Analysis of the costs and logistics of biodiesel production from used cooking oil in the metropolitan region of Campinas (Brazil)

Analysis of the costs and logistics of biodiesel production from used cooking oil in the metropolitan region of Campinas (Brazil)

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 88 (2018) 373–379 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews journa...

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 88 (2018) 373–379

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Analysis of the costs and logistics of biodiesel production from used cooking oil in the metropolitan region of Campinas (Brazil)

T

Amanda Carvalho Mirandaa, Silvério Catureba da Silva Filhoa,b, Elias Basile Tambourgib, ⁎ José Carlos CurveloSantanaa, Rosangela Maria Vanallea, , Flávio Guerhardta a b

Nine July University, UNINOVE, Av. Francisco Matarazzo, 612, Água Branca, 05001-100 São Paulo, SP, Brazil School of Chemical Engineering (FEQ), UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein, 500, Post Code: 6066, Barão Geraldo,13084-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil

A R T I C LE I N FO

A B S T R A C T

Keywords: Biodiesel Logistical planning Production costs Cooking oil Sustainability Carbon credit

The Brazilian Petroleum Regulatory Agency (ANP) regulates the use of biodiesel in fuel oil throughout Brazil. Current laws require that from 2017, diesel oil must contain 8% biodiesel (i.e., B8). In fact, the bus fleets of some Brazilian regions already use the B20 blend (20% biodiesel) as fuel. The objective of this work was to analyse the costs and logistics of biodiesel production from mixtures of used cooking oils in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (RMC, São Paulo State, Brazil). Cooking oils collected from MRC homes were mixed with ethanol in various proportions and transesterified at 60 °C for 30 or 90 min, in order to obtain biodiesel, using NaOH as a catalyst. The results of the physical and chemical analyses demonstrated that the biodiesels so obtained possessed characteristics close to those required by Brazilian standards. This fuel could be used in fleets of buses, trucks and machines, or even sold to fuel distributors; and would be worth 15.784 million USD/year. Thus, MRC would gain environmental credits and become a sustainable city. As part of a logistical planning proposal to collect used cooking oils during household garbage collection in MRC, an idea was presented for a reservoir attached to garbage trucks. Two or more companies might work together to create a competitive advantage and higher profits than could be achieved by unitary action. The biodiesel industrial plant must be placed in Barão Geraldo District, which is near a petroleum refinery in Paulínia as well as highways of national importance and pharmaceutical industries. The reduction of more than 20% in all emissions of greenhouse gases and particulate matter has been proven since implementation of the current policy requiring the use of biodiesel in the region's bus fleet.

1. Introduction Alcohol and biodiesel have been presented as important options for energy supply, notably as renewable substitutes for fossil fuels. They are considered a renewable and infinite resource, because they are produced from biomass, usually from agricultural crops. In addition, it is current belief that by replacing petroleum products, their use could reduce greenhouse gas emissions [34,36,45]. Biodiesel is a biodegradable fuel derived from renewable sources and obtainable through different processes, such as cracking, esterification or transesterification. It can be produced from animal fat or vegetable oils and can either partially or entirely replace the diesel oil used in automotive engines in trucks, tractors, and cars as well as in stationary machines, such as power and heat generators [7,31,38]. According to Brazilian Law 11.097 (2005), biodiesel is a ‘biofuel derived from renewable biomass for use in internal combustion engines

with compression ignition or, in accordance with regulations, for the generation of other kinds of energy, which may partially or wholly substitute fossil fuels.’ This law also established a required blend of 2% biodiesel (B2) beginning in January 2005 and 5% (B5) beginning in January 2013 throughout Brazil. It establishes the authority of the Brazilian Petroleum Regulatory Agency (ANP) to regulate and enforce the production and commercialisation of biofuel. In 2017, it became mandatory to use the B8 blend in all diesel oils marketed in Brazil [1,42]. The environmental benefits resulting from the emissions inherent to the use of biodiesel in engines, as opposed to those from petroleum diesel, are evident. Biodiesel is sulphur free, non-toxic and biodegradable. It reduces the emission of gas pollutants, reduces global warming, is economically competitive and may be produced by small companies. Production may be regionalised and economically favourable to small communities. Moreover, its by-product (glycerol) has a number of



Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (S.C. da Silva Filho), [email protected] (E.B. Tambourgi), [email protected] (J.C. CurveloSantana), [email protected] (R.M. Vanalle), fl[email protected], fl[email protected] (F. Guerhardt). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.02.028 Received 4 January 2017; Received in revised form 31 August 2017; Accepted 27 February 2018 1364-0321/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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source for biodiesel production. Formigoni et al. [23] discussed the management of the recycling of food waste oils produced by a chain of fast-food outlets, seeking alternatives to address the environmental challenges in this field of activity. The recycling of used cooking oil has gained increasing attention as society begins to appreciate the environmental, economic, and social benefits of this activity. Cooking oil reuse not only prevents improper disposal, but also produces economic and social benefits by exploiting this oil as a raw material, with the possibility of generating employment and income [33]. Careful logistical planning is essential for good functioning of the product distribution from a company, and good planning decreases the time and costs for distribution. In the study by Jüttner et al. [26], the integrating logistic was about 30 years and showed several advantages over common logistics. Two or more companies working together might create a competitive advantage and higher profits than could be achieved by unitary action. Close cooperation among autonomous business partners or units engaging in joint efforts could more effectively meet end customer needs with lower costs [24,26,43]. Sanches-Rodrigues et al. [39] identified the key factors that make logistical operations uncertain. They include the number of links in the supply chain connected to inventory management policies; modal split, influenced by the rigidity of infrastructure and delays within each mode; average load, affected by delivery constraints for multiple drop deliveries; and fuel efficiency, affected by delays. However, according to Ferreira et al. [19] and [20,21], in Brazil rain, storms, and badly maintained roadways and highways, must also be considered as factors making logistics uncertain. Thus, a logistical study is needed for Brazilian circumstances. The goal of this work was to provide a possible environmental solution for waste oil management in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC, São Paulo State, Brazil). To this end, the objectives were to produce biodiesel from mixtures of cooking oils, perform the ecological cost accounting for it and carry out a logistical study of supply and distribution. The MRC comprises 20 cities, of which the most populous are Campinas, Sumaré , Indaiatuba, Americana, and Hortolândia. The estimated population of the MRC in 2016 was 3.1 million inhabitants, distributed over 3791 km2, making it the tenth largest metropolitan region of Brazil [25]. The region possesses a human development index (HDI) of 0.792, and is also one of the most important for the economy of Brazil, generating 50.7 billion USD/year, which represents 1.8% of the national gross domestic product (GDP). In addition to having a strong economy, the region also has infrastructure that provides for the development of the entire metropolitan area. The MRC integrates the collection of solid urban waste, according to the population of the cities. A daily total of 2.84 t of urban wastes are produced in the MRC, which is equivalent to an average of 0.916 kg/ inhabitant. However, the city of Campinas is the only one that handles its waste without integrating with the other cities because it has a population that is more than 33% and municipal solid waste that is almost 50% of the total in the MRC. Solid waste such as metal, paper, glass, and plastics are collected, separated, and recycled in accordance with the ABNT NBR 1919 [1] in waste recycling cooperatives distributed in the most populous cities. All MRC cities have daily collection with their own garbage trucks. The cities within this metropolitan region are integrated by seven highways and the region is integrated with Brazil by four highways: Anhanguera, Bandeirantes, Dom Pedro and Santos Dumont. As a result of its public policy actions, the MRC bus fleet has used a 20% biodiesel blend since 2005 and has reduced emissions by 20%.

