An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh

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An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh Md. Khirul Islam a, Sanjib Saha a, Imran Mahmud a, Khalit Mohamad b, Khalijah Awang c, Shaikh Jamal Uddin d, Md. Mustafizur Rahman a, Jamil A. Shilpi a,e,n a

Pharmacy Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia c Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia d School of Medical Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast campus, Queensland, Australia e Centre for Natural Products and Drug, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia b

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history: Received 20 August 2013 Received in revised form 22 November 2013 Accepted 29 November 2013

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Madhupur forest area, Tangail is one of early human settlements in Bangladesh. Having abode in the vicinity of the forest, a strong ethnobotanical practice has prevailed in this area since ancient time. Due to the rapid deforestation during the last few decades, many plants have already disappeared or are facing extinction. Thus we attempted to document the medicinal plant use of Madhupur forest area with a view to preserve the ethnobotanical knowledge and in order to protect the biodiversity of this area. Materials and methods: The fieldwork was conducted during a period of 1 year. Data was collected by interview, questionnaire, and group discussion with randomly selected informants including indigenous, tribal people, and Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) living in the study area. Recorded plants are listed along with their indication, part used, form of preparation and use value (UV). Results were also analysed to determine informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL) of the plants on the basis of their use under various ailment categories. Results: The present study has documented 78 medicinal plant species from 45 families used for the treatment of at least 77 different major and minor ailments and conditions. Medicinal plant species were categorised as tree, shrub, tuber, herb, and climber. Leaves were found to be the most frequently used plant part while decoction is the major form of preparation. In most cases preparations are either administered orally or applied topically. Conclusion: The present study revealed that some of the well-known medicinal plants are used extensively demonstrating an effective ethnobotanical practice in the study area. Plants with high ICF and FL values can be subjected to bioassay guided investigation while plants which scored low UVs require bioactivity screening to justify their use for the reported ailment. & 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge Traditional health practitioners Garo tribe Use value Informant consensus factor Fidelity level

1. Introduction ‘Madhupur’ or ‘Madhupur Garh’ is an Upazila of Tangail District in Bangladesh and has a long history of civilisations from ancient times. Bangladesh is situated on the world's largest delataic land with the Himalayas in the north which makes it vulnerable to flood during the monsoon season. Due to the location of Madhupur forest on a land higher than the surrounding area, it has been one of the most attractive places to inhabit by the early settlers in Bangladesh (Banglapedia, 2003). This area is also rich in diverse flora which might have played an important role in an effective ethnobotanical n Corresponding author at: Centre for Natural Products and Drug, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel.: þ60 379674064; fax.: þ60 379674193. E-mail address: [email protected] (J.A. Shilpi).

practice. Inhabitants of Madhupur forest use a variety of medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments as natural remedy. Madhupur is such an area where the age old folk medicinal practice is under threat of extinction. Environmental degradation, deforestation, and migration of traditional medicinal healers to other jobs are some of the major reasons for this situation. However until now no attempt has been made to collect and preserve the traditional knowledge of herbal practices of this area. It is worthwhile to mention here that still today the majority of the world population, especially rural people of developing countries like Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, depends partially or entirely on herbal medicine (Goleniowski et al., 2006). Therefore, it is very important to identify and evaluate medicinal plants used in this locality in order to record their use, bring the use under scrutiny and to evaluate their effectiveness. Direct conversation with the traditional healers, local inhabitants is the primary way of collecting information on ethnobotanical

0378-8741/$ - see front matter & 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056

Please cite this article as: Islam, Md.K., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056i

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Md.K. Islam et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology ∎ (∎∎∎∎) ∎∎∎–∎∎∎

practice. This method can be more challenging and erroneous with the passage of time since elderly people are the only source of traditional knowledge who convey this information from generation to generation verbally (Nadembega et al., 2011) and only few written documents are available of this valuable and essential knowledge (Sofowora, 1993; Asase et al., 2010). Medicinal plant used by various tribes or communities of different regions throughout Bangladesh has been reported by different authors in recent years including that of Garo tribe of Netrokona, Sherpur and Mymensingh whose habitat is outside the Madhupur forest area (Mia et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009; Alom et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2012). Most often these reports are limited to a simple compilation of ethnobotanical uses of plants and lack critical analysis. In the present investigation the attempt has been made to collect the ethnobotanical knowledge of traditional healers as well as information on the medicinal use of plants that exists in the local communities and is passed on from generation to generation. Through this survey we tried to identify most commonly used medicinal plants of Madhupur forest area along with the therapeutic indication for each of these plants and method of preparation of the plant part for therapeutic application. The results were then analysed and presented graphically or in tabulated form to give an insight including the extent of use of a medicinal plant, and preferred species for a given disease. Thus, this work provides a comprehensive overview of ethnobotanical practices of Madhupur region. It not only contributes to the future preservation of this knowledge but also present the knowledge to the scientific world to help facilitate ethnopharmacology based drug discovery.

