral Topical Oral Oral Oral Topical

New claims.

Fig. 3. Life forms of reported common medicinal plants.

frequently utilized medicinal plant parts were Leaves (36%) used for the preparation of medicine solely or mixed with other plant parts. It was followed by Fruit (12%), Root (11%), Stem (8%), Stem bark, Whole plant and Seed (each 7%), Flowers (4%), Latex (3%), tubers and Rhizome (each 2%) and Bulb (1%) as show in Fig. 4. All over the world tribal communities, utilized for the preparation of herbal medicine using leaves (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2011; Ezekiel and Daniel, 2012; Gidey et al., 2011; Srithi et al., 2009; Teklehaymanot et al., 2007; Ullah et al., 2013). The reason why leaves were mostly is that they are very easy to collect when compared to other parts of plants (Giday et al., 2009) and the scientific reason is that the photosynthetic activity and secondary metabolite production more in leaves than other (Ghorbani, 2005). 3.1. Mode of preparation and administration of plants Plant parts were grouped into eight categories for preparation and utilization. Among these majority of the plant remedies were prepared by paste (39%) followed by Juice (29%), Raw (11%),

Fig. 4. Percentage of plant parts used for the preparation of medicine.

Decoction (10%), Powder (5%), Soup (3%), Infusion (2%) and Inhalation (1%) (Fig. 5). According to the informants, preparation of paste for the treatment of ailments is a common method of the tribal

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132

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11

Fig. 5. Catagories of local Traditional healer’s mode of utilization for the preparation of medicine.

Fig. 6. Catagories of Traditional healer’s mode of remedy applications.

communities in global level (Amri and Kisangau, 2012; Giday et al., 2010; Rajkumar and Shivanna, 2009; Ullah et al., 2013). The paste was prepared by grinding the fresh or dried plant parts with oil or water. The juice was taken as orally along with water or milk or honey, Raw (taken as raw plant parts orally), Decoction was obtained by boiling the plant parts in water until the volume of water reduce to required amount. Powder was prepared by the grinding of shade dried plant parts. Infusion was prepared by fresh plants parts are soaking into water through over night; inhalation was done by the burning of plant parts and inhaled the smoke through nose. The most frequently used mode of remedy administration is oral ingestion (62%), followed by topical uses (35%), bath (2%), tooth brush (1%), and nasal applications (1%) (Fig. 6). Today, most of the medicines were given orally which is an agreement with some other studies (Andrade-Cetto, 2009; Lee et al., 2008; Ullah et al., 2013). For topical uses still an important way of remedy administration to treat diseases like skin disorders, wounds, poison bites, rheumatism, body pain, body strength, burns and head ache (Fernadez et al., 2003; Manual et al., 2005; Seyid et al., 2013). Herbal medicines prescribed by local traditional healers were either preparation based on single plant or a combination of several plant parts. In the present study reveals most of the preparation involved in multiple modes (74 plants). Only few plants (36 plants) were taken as medicine without ingredients. In some cases, the added ingredients may be other plant parts or some other products like oils, goat milk, salt and honey (Table 3). Most of the reported, preparations were prepared by mixture of plant parts (Ignacimuthu et al., 2008; Upadhyay et al., 2010). In this study mostly fresh plant parts were used for the preparation of medicine. Similar findings were reported by Asase et al. (2010), Revathi et al. (2013). Gidey et al. (2011) reported, local traditional healers too frequently use other adjuvant like honey, milk, sugar, salt and oil to improve the acceptability and medicinal property of certain remedies. The preparation of paste/medicated oil were commonly used by the oil caster of coconut, gingelly, mustard, neem and pongam. Depending upon the diseases and age