industrial applications [7,18,31,38,41]. Biodiesel has been proven the best substitute to fossil fuel. It is superior to petroleum-based fuels because it is renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic [44]. In recent years, the price of biodiesel has shown a trend towards USD 2.20/kg, because each ton of biodiesel results in over 104.4 kg of glycerol, which adds USD 230 of value to each ton of biodiesel produced. The gain in carbon credits resulting from reduced CO2 emissions by burning cleaner fuels is estimated at roughly 2.5 t of CO2 per ton of biodiesel. In the European market, carbon credits are sold at around USD 9.25/ton. Also, the carbon credits acquired are negotiable in other nations with Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, such as Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden; based on the carbon credits market established in the Kyoto Protocol [8,42]. There is considerable criticism worldwide regarding the use of oleaginous plants for biodiesel production because this practice tends to drive up the prices of food products derived from these plants, such as cooking oils, textured vegetable protein and soy milk. Furthermore, this process would require an expansion of the farming industry, which may cause further devastation to remaining forest fragments. In Brazil and Asia, soybean and palm plantations, the oils from which are potentially substantial sources of biodiesel, are invading tropical rainforests, which are important reserves of biodiversity [2,12,34,42]. Based on physical conditions such as soil productivity, land slope and climate, Cai et al. [10] cited that marginal agricultural land available for biofuel production has been estimated in Africa, China, Europe, India, South America, and the continental United States, (countries that have major agricultural production capacities). These countries/regions could apply 320–702 million hectares of land to biodiesel production if only abandoned and degraded cropland and mixed crop and vegetation land, which are usually of low quality, are accounted. If grassland, savanna and shrub lands with marginal productivity are considered for planting low-input high-diversity (LIHD) mixtures of native perennials as energy crops, the total land availability could increase from 1107 to 1411 million hectares, depending on if the pasture land is discounted. Planting the second generation of biofuel feedstocks on abandoned and degraded cropland and LIHD perennials on grassland with marginal productivity might fulfil 26–55% of the current world consumption of liquid fuel, without affecting the use of land with regular productivity for conventional crops and without affecting current pasture land. Under various land use scenarios, Africa may have more than one-third, and Africa and Brazil, together, may have more than half of the total land available for biofuel production. The cooking oil waste from residences, commerce and industry is a potential pollutant when improperly disposed of improperly, because one liter of cooking oil can contaminate up to 20,000 l of water and, requires alternatives that enable its recycling, thus promoting a balance between the needs of environment, economy and society. However, the cooking oil recycling initiatives, as with other products at the end of their life cycle, are still scattered and do not have chains organized to replace these products in productive cycles at competitive scales. In recent years, however, the approach called reverse supply chain has emerged, to reverse the flow of goods and products at the end of their life cycle, that is, to restore these goods and products in new production cycles. Dogan [16] identified important review studies performed in relation with biodiesel production from waste cooking oils. It was found that undesired products such as free fatty acids and some polymerized triglycerides that formed in vegetable oil during frying could negatively affect both the transesterification reaction and physical properties of the biodiesel. Knothe and Steidley [27] examined the acid values, viscosities and fatty acid profiles of used frying oils they obtained from 16 local restaurants. According to the obtained results researchers decided that used cooking oils are a very heterogeneous raw material 374

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There is a steady increase in the level of disposability of products mainly due to reduced product life-cycle management and increased inventory turnover. The advancement of technology has also accelerated the obsolescence of products. With increasing disposal, there is an imbalance between the quantities discarded and reused, making urban waste one of the most serious environmental problems. This is because companies do not have reverse distribution and post-consumer channels properly organized and structured. These wastes are generated mostly by industry and by warehouses, and are materials that could be reused and reintegrated into the production process. However, for this to be done efficiently, the systems needed to manage the reverse flow often require the same activities used in the original logistics flow [37]. Based on the logistics definition, reverse logistics is the process of planning, implementation and control for efficient and effective flow of raw materials, stock in process and finished products. It includes as well, the flow of information from the point of consumption to the point of origin with the purpose to recover a suitable value or to perform final disposal (Rogers et al., 1998). According to Pacheco et al. [35] a reverse logistics system is not a qualifier but an order earner; it offers a specific service that can determine the choice of supplier. According to Fugate at el. (2009), Jüttner et al. [26] and Whipple and Russel [43] an operational collaboration between shippers is the best methodology for optimization of the logistical planning for the transportation of products between companies. In this work, a proposal for operational collaboration showed how to collect used cooking oil. The considerations for the determination of the cost of biodiesel manufactured from used cooking oil were as follows:

Table 1 Conditions of manufacture of biodiesel at 60 °C and 0.1 g of NaOH as a catalyser. Biodiesel samples

Volumetric rate (Ethanol: oil rate)

Reaction time

1 2 3 4

1:9 1:5 1:9 1:5

30 30 90 90

Note that 1:9 indicates 1 L of alcohol to 9 L of the total alcohol and oil mixture.

2. Material and methods 2.1. Biodiesel production The cooking oil used in the present study was collected from homes in the MRC. Ethanol and sodium hydroxide were supplied by VETEC (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Volumetric ratios of cooking oil to ethylic alcohol were used for transesterification, as shown in Table 1. Solid sodium hydroxide was used as a catalyst to minimise the presence of water after the reaction. A jacketed reaction chamber was used to heat a total volume of 100 mL. The volume of reagents in the reaction chamber was 80 mL and the reaction occurred at 60 ± 2 °C with constant agitation for one hour [18,41]. The esterified materials were centrifuged to separate the glycerol. The blends were then transferred to a decanting funnel to separate the phases. After resting for 24 h, the fractions of biodiesel were separated [6,7,18,28,31,41]. 2.2. Biodiesel characterisation

– Each house has four habitants, accordance IBGE [25]. Because the MRC has about 3.1 million inhabitants, it will be considered 775,000 houses; – One litre of used cooking oil is produced for each person in each house, in accord with Silva Filho [42]. Thus, 775 m3 of used cooking oil can be gotten per month; – The collection of the used cooking oil will be made using a reservoir attached to a garbage truck; – Thus, the costs for logistical planning and collection of used cooking oil will be considered as net zero; – The used cooking oil will be donated by the population and restaurants for use by City Hall; – A tax to collect the used cooking oil will be not charged. Thus, the biodiesel will also have a cost of net zero for the population; – The price composition for diesel currently sold, in São Paulo state, will be valued in USD in accord with ANP [1]. Thus, the value of the biodiesel will be associated with the price of diesel oil; – The biodiesel production will have an associated carbon credit [8]. This reduces the biodiesel cost; – Glycerine is a by-product of biodiesel manufacture [8], the sale of which also reduces the biodiesel cost; – The biodiesel will have an associated price at sale which is greater than the price of diesel oil.

The following properties were determined: specific mass at 20 °C using a pycnometer, as shown in the ASTM-D4052 method, flash point using Cleveland apparatus, as shown in the ASTM-D93 method, acid value using titration with 0.1 M NaOH solution, as shown in the Ca 5–40 method, moisture content using an oven at 100–103 °C, as shown in the Af 2–54 and boiling point using the calorimetric method. These methods are found in AOCS [3], Ascar [4], Benjumea et al. [7], Candeias et al. [11]; Faccio [18] and Lin and Lin [31], respectively. Yield calculations were based on Table 2, which displays the percentage of fatty acids in soybean oil, and the results obtained for the residual acid value. Based on this composition, the mean molecular weight was 835 g/mol for soybean oil and 881 g/mol for the blends of ethyl esters [6,7,18]. 2.3. Strategies of biodiesel cost and logistic Reverse logistics is the area of logistics that deals with aspects of returns of product, packaging or materials to its production centre or for disposal. The main objective of reverse logistics is to meet the principles of environmental sustainability for clean production, where those who produce should be responsible also for the final destination of the products generated so as to reduce their environmental impact. Thus, companies organize reverse channels (i.e., return of materials either to repair or at the end of its useful life) to provide the best destination for repair, reuse or recycling [30].