2. Materials and methods 2.1. Study area Madhupur Forest (Fig. 1) is situated at the central part of Bangladesh and offers dense vegetation due to its tropical moist climate. Geographically, Madhupur forest is situated between 241450 N and 901050 E. It is situated almost 50 km south of the Garo Hills and about 151 km north of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. The forest is about 20 m above the mean sea level. The Madhupur forest, also known as ‘Madhupur Garh’, is elevated about 1–2 m in height over the surrounding plains. The forest is somewhere partly thin, partly dense and has scrub jungles also. To prevent further deforestation, it has been declared a reserved forest which covers an area of 44,292.40 acres. Administratively, total Madhupur area is distributed into 5 Ranges and 10 Beats. Geographically, Madhupur forest is situated in the centre of the Ganges–Brahmaputra Meghna delta. The soil is yellowish-red, sandy clay mixed and compact but melts with the rainfall and becomes tenacious and soft. Bangshai River on the west and the Banar River on the east are the main rivers around the forest. The area has a monsoon climate typical for the Indian Subcontinent. Average annual rainfall is 2650 mm. Maximum and minimum annual temperature is 33.8 and 11.6 1C, respectively. Annual relative humidity ranges between 22.8% (average minimum) and 97.4% (average maximum). According to an unpublished data collected by a joint study of Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organisation (SPARSO) and the Department of Forest in 2007, the unique flora and fauna of Madhupur forest area

Fig. 1. Geographical location of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Source: Forest Department official website, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh

Please cite this article as: Islam, Md.K., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056i

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has reduced by 85% in the last 40 years (The Daily Star, 2013). The forest area faces further reduction in size in coming years due to increased human activities (Banglapedia, 2003). 2.2. Sampling of informants The study was conducted from September 2011 to December 2012 following the standard protocols for the collection of ethnobotanical data (Alexiades, 1996; Martin, 2004). Permission to perform ethnomedicinal survey in Madhupur forest area was given by the authority of Tangail Forest Division. Information was collected from local traditional health practitioners (Kabiraj/ Ayurved/Hakim/Unani/independent healer/other), indigenous and tribal (Garo, Koch and Hajong communities) people with practical knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for various remedies. Fieldwork comprised of interviewing a total of 210 people which include participants from aforementioned categories. A good proportion of the respondents were from the Garo, the most abundant and one of the most ancient tribes of Madhupur region.

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therapeutic uses or those that are widely accepted for the cure of a particular ailment will score a high UV. 2.5.2. Informant consensus factor (ICF) Informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated to determine the homogeneity of the information for a particular plant to treat a particular ailment (Heinrich et al., 1998; Canales et al., 2005). ICF values ranges from 0.00 to 1.00. High ICF value (approaching 1) of an ailment category is obtained when one or a few plant species are documented to be used for the treatment of that ailment by a large proportion of the informants, whereas a low ICF value indicates that informants disagree over which plant to use. ICF is calculated using the following formula: ICF ¼ ðNur  N t Þ=ðN ur  1Þ where ‘Nur’ refers to the total number of use reports for a particular illness category, and ‘Nt’ refers to the total number of species used for this illness category. In order to apply the above parameter, several diseases are placed into broad ailment category on the basis of similarity.

2.3. Ethnomedicinal data collection The purpose of the fieldwork was explained to healers, in particular that the sole purpose of the survey had no other intention except the documentation of their medicinal plant usage. Knowledge in local language of the first author of this article was considered as an added advantage for interviewing tribal people. The survey was conducted through semi-structured, open-ended interviews (Martin, 1995). The questionnaire was designed to address the following information of plants used in ethnobotanical practice: local name, source, used plant part(s), preparation method, and relative abundance of the plant in study area. Social bio-data of the participants such as age, class, gender, experience, and educational background were also recorded. 2.4. Plant identification and herbaria Upon identification of the plant under scrutiny by the interviewee, samples were collected for the preparation of voucher specimen. For some samples, voucher specimens were prepared at later stages when the trees were in bloom or having fruits. The voucher specimens were submitted to Bangladesh National Herbarium and were identified by the experts. 2.5. Data analysis The information was arranged in alphabetical order of the scientific names of the plants along with the family, local name, used plant parts, mode of application, and mode of preparation, habit, habitat and name of the diseases they are indicated for. The results were further analysed and presented on the basis of their use and disease categories. 2.5.1. Use value (UV) Use values (UV) are calculated for individual plants to give a quantitative measure of its relative importance to the informants objectively (Phillips et al., 1994). Use value was calculated by the equation: UV s ¼ Σ i UV is =ns where ‘UVs’ refers to the use value of a species, ‘UVis’ refers to the number of use reports cited by the informants for that plant species and ‘ns’ refers to the total number of informants interviewed. Generally UV is calculated to determine the extent of medicinal use for a given plant species. Plant with broad

2.5.3. Fidelity level (FL) Fidelity level (FL) expresses the preference a species is given over others in the management of a particular ailment (Friedman et al., 1986). It was calculated according to the formula: FL ¼ I p =I u  100 where Ip is the number informants stating the use of a species for a particular ailment category while Iu is the number of informants stating the use of that plant for any sort of ailment category. While high FL level authenticates high usage of a plant for a particular ailment, low FL level confirms a wide range of medicinal uses but with a low frequency for each ailment.