they were using specific plant parts and specific dosages for the treatment of patient to improve the health conditions. 3.2. Use values The most commonly used species was Moringa olerifera with 21 use reports by 8 informants, giving the highest use value of 2.62 Moringa olerifera is attributed to its use in the treatment of various diseases and it is well recognized all the informants as an cancer. From the ethno pharmacological approach of Thai traditional healers Moringa olerifera in treatment of cancer, to consume five leaf a day (Itharat and Ooraikul, 2007) followed by Curculigo orchioide (20 use reports by 8 informants with UV of 2.5) Amorphophallus paconifolis, Vitex negundo (each 19 use reports by 8 informants with a UV of 2.37), Carica papaya (17 use reports by 8 informants with a UV of 2.12), Citrus hystrix, Tribulus terrestris (each 16 use reports by 8 informants with a UV of 2.0), Achyranthus aspera, Annona squamosa (15 use reports by 8 informants with a UV of 1.87), Aloe vera, Andrographis paniculata (14 use reports by 8 informants with a UV of 1.75), Acorus calamus, Azadirachta indica, Centella asiatica, Coccinia indica, Ziziphus zizyphus (13 use reports by 8 informants with a UV of 1.62). Generally these plants were frequently used by traditional healers Eastern ghats of Tamilnadu (Samydurai et al., 2012) and local health care practices of Sikkim (Badola and Pradhan, 2013), India for treatment of various diseases. The very low use value Solanum torvam, Nerium oleander and Passiflora foetida which is reported by only one informants with a UV of 0.12 of which Passiflora foetida was a new claim and also used in headache, others are regularly using this plant in the treatment of body cooling and ear ache. Similar were supported (Chellaiah et al., 2006; Itharat and Ooraikul, 2007; Seyid et al., 2013) Badola and Pradhan (2013) reported that plants in the study area leads to them low use value as in the case of Khangchendzonga Biosphere reserve, Sikkim. In the present study plants reported with a low use value (2 use reports by 8 informants with

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132

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Table 3 Ingredients added for the preparation of herbal medicines by the local traditional healers. No.

Botanical name

Other plants added in medicinal preparation

Other ingredients added

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

Achyranthus aspera Acorus calamus Areca catechu A. ceba Ananus comosus Azadirachta indica Azadirachta indica Aegle mermelos Acacia nilotica Anacardium occidentale Amorphophallus paconifolius Andrographis paniculata Abrus precatorius Alternanthera sessils Amaranthus spinosus Annona squamosa Adathoda vasica Aloe vera Bambusa arundinaceae Boerhavia diffusa Centella asiatica Cassia alata Coleus aromaticus Cassia auriculata Commelina benghalensis Carum capticum Cynodon dactylon Curcuma domestica Cardiospermum halicacabum Citrus hystrix Coccinia indica

Gloriosa superb Myrstica dactloides – Aegle marmelos – Orthosiphon thymiflorus Piper lognum Commiphora mukal Plectranthus nilgherricus – Coleus aromaticus Commiphora caudate Cinnamom tamala – Ruta graveolens Utileria salicifolia – – Sesbania grandiflora Rubia cordifolia Cymbopogan racemosus Artemisia parviflora – – Tinospera cardiafolia Alpina galangal Euphorbia hirta Curcuma aromaticum – Aloe vera Costus specious

32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74.

Cleodendrum inerme Curculigo orchioides Carica papaya Cyclea peltata Catharanthus roseus Cleome viscosa Cissus quadrangularis Citrus aurantifolia Delonia elata Datura metal Discorea pentaphylla Euphorbia hirta E. prostrate Ficus benghalensis Ficus racemosa Ficus religiosa Gymnema sylvestre Hygrophilla auriculata Hybanthus enneaspermus Heliotropiam indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Ipomea batatus Jatropha curcus Leucas aspera Lantana camera Lawsonia inermis Lippia nodiflora Manihot esculenta Mangifera indica Murraya koenigii Moringa oleifera Mimosa pudica Mukia moderaspatana Nelumbo nucifera Nerium oleander Opuntia dillenii Ocimum tenuiflorum Odina wodifer Phyllanthus amarus Piper betle Phyllanthus emblica Passiflora foetida

Ocimum sanctum Hemidusmus indicus Acranthus aspera Cissus quardraguris Tridax procumbans Hyptis suaveolens Cyperus rotundus – – Cassial tora Citrus lemon – Decalepis hamiltonii Eugenia singampattina – – Coriandrum sativum Allium cepa Ginger officinale Azadirachta indica – Moringa olerifera – Euphorbia hirta Plectranthusnilgherricus – Commiphora caudate Eucalyptus globules – Curculigo orchioides Garcinia indica Leucas biflora – Hibiscus rosa sinensis Anninus cosmes – Commiphora mukal – Moringa olerifera – Vitex negundo Cynodon dactylon Carum capticum