The collection logistics plan for collection of the used frying oil was the same one used for garbage collection in each city in the MRC. These plans are available on municipality websites, and are also easily found on the website of the Department of Urban Cleaning for the city of Campinas and the inter-municipal solid waste management consortium of the MRC [14].

Table 2 Percentage of fatty acids for soybean oil. Fatty acids

Composition (%)

Palmitic acid (C16:0) Stearic acid (C18:0) Oleic acid (C18:1) Linoleic acid (C18:2) Linolenic acid (C18:3)

11.3 ± 0.01 3.48 ± 0.03 23.63 ± 0.11 54.71 ± 0.07 6.88 ± 0.01

3. Results and discussion 3.1. Proposal to collect the used cooking oil To reduce the time and costs to collect the cooking oil, an 375

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Table 3 Logistical planning needed to collect the garbage and used oil in Campinas City, São Paulo. Source: [17]. Sector

SN-01

SN-01 SN-02 SN-02

Collect type

Home

Quarter

Zone

Real Parque, Bosque do Barão Geraldo, Parque Ceasa, Jardim São Gonçalo, Chácaras Recreio Barão, Jardim América, Independência, Jardim Tupã, Parque Residencial Burato, Santa Luzia, Vila Modesto Fernandes. Jd Flamboyant, Jd Andorinha, Jd Itatiaia, Jd Utaiu, Para Panema e Jd Tamoio

71

Centro Barão Geraldo, Estrada da Rhodia, Cidade Universitária I, Centro Médico, Cidade Universitária II, Praça Sérgio da Silva Porto e Unicamp Jd Flamboyant, Pq Brasília, Vila Lafayete, Alto da Colina, 31 de Março, Boa Esperança, Jd. Conceição, Jd. Lídia, Jd Santa Inês, Jd Medalina, Residencial Vila Verde, Residencial Anhumas, parte Santana, Residencial Jenes, Pq Rural, Fazenda Santa Cândida

Selective Period

Frequency

Period

Frequency

Daily

Diurnal

Night

Wednesday to Saturday

74

Daily

Diurnal

Night

72

Daily

Diurnal

Night

Wednesday to Saturday Tuesday and Friday

75

Daily

Diurnal

Night

Tuesday

factors affecting uncertainty in the logistics operations will be zero (McKinnon, 2007; [39]). However, the effects of rain storms, along with badly maintained roadways and highways, must be considered [19–21].

integrating logistic was used, in accord with Fugate et al. [24], Jüttner et al. [26] and Whipple and Russel [43]. Thus, the logistical plan used to collect garbage from MRC houses and restaurants is the same one to be used to collect the used cooking oils. This planning is shown in the Department of Urban Cleaning (DLU) of Campinas Town Hall. Table 3 shows part of this planning for the District of Barão Geraldo. The small waste oil containers must be connected to the trucks used for garbage collection; thus additional logistics is not necessary and the cost for collection is net zero. The most likely location for the industrial biodiesel plant is shown in Fig. 1. It was placed in the District of Barão Geraldo, in the Santa Genebra II or Real Parque quarters, because the neighbourhood includes Rodovia SP332, which is the access highway for the city of Paulínia. There, the highway passes the Paulínia Petroleum Refinery, which will be the diesel oil supplier for the plant (i.e., B20 is 80% diesel oil). The location is strategic because:

3.2. Technical and environmental analysis Some advantages from the collection of used cooking oil in the MRC homes and its use in biodiesel production can be anticipated: (1) the environmental impacts from used oil being discarded on soil and in water bodies will be eliminated, (2) the cost of purchasing diesel oil for fuel will be net zero, (3) the biodiesel obtained is of low cost, (4) this is no topsoil erosion (alternative to fuel agriculture), (5) this is no cost for fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides (alternative to fuel agriculture); (6) this is no emission of CO2 or other pollutants (alternative to fossil diesel production), (7) it involves insignificant water consumption; (8) there is no use of agricultural area, which helps prevent the expansion of the farming areas, (9) in Brazil, limiting agricultural expansion prevents devastation of forest reserves (e.g., the Amazon rainforest), (10) it allows soybean oil to be used initially in human food, which should prevent the increase in prices that would occur if virgin soybean oil were diverted to fuel uses and (11) this reduces the criticism worldwide of the direct use of oleaginous plant products for fuel [12,34,40]. Reaction yields of over 94% were obtained from the conversion to biodiesel fuels from the used oil. These yields were similar to those reported by Raganathan et al. [38] and higher than those reported by Barakos et al. [6] and Benjumea et al. [7], who described yields of approximately 80%. The biodiesel (B100) produced from samples collected from different homes exhibited distinct physical characteristics. Lin and Lin [31] report the same behaviour of B100 in studies in which the authors studied the transesterification of animal fat (high molecular-weight acids) extracted during frying processes. Briefly, oils used in extensive frying yielded lower quality biodiesel. Table 4 displays the results of the analyses conducted on the biodiesel samples in comparison to the maximal values recommended by the ANP [1]. The results from all the parameters analysed in the current study were within the regulatory standards for biodiesel in Brazil, which demonstrated the high quality of these samples. However, the yield was about 94% only for Sample 1 and 3, which showed that the composition of the sources is the most important initial condition for the manufacture of high quality biodiesel from cooking oil. The values obtained for acidity, moisture and flash point in the present study were better than those reported by Candeia et al. [11] for methyl and ethyl esters. The yield rate was similar to that achieved by Candeia et al. [11] and Lin and Lin [40]. Benjumea et al. [7] obtained a biodiesel from palm oil with density ranging from 888 to 899 kg/m3.

– it is only 5 km from the diesel oil supplier; – it is 1 km from Medley Pharmaceutical Industries, a purchaser of glycerine; – it is less than 25 km from other pharmaceutical industries (users of glycerine), as: SEM and Nature's Plus pharmaceutical companies from Hotolândia, Sauvet pharmaceutical and veterinary companies from Vinhedo, as well as Althana Pharma, Jaguariúna and Antibiotic from Brazil, Ltda. from Cosmópolis; – Rodovia SP330 provides highway access to the Nature do Brasil, from Cajamar, one of the largest cosmetic companies in Brazil, also a purchaser of glycerine; – the location is also near Rodovia SP 065, a highway that provides access to the Campinas region, the São Paulo region, the São José dos Campos region. It also provides links to the highways that access the Santos region, and the states of Rio de Janeiro and de Minas Gerais. – the SP 065 highway also provides access to other highways, including Rodovias SP330, SP340 and SP348, which provide links with the São Paulo region as well as to the São Paulo and Minas Gerais outback (i.e., rural areas); – the highways SP 330 and SP348 link with Rodovia SP 075 which provides access to the Campinas airport; – highways SP 330 and SP348, also provide access to the Sorocaba region and link with Rodovia BR 374, which provides access to the South region and other South American Countries. For all these reasons, the proposed location of the industrial biofuel plant is logistically viable. The distribution of biofuel to the central zones of the bigger cities (Belo Horizonte, Campinas, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo) must occur only after normal business hours (night time). Thus, the effect of the key 376

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Fig. 1. Cities and highways of the Campinas region and location of the biodiesel facility. Source: MapLinks [32].

supply the monthly biodiesel demand for the Campinas bus fleet could easily be attained. It has been shown that there is a monthly consumption of around 1 L of oil per home in the state of São Paulo and the population surveyed agreed that such collections should be made every two weeks. This amount of used cooking oil could generate roughly 750,000 L of oil if the collection was performed at all the homes in the MRC. B7 diesel (7% biodiesel) is currently commercialised, which has led to a small increase in price in 2017. However, the collective bus fleet in the MRC region has used the B20 blend for almost 10 years. If the price of diesel and B100 sold in Brazil by Petrobras were 0.5145 and 0.6688 USD/L, respectively, then their shares of the final price of biodiesel B20 would be 0.4111 and 0.1318 USD/L, respectively [1]. Table 5 displays the price composition for diesel currently sold in the state of Sao Paulo. The values were converted to US dollars based on the current exchange rate [22]. Based on the commercialised price at refineries and using a biodiesel cost of 1.0850 USD/L (which includes transportation costs), the cost of the biodiesel obtained by public authorities would be as follows:

Table 4 Results of analyses of biodiesel samples after transesterification with ethanol. Analysis

Acid value (%, m/m) Moisture (%, m/m) Density (kg/m3) Flash Point (°C) Yield (%)

Biodiesel Sample 1

2

3

4

ANP Values*

0 0 891.0 33.5 93.80

0 0 895.5 31.0 52.5

0 0 895.7 36.0 93.75

0 0 887.2 31.0 77.14

0,8 0,05 875–900 38 –

* ANP [1].

3.3. Biodiesel production cost A previous analysis of popular behaviour in Campinas city revealed that many people are not concerned about increased environmental impacts and ecological costs in the region caused by disposal of used cooking oil. They discarded used cooking oil in the sewers and on the soil. This causes significant impacts to environment, society and economy, as well as increasing the city's ecological costs [5,9,15,29]. According to Silva Filho [42], the amount of cooking oil needed to

– Assuming that the monthly B20 diesel consumption by the bus fleet is 3.468 million litres [14,17] and using the distributor's sales price 377

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Table 5 Price formation for biodiesel in São Paulo state (July 2017). Refinery (US$)

Retail price (US$)*

Distributor price (US$)*

Diesel

B100

Pis/Cofins

ICMS

Profit

Sale Price

ICMS

Profit

Sale Price

.4116 0.5145

0.1318 –

0.0815 0.0772

0.0869 0.0823

0.0978 0.0926

0.8097 0.7666

0.1295 –

0.1457 –

1.0850 –

Pis/Cofins=contribution to social security (15%); ICMS=taxes on circulation of merchandise and rendering of services (16%); common profit use in Brazil is 18% [1].

(0.7666 USD/L), the monthly cost of B20 diesel is calculated as follows:

Table 6 Accounting for excess B100 obtained from cooking oil reuse after calculation of B20 used in buses.

B 20 Purchase Price = Monthly  Cosumption   *Diesel  Price   (in  Distributor ) B20 Purchase Price = 3.468 million L × 1.0850 USD/ L = 3, 762, 780 USD/month

(1)

– When producing B20, the RMC would only pay for the purchase of pure diesel from the refinery (transportation cost included). All the other charges and prices are part of the minimal price composition that the distributor can commercialise. Therefore, the B20 production cost was calculated according to Eq. (2).

B 20Cost = MonthlyVolume *(Diesel  Fraction*Diesel  Price ) B20 cost = 3.468 million L × (0.80 × 0.7666 USD/ L) B20 cost = 2, 658, 568 USD/month

Quantity

USD/month

Excess B100 (liter) Glycerol from excess B100 (kg) Carbon Credit from excess B100 (t) Solving for use of B20 in Bus from ECA Total for B100+Bus

33,350 67,638 1619

22,304 148,804 14,978 1104,211 1290,297

biodiesel derivatives made from used cooking oil. This reinforces the feasibility of the ECA proposal for the Metropolitan Region of Campinas. Thus, the economic value of the policy of biodiesel use in the RMC bus fleet is currently about 15.484 million USD/year, which is equivalent to 0.11% of the GDP of the city of Campinas.

(2) 3.4. Results archived so far by the MRC

Therefore, the monthly savings with local B20 production is shown in Eq. (3).