3. Results and discussion 3.1. Informants The informants consisted of 62% male and 48% female. Out of 210 informants 46 were THPs, 89 indigenous people and the remaining 75 were tribal people belonging to Garo, Koch and Hajong tribe. According to the age, most of informants were near 50–60 years (28.57%) old and the other interviewees were 40–50 years (23.81%) old, followed by 30–40 years (16.67%) old, respectively (Table 1). The majority of interviewees were illiterate. According to the national statistics the literacy rate among THPs is comparatively lower than that of the other people in Madhupur, Tangail (Banglapedia, 2003). THPs maintain a specific time or season for plant collection, preparation method and advice the patient on route of administration, dose and dosage regimen. Literate THPs often used to keep written documents for their formulations. Some of them also acknowledged that official herbal formularies published from Bangladesh and India are available in recent years and sometimes they take help from these books. Among the informants, THPs tend not to disclose their ethnopharmacological knowledge to public as a means of not to put their occupation under threat by more practitioners. They prefer to convey their knowledge verbally either to their family member or to their assistant. However, transfer of knowledge from parent to children, preferably to son was found to be the most prevalent which is a common practice in many other societies around the world (Deribe et al., 2006; Uniyal et al., 2006; Upadhyay et al., 2007; Giday et al., 2009; Teklehaymanot, 2009; Panghal et al., 2010). Use of plants for the treatment of common diseases is often found to be a day to day

Please cite this article as: Islam, Md.K., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056i

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Table 1 Classification of informants according to various factors. Factor

Categories

No. of person

% Of informants

Gender

Male Female

130 80

61.90 38.10

Age

20–30 year 30–40 year 40–50 year 50–60 year 60–70 year More than 70 year

25 35 50 60 25 15

11.90 16.67 23.81 28.57 11.90 7.14

Class

Indigenous people Tribal people THPs

89 75 46

42.38 35.71 21.90

Experience

Less than 3 year 3–6 year 6–10 year 10–15 year 15–20 year More than 20 year

10 25 35 65 50 25

4.76 11.90 16.67 30.95 23.81 11.90

Profession

Hakim Ayurvedic Kabiraj Unani Independent practitioner Forest officer Forest guard Other

10 12 15 9 65 15 18 55

4.76 5.71 7.14 4.29 30.95 7.14 8.57 26.19

Table 2 Distribution of medicinal plant species of Madhupur forest region according to their family. Family

No. of species

Family

No. of species

Fabaceae Lamiaceae Apocynaceae Rutaceae Solanaceae Combretaceae Acanthaceae Anacardiaceae Araceae Asclepiadaceae Euphorbiaceae Oxalidaceae Rubiaceae Sapotaceae Zingiberaceaae Apiaceae Asparagaceae Bombaceae Bromeliaceae Caricaceae Clusiaceae Convolvulaceae Crassulaceae

10 5 4 4 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Cucurbitaceae Dilleniaceae Dipterocarpaceae Ebenaceae Lauraceae Lecythidaceae Lythraceae Meliaceae Moringaceae Myrtaceae Nyctaginaceae Oliaceae Piperaceae Poaceae Polypodiaceae Polygonaceae Rhamnaceae Santalaceae Sterculiaceae Thymelaceae Vitaceae Xanthorrhoeaceae

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

practice in many households where such information is being transferred to the next generation by simply watching the elders doing it. 3.2. Medicinal plants recorded Through this survey, a total of 78 plant species from 45 families were recorded which are used in the study area for the treatment of various ailments. The highest number of species (10 species)

belong to Fabaceae followed by Lamiaceae (5 species), Apocynaceae (4 species), Rutaceae (4 species), Solanaceae (4 species) and Combretaceae (3 species) (Table 2). Botanical families including Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, and Combretaceae are known to have the highest number of species and also topped the highest medicinal plant species containing families of Madhupur forest area (Haridasan et al., 2003; Chandra, 2005). Fabaceae also represents the highest number of plant species (24) from a total of 174 plant species growing in Madhupur forest region (Malaker et al., 2010). Fabaceae is also known to have the highest number of species, more than any other plant family in the world (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995). In the current investigation high UVs observed for Zingiber officinale (2.02), Terminalia bellirica (1.81), Ananas comosus (1.80), Paederia foetida (1.76), Aegle marmelos (1.73), Abroma augusta (1.72), Terminalia arjuna (1.71), and Citrus grandis (1.65) indicate their extensive usage in the ethnobotanical practices in the study area. The lowest UVs were obtained for Erythrina variegata (0.14), Physalis minima (0.17), Lannea coromandelica (0.24), and Shorea robusta (0.27) (Table 3). High UVs for some plants might be attributable to their wide distribution across the study area which makes them first choice for treatment. Indigenous and tribal people of the region frequently use these plants for various ailment categories. Rhizome paste of Zingiber officinale, the plant with the highest UV is taken orally for stomach pain and other gastric disorders, vomiting and coughs. Terminalia bellirica bark is used for constipation whereas its seed oil is recommended for hair growth. Ananas comosus fruit is indicated for fever, leaves for helminthiasis and jaundice while Aegle marmelos fruit and leaves are used for gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., constipation and peptic ulcer). Such high use values are an expression of the versatile use of these plant species for the cited ailments (Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu, 2011). To determine the Informant consensus factors (ICFs), all the recorded 77 ailments were grouped into major ailment categories and the plants were distributed according to these major categories (Table 4) (Neves et al., 2009; Kadir et al. 2012). ICFs were calculated for the recorded plants and ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 (Table 5). A higher ICF value suggests that the informants are in agreement on the use of a certain species for the treatment of a particular ailment, in other words, increased evidence of effectiveness of a plant species to cure a given ailment (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2007). The ailment category of heart diseases is one of the three highest ICF scoring (0.99) categories. Two plants, namely Terminalia arjuna (UV 1.71) and Zanthoxylum budrunga (UV 0.48) are used for the treatment of heart diseases. Although both of these two plants are known to be used in cardiac problems (Yusuf et al., 2009), a high UV for Terminalia arjuna indicates that it is more popular than Zanthoxylum budrunga. Although the ICF for gastrointestinal disorders (0.95) was less compared to some other ailment categories, the maximum number of plant usage (61 species) was recorded under this category. Citing a wide range of ailments including indigestion, hyperacidity and related conditions, infective diarrhoea or dysentery under this category as well as the prevalence of digestive disorders in that area contributed to the observed values for UV and ICF. A high ICF for this category has also been recorded in some other ethnobotanical survey reports (Alzweiri et al., 2011). Greater success rate with one species for the treatment of an ailment makes a better choice among the users resulting in a high ICF. Plant species with high ICF indicates that the species might contain bioactive compound(s) demanding bioassay guided phythochemnical investigation (Neves et al., 2009). Fidelity levels (FL) of the recorded plant species differed widely for a specific disease. FLs ranged from 72% to 100% for plants in the