Coconut oil Honey/milk – Pepper (indigestion), (curd) – Salt (chest pain) Turmeric (scabies) – – – Coconut oil (cough) Honey/milk – Salt þwater (abortion) – – Honey (bronchitis) Rheumatism, constipation (ghee, bulb, sugar and wheat flour) Gingelly oil – Salt (memory power) – Milk (asthma) – Turmeric (wounds) – Sugar (gastric problem) – Honey Sugar (cancer) Milk (anti–diabetes) Sugar (jaundice) Milk (fever) Ginger (poisonous bite) Salt (viral fever) Milk (fever) Water (diabetes) – Egg (bone breakage) – Coconut oil (piles) Coconut oil (dog bite) Sugar (body refreshment) Sugar þ milk (anti-ulcer) Honey (reduce body heat) Milkþ honey (sperm production) Sugar þ gingerþmilk (sperm production) – Milk (jaundice) Coconut oil (scorpion bite) Waterþextract (cough) – Honeyþ whole plant (jaundice) Coconut oil (hair growth) Salt (bronchitis) – Castor oil (Head ache) Coconut oil (hair growth) Turmeric (wound, swelling) Milk (body strength, indigestion) Food (diabetes) – – Castor oil Coconut oil (hair growth) Sugar (abortion) Coconut oil – Waterþsalt (venereal disease) Honeyþ cowmilk (jaundice, anemic patient) – Coconut oil (hair growth) –

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

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13

Table 3 (continued ) No.

Botanical name

Other plants added in medicinal preparation

Other ingredients added

75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102.

Pongamia glabra Punica granatum Psidium gujava Polyalthia longifolia Peddalium murex Piper nigrum Ricinus communis Ruta graveolens Sida acuta Santalum album Syzygium cumini Sesbania grandiflora Sesamum indicum Solanum nigrum Solanum surrattense Solanum torvum Solanum trilobatum Strychnos nux-vomica Terminalia chebula Tectona grandis Tamarindus indica Trianthema portulacastrum Tridax procumbans Thomasia purpurea Tribulus terrestris Vitex negundo Vetiveria zizanoides Zizgifer officinalae

Daucas carota Solanum nigrum – Citrus aurantifolia – Vetiveria zizanoides Ordina wodifer Costus speciosus Hyptis suaveolens Canarium strictum Lanta camara – Moringa olerifera Delonia elata Discorea pentaphylla Decalepis hamiltonii Phyllanthus amarus – Alpina calcarata – Lawsonia inermis Cinnamom zeylanicum Hibiscus abelmoschus – Christitonia bicolor Trachyspermum ammi Ocimum sactums Coriandrum sativum

Milk þginger (cooling agent, throat pain) – – Goat’s milk (indigestion) – Honey (stomach ache) Gingerþ bark (constipation) – Castor oil (cuts, wounds) – – (Leucorrhea) Coconut þ lemon (cooling) Seed extractþ hot waterþ honey (diabetic) Black pepper þsalt (indigestion, fever, cough and asthma) – Honey (asthma, body strength) – Ghee Coconut oil (dandruff) Flowerswith asafetida (contraception) – Pungam oil (wounds) – – Seeds þsalt (cholera) – Gingerþ seed (indigestion)

Fig. 7. Catagories of ailments treated Traditional healer’s arranged by number of use-reports.

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

Table 4 Informant consensus factor for commonly used medicinal plants. Ailment category

Number of usereports (Nur)

36 Circulatory system/ cardiovascular diseases Cooling agents 29 Dental care 12 Dermatological 114 infections/diseases Ear, nose, throat 37 problems Endocrinal disorders 26 Fever 35 Gastro-intestinal 89 ailments General health 47 Genito-urinary ailments 53 Hair care 43 Hemorrhoids 8 Kidney problem 6 Liver problem 24 Oncology 50 Pills 4 Poisonous bites 37 Respiratory systems 73 diseases Skeleto-muscular 82 system disorder

Number of taxa (Nt)