Please cite this article as: Islam, Md.K., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056i

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Table 3 List of medicinal plants of the Madhupur forest area used as traditional healthcare medicine by local residents. Scientific name

Family

Local name

Abroma augusta (L.) L.f.

Sterculiaceae

Ulot-kombol T,W

Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. Acorus calamus L.

Fabaceae

Khair

T,W

Araceae

Boch

H,W

Acanthaceae

Bashok

T,W

Rutaceae

Bael

T,W

Adhatoda vasica Nees Syn: Justicia adhatoda L. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa ex Roxb. Aloe barbadensis Mill.

Xanthorrhoeaceae Ghritakumari Alstonia scholaris L. R. Br. Apocynaceae Chhatim

Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Andrographis paniculata Nees Anthocephalus chinensis Hassk. Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. Syn: Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. Asparagus racemosus Willd.

Plant type

H,W T,W

Bromeliaceae

Annarhos

H,C

Acanthaceae

Kalomegh

H,C

Rubiaceae

Kodom

T,W

Thymelaeaceae

Agar

T,W

Asparagaceae

Shatamuli

C,W

Oxalidaceae

Kamranga

T,W

Azadirachta indica A.Juss. Meliaceae

Neem

T,W

Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. Boerhavia diffusa L. Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

Lecythidaceae

Hijal

Nyctaginaceae Fabaceae

Averrhoa carambola L.

Calotropis gigantea (L.) W.T.Aiton Carica papaya L. Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees & C.H.Eberm Citrus grandis Hassk. Clitoria ternatea L. Syn: Coccinia cordifolia (L.) Cogn. Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Curcuma longa L. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Datura metel L. Dillenia indica L.

No. of ailment categories

Use value (UV)

Leaf and root juice for diabetes. Decoction of bark to treat sexual disorders. Sap juice for menstrual disorders [O]. Decoction of bark for cough and diarrhoea [O]. Heartwood extract mixed with lemon juice used for piles, ulcers, boils and skin diseases [T]. Root juice used in constipation and oedema. Powdered root for indigestion [O]. Leaf juice to treat cough, pneumonia, and asthma [O].

2

1.72

4

1.38

2

0.70

1

1.22

2

1.73

2

1.06

6

0.85

3

1.80

Juice of whole plant for constipation, fever, ulcer, boil, and to enhance appeal 2 for food [O]. Decoction of leaves and bark for ulcers, wounds, pain, constipation, and 4 oedema [O]. Heartwood extract mixed with coconut oil used for body pain, fever, and skin 6 diseases [T]. Decoction of wood for ulcer, oedema, and jaundice [O].

1.26

Ripe and unripe fruits for constipation, diarrhoea, and dysentery. Decoction of leaves for peptic ulcer. Leaf oil in respiratory disorders [O]. Leaves for skin burns, and dandruff [T]. Leaf juice for stomach disorders. Dried leaf-latex for constipation [O]. Bark exudates for ulcer, malarial fever, chronic dysentery, diarrhoea, snake bite, and asthma. Leaf latex to treat tumours. Root and bark boiled with rice is used to reduce excessive vaginal discharge [O]. Fruit juice for fever. Leaf juice for helminthiasis and jaundice [O].

T,W

Decoction of leaves and tuberous root for epilepsy, kidney disorders, fever, stomach ulcers, and liver cancer. It increases milk secretion in nursing mothers [O]. Leaf juice for headache, hangovers, ringworm, and chickenpox. Decoction of root for prickly heat, to stimulate milk flow [O]. Leaf paste for pain, wound healing, small pox, eczema, and other skin diseases [T]. Decoction of bark for fever, and cough [O]. Decoction of heartwood to treat cold [O].

Punarnava Palash

H,W T,W

Paste of whole plant applied to wounds, and pain [T]. Leaf paste for boils, pimples, skin ulcers, and piles [T].

Fabaceae

Arhar

S,C

Asclepiadaceae

Akanda

Caricaceae Apocynaceae

Madhupha, Pepe Nayantara

Apiaceae

Thankuni

Lauraceae

0.41 0.87

6

1.15

4

1.39

3

0.86

1

0.84

2 2

0.81 0.52

2

0.75

2

1.10

3

1.21

4

1.26

2

0.95

Tejpata

Leaf juice to treat diabetes. Seed paste for enhancing energy and as stimulating [O]. S,W Decoction of root bark for constipation. Decoction of leaves to treat fever, and stomach disorders [O]. S,C Ripe and unripe fruits to treat dysentery. Latex for peptic ulcer and liver disorders [O]. Leaf paste is used against ringworm [T]. H,C,W Decoction of whole plant for dengue fever, diabetes, cancer, and diarrhoea [O]. H,W, Decoction of leaves for hypertension [O]. Leaf paste applied on wounds, G burns, and skin lesion [T]. T,W Leaf paste to treat headache, and pimples [T].

2

0.52

Rutaceae Fabaceae Cucurbitaceae

Jambura Aparajita Telakucha

T,C V,W H,W

Fruit juice to treat fever [O], scabies, eczema, and itches [T]. Decoction of root for fever, tuberculosis, and constipation [O]. Juice of whole plant for diabetes, constipation, fever, and nausea [O].

2 3 3

1.65 0.51 1.20

Araceae

Kochu

H,C

Leaf and stem paste to stop bleeding from cuts and wounds [T].

1

0.95

Zingiberaceae Poaceae

Halud Durba

H,C G,W

1 4

0.69 1.44

Solanaceae Dilleniaceae

Dhutura Chalta

H,W T,W

1 5

0.78 0.88

Gab

T,W

1

0.65

Ponkhiraj

H,W

Juice of rhizome for diarrhoea and flatulence [O]. Leaf paste to stop bleeding, pain, wound, and severe bleeding from vagina [T]. Leaf decoction to treat constipation [O]. Leaf and seed paste for mental disorders [O]. Decoction of root and bark for food poisoning. Fruit juice for flatulence, boils, fever, cough, and to enhance semen production. [O] Decoction of bark for dysentery and cholera. Decoction of fruits to treat diarrhoea [O]. Paste of whole plant for diabetes and jaundice [O].

2

0.72

Madar

T,W

4

0.14

Rutaceae

Kadbel

T,W

3

0.62

Asclepiadaceae

Anantamul

H,W

Decoction of root bark for cough, fever, oedema, and diarrhoea [O]. Bark paste 5 for skin diseases [T].

0.68

Diospyros peregrina Ebenaceae Gürke Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Polypodiaceae Sm. Erythrina variegata L. Fabaceae Feronia limonia Swingle Syn: Limonia acidissima Houtt. Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br.

Medicinal uses

Leaf juice for killing tapeworm, roundworm, stimulate lactation, and menstruation. Decoction of bark to treat constipation [O]. Ripe fruits for flatulence, pimple, to arouse sexual desire [O].

Please cite this article as: Islam, Md.K., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056i

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Table 3 (continued ) Scientific name

Family

Local name

Plant type

Medicinal uses

No. of ailment categories

Use value (UV)

Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. Lawsonia inermis L. Madhuca indica J.F.Gmel. Mentha piperita L.

Lamiaceae

H,W

Decoction of leaves for eczema and boils [T].

1

0.79

Convolvulaceae Crassulaceae

Tokma, Bilati tulsi Kalmi shak Patharkuchi

H,C H,W

3 2

0.30 0.29

Anacardiaceae

Jiga

T,W

3

0.24

Lythraceae Sapotaceae Lamiaceae

Mehedi Mahua Pipul

S,G T,W H,C

2 3 2

1.30 0.70 0.76

Mentha spicata L. Mesua ferrea L.

Lamiaceae Clusiaceae

Pudina Nageshwar

H,C T,W

3 4

0.59 1.30

Mimosa pudica L. Mimusops elengi L.

Fabaceae Sapotaceae

Lojjaboti Bokul

H,W T,W

4 2

0.52 0.33

Moringa oleifera Lam.

Moringaceae

Khonjhon, Sajina Sheuly Tulsi Amrul

T,C

Leaves as vegetable for headache, constipation, and piles [O]. Leaf juice for cholera, diarrhoea, and dysentery. Decoction of root for ulcer and urinary diseases [O]. Decoction of bark twice a day, for peptic ulcer [O]. Paste of inner bark for wounds and swelling [T]. Stem paste for eczema and leprosy [T]. Leaf juice for jaundice [O]. Decoction of leaves for fever and cough [O]. Leaf paste for skin diseases [T]. Decoction of leaves and flowers for fever, nausea, vomiting, and flatulence [O]. Decoction of leaves for fever, headache, and digestive disorders [O]. Decoction of leaves and flower for asthma, cough, and fever [O]. Seed oil for skin diseases and joint pain [T]. Leaf juice for wound, ulcer, and piles [O]. Leaf paste for swelling [T]. Decoction of bark for fever. Decoction of fruits for diarrhoea and dysentery. [O] Leaves as vegetable for constipation and diabetes. Decoction of root for oedema. [O] Flower and seed juice for constipation. Leaf juice for fever [O]. Leaf juice for cold, cough, fever, bronchitis, and asthma [O]. Leaf juice for piles, fever, diarrhoea, scurvy, and as antidote for Datura poisoning [O]. Leaves as vegetable for flatulence, fever, cough, joint pain, and diarrhoea [O]. Ripe and unripe fruits for oedema and constipation. Bark juice for gonorrhoea. [O] Leaf juice mixed with water and mustard oil for earache [T] and stomach pain [O]. Leaf and stem paste for pain [T]. Decoction of leaves for nerve pain. Leaf juice for joint pain, cough, and oedema [O]. Decoction of leaves for stomach disorders and killing ringworm [O].

3

1.04

2 2 5

0.51 1.61 0.74

4 3

1.76 1.32

1

0.17

3

1.53

2

0.52

4 Decoction of root for constipation, fever, cough, gastric disorders, and diarrhoea. Seed oil for dysentery, constipation, and piles [O]. Decoction of root for fever, cholera, high blood pressure, and snake bite [O]. 4

1.39

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Oleaceae Ocimum sanctum L. Lamiaceae Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae Paederia foetida L. Phyllanthus emblica L.