Informant consensus factor (Fic)

10

0.74

9 3 34

0.71 0.82 0.71

12

0.69

8 12 30

0.72 0.68 0.67

12 18 10 3 2 7 9 1 12 28

0.76 0.67 0.79 0.71 0.8 0.74 0.84 1.00 0.69 0.63

24

0.72

a UV of 0.25) were Amaranthus spinosus, Cyclea peltata, Hybanthus ennespermus, Mangifera indica, Ruta graveolens, of them Mangifera indica, is reported to have a very low UV of 0.11 among the local people south west khangchendzonga, Sikkim for treating cough and sore throat (Badola and Pradhan, 2013). This report conformed with on present study. 3.3. Informant consensus factor The reported ailments were grouped into 19 categories based on the information gathered from the interviews. The Fic values in our study are ranged from 0.63 to 1.00. The highest ICF value of dermatological infections/diseases (114 use reports,34 species) followed by gastrointestinal ailments (89 use reports,30 species) skeleton muscular disorder (82 use reports, 24 species) and respiratory systems diseases (73 use reports, 28 species) (Fig. 7). In this study oncology and pills had highest Fic 1.00 among the noorails tribes in erode district and cuts and wound has the highest Fic of 0.91 among the limbo health care practices in Sikkim (Badola and Pradhan, 2013). Achyranthus aspera, Mimosa pudica, Sida acuta were very commonly used for the treatment of cuts and wound in these studies. The lowest Fic value was observed in respiratory system disorders with a Fic of 0.63 followed by genitor-urinary ailments with a Fic 0.68 (Table 4). An observation Seyid et al. (2013) the highest Fic is 0.21 on the contrary our survey exemplified the lowest Fic is 0.63. This confirms the present findings were supported by Revathi et al. (2013). In this study observed dermatological infections, gastrointestinal ailments and respiratory system diseases were used most plants with 34, 30 and 28 species respectively which was supported by Revathi et al. (2013). Respiratory system diseases had the lowest Fic of 0.63 but ailment category third rank in the number of use reports (73) and number of taxa (28) attributed to this category. It may be due to the lack of communication among the informants in the study area who are practicing this ailment category (Rokaya et al., 2010). Seyid et al. (2013) reported that

Table 5 Fidelity level (FL) values for common medicinal plants used by local traditional healers by ailment category. Ailment categories

Circulatory system/ cardiovascular diseases

Most preferred species with specific ailment

Amorphophallus paconifolis (heart disease) Hygrophilla auriculata (heart strength) Centella asiatica (memory power) Cooling agents Aloe vera (body cooling) Eclipta prostate (reduce body heat) Dental care Psidium gujava (worms in gums and teeth) Acacia nilotica (foul odor, teeth strength) Dermatological infections/ Tridax procumbans (wounds) diseases Mimosa pudica (cuts, wounds) Cassia auriculata (skin irritation, itching) Heliotropiam indicum (wound, skin disease) Sesbania grandiflora (small pox) Curculigo orchioide (leprosy) Ear, nose, throat problems Carica papaya (eye cooling) Murraya koenigii (eye disorders) Gymnema sylvestre (throat pain) Endocrinal disorders Andrographis paniculata (diabetes) Coccinia indica (anti-diabetic) Fever Santalum album (fever) Carica papaya (viral fever) Euphorbia hirta (cholera) Gastro-intestinal ailments Carum capticum (indigestion) Vetiveria zizanoides (stomach ache) Terminalia chebula (dysentery, indigestion) Polyalthia longifolia (indigestion, dysentery) Phyllanthus emblica (gastric complaints) General health Discorea pentaphylla (body refreshment) Achyranthus aspera (body strength) Cissus quadrangularis (bone breakage) Azadirachta indica (disease resist) Genio-urinary ailments Carica papaya (abortion) Peddalium murex (gleets) Anacardium occidentale (male fertility) Moringa oleifera (uterine disorder) Curculigo orchioide (urinary disease) Hair care Annona squamosa (hair growth) Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hair growth, dandruff) Citrus hystrix (dandruff, hair loss) Eclipta prostate (hair growth) Hemorrhoids Delonia elata (piles) Kidney problem Tribulus terrestris (stone formation, urinary trouble, liver disorder) Achyranthus aspera (kidney stone) Liver problem Amorphophallus paconifolis (liver pain) Acalypha indica (jaundice) Gymnema sylvestre (liver problem) Oncology Zizgifer officinalae (cancer) Citrus hystrix (anti-cancer) Strychnos nuxvomica (liver cancer) Pills Moringa oleifera (female contraception) Poisonous bites Andrographis paniculata (scorpion bite, snake bite) Abrus precatorius (scorpion sting, snake bite) Azadirachta indica (poison bites) Achyranthus aspera (dog bits) Respiratory systems Trianthema portula castrum (asthma) diseases Acalypha indica (chest pain) Coleus aromaticus (heavy cold, cough, asthma) Ocimum tenuiflorum (asthma, bronchitis) Skeleto-muscular system Annona squamosa (body pain) disorder Aegle mermelos (swellings) Bambusa arundinaceae (rheumatism) Ocimum tenuiflorum (head ache)