Rubiaceae Euphorbiaceae

Physalis minima L.

T,W H,W H,W V,W T,W

Solanaceae

Gandhal Amloki, Amla Kopal phuta

Piper betel Blanco

Piperaceae

Paan

V,C

Polygonum tomentosum Willd. Ricinus communis L.

Polygonaceae

Bis kathali

H,W

Euphorbiaceae

S,W

Apocynaceae

Verenda, Arenda Sorpogonda

H,W

Bombacaceae

Shimul

T,W

Santalaceae

Chandan

T,W

Fabaceae

Ashok

T,W

Fabaceae

Bokful

T,W

Dipterocarpaceae

Shal

Solanaceae

Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz Salmalia malabarica Schott. & Endl. Santalum album L. Saraca asoca (Syn: S. indica) (Roxb.) W.J.de Wilde Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. Shorea robusta C.F. Gaertn. Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam. Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Tamarindus indica L. Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Terminalia chebula Retz.

Gum of stem bark for dysentery, influenza, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Seed 4 oil for gonorrhoea. Decoction of root to arouse sexual desire. [O] Seed oil for skin diseases [T]. Decoction of wood for fever, diarrhoea, and 3 gastric irritation [O]. Decoction of bark for ulcer, piles, dyspepsia, and dysentery. Decoction of 3 leaves for stomach pain [O].

0.75 1.39 0.34 1.10

3

0.49

T,W

Paste of root bark for swelling [T]. Leaf and flower as vegetable for nasal catarrh and headache [O]. Leaf oil for dysentery, gonorrhoea, and weak digestion [O].

2

0.27

Bon kata

H,W

Decoction of whole plant for pain. Stem juice for intestinal bleeding [O].

2

0.67

Anacardiaceae

Amra

T,C

2

0.48

Myrtaceae

Jam

T,W,C

3

1.41

Fabaceae Combretaceae

Tetul Arjun

T,W T,W

2 3

0.96 1.71

Combretaceae

Bohera

T,C

Unripe fruits for dyspepsia [O]. Bark juice for dysentery [O]. Bark paste for joint pain [T]. Decoction of leaves to treat vomiting [O]. Ripe fruits for diarrhoea, diabetes, and urinary disorders [O]. Ripe and unripe fruits for constipation. Decoction of flowers for jaundice [O]. Powdered bark for heart disease, dysentery, and diarrhoea. Leaf juice for jaundice [O]. Decoction of bark for constipation [O]. Seed oil for hair growth [T].

2

1.81

Combretaceae

Haritaki

T,C

0.91

Kolshephool Methi

S,C

Decoction of fruits for constipation and ulcer. Decoction of bark for oedema. 2 [O] Bark and seed paste for mental disorders [O]. 1

0.32

H,C

Decoction of seeds for diarrhoea, dyspepsia, and joint pain [O].

2

0.48

Nishinda

S,W

0.45

Vitaceae

Haarzora

C,W

Decoction of leaves for flatulence. Decoction of root for asthma, cough, and 3 fever [O]. Paste of whole plant for wounds [T], pain, fever, and high blood pressure [O]. 4

Solanaceae

Aswagandha H,C

Rutaceae

Bajna

T,W

Zingiberaceae

Hiiching, Ada

H,C

Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Apocynaceae K. Schum. Trigonella foenumFabaceae graecum L. Vitex negundo L. Lamiaceae Vitis quadrangularis (L.) Wall. ex Wight Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Zanthoxylum budrunga Wall. Zingiber officinale Roscoe

H,W

Powdered root with milk to arouse sexual desire. Leaf juice for ulcer, cancer, 4 and epilepsy [O]. Fruit juice for asthma, pain, and heart diseases. Decoction of bark for 4 dyspepsia, and diarrhoea [O]. Paste of rhizome for pain in stomach, coughs, gastric disorders, and vomiting 3 [O].

0.53 0.64 0.48 2.02

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Table 3 (continued ) Scientific name

Family

Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Rhamnaceae

Local name

Plant type

Medicinal uses

No. of ailment categories

Use value (UV)

Kul, Boroi

T,W

Juice of root and leaves for dysentery, diarrhoea, and ulcer. Ripe fruits for constipation, gastric disorders, and blood purification [O].

2

1.48

Type: T ¼tree, S¼ shrub, H ¼ herb, V ¼ vine, C ¼ cultivated, G ¼ grown in the garden, W ¼ wild. Uses: [O] ¼ oral, [T]¼ topical

Table 4 Ailments grouped by major ailment categories. Category

Common diseases and features

Plant species

Fever Gastrointestinal disorders

Fever, malarial fever, dengue fever Stomach disorders, gastric irritation, flatulence, gastric disorders, ulcer, peptic ulcers, constipation, diarrhoea, digestive disorders, dysentery, dyspepsia, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, intestinal bleeding, cholera, food poisoning, weak digestion, appeal for food, piles Diabetes Diabetes Liver disorders Jaundice Respiratory complaints Cold, cough, tuberculosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, influenza, nasal catarrh General health High blood pressure, hypertension, blood purification, epilepsy, scurvy Dermatological problems Wounds, burn, itches, scabies, boil, chickenpox, eczema, skin diseases, pimples, leprosy, dandruff, prickly heat Urinary and rectal Kidney disorders, gonorrhoea, oedema diseases Inflammation and pain Body pain, joint pain, nerve pain, stomach pain, headache, earache, hangover, swelling Sexual stimulant, and Arousing sexual desire, stimulant, enhance quantity of semen hair growth Toxicity complaints Snake-bite, antidote for Datura poisoning Lactation Enhance milk secretion Helminthiasis Ringworm, tapeworm, roundworm Female sexual disorders Menstrual disorders, excessive vaginal discharge, severe bleeding in vagina Cancer Tumour, liver cancer Mental disorders N/A Heart disease N/A

27 61

7 6 19 7 27 13 22 5 3 3 3 3 4 2 2

Table 5 Informant consensus factor (ICF) for categorised ailments. Category

No. of species

% Of all species

No. of use reports

% Of all use reports

Informant consensus factor Most frequently used plants (ICF)

Fever Gastrointestinal disorders Diabetes Liver disorders Respiratory complaints General health Dermatological problems Urinary and rectal diseases

27 61 7 6 19 7 27 13

12.62 28.50 3.27 2.80 8.88 3.27 12.62 6.07

405 1098 151 107 445 165 555 254

9.75 26.43 3.63 2.58 10.98 3.97 13.36 6.11

0.94 0.95 0.96 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.95

Inflammation and pain Sexual stimulant, and hair growth stimulant Toxicity complaints Lactation Helminthiasis Female sexual disorders Cancer Mental disorders

22 5

10.28 2.34

441 75

10.62 1.81

0.95 0.95

Citrus grandis Ricinus communis Moringa oleifera Carica papaya Ocimum sanctum Centella asiatica Azadirachta indica Asparagus racemosus and Saraca asoca Averrhoa carambola Withania somnifera

3 3 3 3 4 2

1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.87 0.93

61 45 90 35 65 73

1.47 1.08 2.17 0.84 1.56 1.76

0.97 0.95 0.99 0.94 0.95 0.99

Rauwolfia serpentina Averrhoa carambola Ananas comosus Abroma augusta Catharanthus roseus Datura metel

0.93

89 4154

2.14

0.99

Terminalia arjuna

Heart disease Total a

2 214a

Each species may be listed in several categories.

study area. The maximum fidelity level of 100% was reported for 20 species of which 8 species, namely Aegle marmelos, Aloe barbadensis, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, Kalanchoe pinnata, Moringa oleifera, Syzygium cumini, and Feronia limonia are used for gastrointestinal disorders (Table 6). Thus, out of 61

species used in GI disorders, 8 species were found to be the most highly used species. Among 19 plants used for respiratory complaints, only Adhatoda vasica scored 100% FL. This may be due to the fact that this species is specifically used for this ailment while other entries might have some other therapeutic uses including

Please cite this article as: Islam, Md.K., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056i

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Table 6 Fidelity level (FL) of medicinal plants cited for 25 or more times. Sl. no.

Medicinal plant

Ailment category

Lpa

Lub

FLc(%)

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

Abroma augusta Acacia catechu Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aloe barbadensis Ananas comosus Andrographis paniculata Asparagus racemosus Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Cajanus cajan Calotropis gigantean Catharanthus roseus Centella asiatica Cinnamomum tamala Citrus grandis Coccinia cordifolia Curcuma longa Cynodon dactylon Datura metel Dillenia indica Diospyros peregrine Feronia limonia Hemidesmus indicus Kalanchoe pinnata Lawsonia inermis Mentha spicata Moringa oleifera Ocimum sanctum Oxalis corniculata Phyllanthus emblica Piper betel Rauwolfia serpentina Saraca asoca (Syn: S. indica) Spondias pinnata Syzygium cumini Terminalia arjuna Terminalia bellirica Terminalia chebula Withania somnifera Ziziphus mauritiana

Female sexual disorders Gastrointestinal disorders Respiratory complaints Gastrointestinal disorders Gastrointestinal disorders Fever Gastrointestinal disorders Urinary and rectal diseases Helminthiasis Dermatological problems Diabetes Gastrointestinal disorders Fever General health Dermatological problems Fever Diabetes Gastrointestinal disorders Inflammation and pain Mental disorders Gastrointestinal disorders Gastrointestinal disorders Gastrointestinal disorders Respiratory complaints Gastrointestinal disorders Dermatological problems Fever Gastrointestinal disorders Respiratory complaints Fever Urinary and rectal diseases Inflammation and pain Toxicity complaints Gastrointestinal disorders Gastrointestinal disorders Gastrointestinal disorders General health Gastrointestinal disorders Gastrointestinal disorders Hair growth stimulant, and sexual stimulant Gastrointestinal disorders

26 45 59 78 57 62 39 46 49 41 51 26 22 61 27 42 35 27 48 65 29 26 29 48 42 38 27 35 59 25 59 28 49 26 27 29 52 46 47 55 27

47 97 85 122 72 85 62 71 86 59 78 43 41 82 35 49 51 42 59 65 46 39 35 64 59 54 36 39 65 51 66 55 63 39 36 42 81 65 52 71 44

96.29 91.83 100.00 100.00 100.00 93.93 86.66 93.87 92.45 91.11 100.00 89.65 88.00 100.00 77.14 85.71 85.36 72.97 100.00 100.00 90.62 92.85 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 93.10 100.00 100.00 80.64 100.00 82.35 100.00 81.25 90.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 84.37

a b c

The number of use reports cited for a given species for a particular ailment category. The number of informants cited the species for any ailment category. Fidelity level.