FL (%)

100.00 75.00 50.00 100.00 63.00 75.00 50.00 87.50 75.00 62.50 62.50 50.00 50.00 75.00 62.50 50.00 75.00 50.00 75.00 62.50 50.00 100.00 87.50 75.00 62.50 50.00 100.00 75.00 6 2.50 50.00 75.00 62.50 62.50 50.00 50.00 75.00 62.50 50.00 50.00 50.00 62.50 50.00 87.50 50.00 50.00 100.00 75.00 62.50 50.00 100.00 87.50 75.00 50.00 87.50 50.00 50.00 50.00 100.00 87.50 75.00 62.50

gastrointestinal, dermatological and respiratory diseases have a high informant consensus among the Alasehir people in Turkey. In the present study also confirmed their observation that these

Please cite this article as: Morvin Yabesh, J.E., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.004i

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ailment categories had high number of use reports among local traditional healers with moderate Fic values. 3.4. Fidelity level From the available information, fidelity level of each of the species was calculated with each category. As part of this study, 7 species had highest fidelity level of 100%, most of which were used in single ailment category with multiple informants. In this study less than three use reports were not considered (Table 5). The plant with highest FL of 100% were Amorphophallus paconifolis (CSCD), Aloe vera (CA), Carum capticum (GIA), Discorea pentaphylla (GH), Zizgifer officinalae (ONC), Andrographis paniculata (PB), Annona squamosa (SMSD). In support to our study, 100% FL was reported in Discorea pentaphylla for respiratory system disease among the hooralis tribe in sathyamangalam forest, Tamil Nadu (Revathi et al., 2013).

4. Conclusion The survey indicated that, the study area has plenty of medicinal plants to treat simple and complicated human ailments. Many local traditional people in the studied part of Palakkad district is still continue to depends on medicinal plants, because well-knowledge healers have good interactions with patients and this would improve the quality of healthcare delivery. Further attention is necessary on plant species which are having high fidelity level. The plants with high use value and informant consensus factor in the study recommended that, they can be ethno botanically useful and provide the researches with a quantitative tool to examine the relationship between taxonomic groups based on their ethno pharmacological uses. There is no doubt that the 34 new recorded plant species are awaiting search for new uses. So, further scientific assessment of these medicines for phytochemical, biological and clinical studies is however greatly needed. The present research work indicates that research projects should be designed in priority on this area for the pharmacological evaluation and conservation of medicinal plants of this area.

Uncited reference Heinrich (2000).

Acknowledgements The authors are thankful to the management of A.V.V.M. Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi, for providing them necessary facilities and support to carry out this work and also Traditional healers of Silent valley especially Sahanam and his relatives of Palakkad Diatricts, Kerala

Appendix A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Participant’s name and surname. Age and gender of the participant. Pen telephone and address of the participant. Educational qualification of the participant. Date of interview. Name of the participant’s residential address place. How long do you live in the residential place? Name the used local plant. Mention the disease cured by the plant.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

15

Mention the part of the plant would you use. How can you make the plant for use? Do you know how and when will you use the plant? Name the dose do you use approximately. Mention the duration taken by the convalescence period. Is there any complication occurred from the plants used by you?

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