Ocimum sanctum which has a higher UV (1.61) than Adhatoda vasica (1.22). Plants retaining high FL values in other ailment category are Cajanus cajan, Centella asiatica, Cynodon dactylon, Datura metel, Hemidesmus indicus, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus emblica, Rauwolfia serpentina, Terminalia arjuna and Withania somnifera. These plants are extensively used in many ethnobotanical practices around the world with sufficient scientific proofs of their therapeutic use (Pengelly, 2004; Daniel, 2006). 3.3. Information regarding the preparation Various plant parts including leaf, seed, root, tuber, fruit, stem, flower, and rhizome were found to be widely used for the treatment of different types of ailments. The most widely used plant parts were leaves (34%), followed by seeds and fruits (20%), root, root–bark, and rhizome (16%), bark (15%), whole plant (6%), stem (4%), flowers (4%), and heartwood (1%). Extensive use of leaves in ethnomedicinal practice has also been recorded in some other ethnobotanical survey reports (Mahishi et al., 2005; Abo et al., 2008; Gonzalez et al., 2010; Telefo et al., 2011). The leaf is the major site of photosynthesis, or in other words, metabolically most active part of the plant. As a result, various biogenetic pathways

take place to produce secondary metabolites which contribute towards its medicinal value (Balick and Cox, 1996; Ghorbani, 2005). Moreover, collection and mode of preparation of medicine from leaves is much easier than other parts of the plant and makes them the first choice for use (Giday et al., 2009; Telefo et al., 2011). Considering the mode of preparation of herbal medicines, reports include decoction, juice, paste, powder or freshly taken. Among these, the major form of preparation is decoction (33%), followed by juice (24%), paste (18%), fruit (8%), oil (6%), vegetable (4%), latex (2%), powder (2%) and others (3%). Decoctions can often be found as one of the major forms of drug preparation in ethnobotanical practice as it is easy to prepare by mixing with water, tea or soup (Sanz-Biset et al., 2009; Nadembega et al., 2011). In some cases, the processing involves drying of the plant material followed by grinding into fine powder. Water is commonly used if a solvent is required for the preparation. Sometimes milk or honey is used as a matrix or added as an adjuvant to mask odour or to increase viscosity of the preparation. Tribal people of this region often add sugar, salt, orange peel, banana or lemon (e.g., Acacia catechu) to increase the palatability of a preparation. Paste is made by crushing plant parts using mortar and pestle and then mixing it with mustard oil, ginger, or coconut oil (e.g., Physalis minima).

Please cite this article as: Islam, Md.K., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056i

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THPs tend to prepare medicine with the help of more than one plant species for the management of a single ailment. Sometimes adjuvants are added to improve medicinal property or to increase the aesthetic value of the preparation. Poly herbal preparations can often provide better healing power as a wide range of bioactive compounds from different plants are present in the preparation (Teklehaymanot et al., 2007). 3.4. Habit, habitat, and nature of the plants Among the 78 identified medicinally important plants, 47% are trees. Other species used belong to herbs (36%), followed by shrubs (9%) vine/climber (7%) and grass (1%). These plants can be found growing in home gardens, roadside, riversides, ponds side and in the jungle. Traditional healers used trees and herbs most commonly as medicine due to their availability in nature (Uniyal et al., 2006; Sanz-Biset et al., 2009). Most of the plant species recorded in the present study grow wild in that region. According to the local inhabitants, suppliers of plant materials to herbal companies often collect plants from the wild without paying any attention to their conservation. Although some of the documented plants are widely available in the study area, some of them are rare and in vulnerable class due to mass deforestation or harvesting them without any concern towards biodiversity conservation. A floristic survey of the Madhupur Sal forest has revealed that some of the species including Zanthoxylum budrunga, Alstonia scholaris and Phyllanthus emblica are among the threatened species in that area and requires attention to prevent their extinction (Malaker et al., 2010). Another medicinally used plant Aquilaria agallocha (Aquilaria malaccensis) has been listed in the ‘ICUN red list’ classifying it as vulnerable species although no protective legislation prevails for guiding its harvest and trade (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2013.1, 1998). Therefore, immediate action from the government is essential for the propagation and preservation of this medicinally and commercially valuable and vulnerable species.

4. Conclusion Most of the communities in the region live in remote areas away from towns and have only limited access to the modern healthcare facilities. For the daily need of medical treatments they heavily depend on ethnobotanical practice. The resent investigation gives an overview of the medicinal plant use in Madhupur forest area. The present investigation identified 78 plant species used for 77 different ailments, which can be further subdivided in 17 major ailment categories. Extensive use of plants to manage dermatological (27 species) and gastrointestinal disorders (55 species) signifies that these two diseases are quite widespread in the study area. Thus, while this survey report will preserve the medicinal plant use of this area, some implication can also be concluded from this survey which includes proper steps for the propagation and conservation of the medicinal plants including the vulnerable species, validation of their use and proper patronisation of the ethnobotanical practice to complement the less accessible modern healthcare facilities.

Acknowledgements The authors express gratitude to the indigenous and tribal people of Madhupur forest area for cordial sharing their knowledge of medicinal plants with us. Special thanks are for the forest officer Rajesh Chakma, Assistant Conservation of forest (ACF) and

9

Sharker Md. Atikur Rhaman, Station Officer of Tangail Forest Division. We would like to thank Robi Khan, Chairman of SEMP (society for protection of medicinal plant and environment) and founder of the museum in Madhupur forest area for advice of plant identification. Grateful recognitions are acknowledged for the administrative facilities provided by the local government authorities during this survey. Jamil A Shilpi is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Centre for Natural Products and Drug, University of Malaya (Research grant no UM-C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/SC/37).

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Please cite this article as: Islam, Md.K., et al., An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056i