B 20 Savings = B 20Purchase  Price − B 20Cost = (3, 762, 780–2, 658, 568) × 106 = 1, 104, 211 USD/month

Type

By the conclusion of this study, the city of Campinas had installed two biodiesel plants, one on the border with the city of Paulínia and another in the city of Americana. There are no records of the commercialisation of available carbon credits on the City Hall websites; however, some changes were reported below. Since 2005, air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the MRC: three in the city of Campinas, two in the city of Paulínia and one each in the cities of Americana and Limeira. The environmental report of the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo [13] on the monitoring of air quality in the MRC for the period from 2005 to 2016 reports improvement in all parameters of air quality evaluated at the seven stations. There were only four days, in 12 years that exceeded the limits established by the CONAMA standard. The environmental reports for MP10 particulate material showed that, in the MRC measurement period, more than 84% of measurements recorded showed air quality that was optimal and only 0.5% showed bad air quality. Moreover, there was a drop in MP10 emissions by up to 30%. For Campinas city, this air quality parameter was within the quality established by the CONAMA standards in more than 97% of the measurements and at no time has the air quality been recorded as bad. For inhalable particles (MP2.5) the report showed that, during the measurement period in the MRC, 68% of the measurements recorded optimal air quality and in none of the observations was air quality poor. For the parameter O3, the environmental report showed that in more than 90% of measurements the air quality was optimal and in only 1% of them was it bad. For the parameter SO2 all measurements recorded that the air quality was optimal, during the measurement period. In the last two years no bad values were recorded for any air quality parameters. At present, CETESB [13] measurement records show that all air quality parameters in the MRC are optimal. Thus, the improvement in air quality in the RMC after implementation of the system of biodiesel use in the region's bus fleet has been proven. In addition, the EMDEC [17] report showed that the main results of these policies are the reduction in emissions of 11.5 t carbon dioxide, 7.4 t particulate material and 420 t carbon dioxide reabsorbed during

(3)

This value can be discounted from the price of the local bus boarding fee, which is currently 1.3505 USD. According to the balance sheet issued by the Campinas Transport Administration Company [17], fuel expenses account for roughly 21.16% of the local bus fare. Therefore, with the production of biodiesel by MRC, the current bus boarding fee could be reduced by as much as 6.2510% (0.0839 USD). Using an oil conversion yield of 93.80%, density of 891.0 kg/m3, and the total monthly amount of frying oil projected to be collected from MRC residences, the B100 volume anticipated is up to 775 m3/ month, equivalent to 647,712 kg/month of B100. Around 693,600 L of pure biodiesel is used to obtain 3.468 million Litres of B20 diesel. After subtraction of the volume used in the bus fleet from the total volume produced, there is an excess of pure biodiesel (B100) equal to 33,350 L/month, which could be sold for 0.6592 USD/L to generate a profit of 22,304 USD/month.

B100Excess = MonthlyBiodiselVolume − MonthlyBiodieselConsumptionB100Excess = (775, 000 × 0.9380) − (3, 468, 000 × 0.20) = 33, 350 l (4) According to Faccio [18] each ton of B100 generates 104.43 kg of pure glycerol by-product, corresponding to a total of 67,638 kg/month of glycerine. This is currently marketed at 2.20 USD/kg, providing potential profit close to 148,804 USD/month. Moreover, each tonne of B100 produced accumulates 2.5 t of carbon credit (CC), corresponding to 1619 CC/month, which can be negotiated at around 9.25 USD/ton on the European market (BIODIESEL, 2017) and thus, generate a further profit of 14,978 USD/month. Table 6 is a summary of results from accounting for the making of biofuel from used cooking oil. From this, it appears possible to save 1290 million USD/month through production of B100, B20 and 378

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the biodiesel production process. Thus, the introduction of biodiesel into the fuel oil mix has enabled good economic and environmental returns. Moreover, biodiesel is an important option not only for meeting energy needs; it is renewable and its use could also reduce greenhouse gas emissions [34,36,45]. 4. Conclusion and policy implications The biodiesels obtained exhibited distinct yields, but in the best case, the yield was 94%. The physicochemical properties of these biodiesels approached those recommended by Brazilian law. Thus, the present study demonstrates that it is possible to produce biodiesel from a blend of cooking oils and thereby to generate both a greener fuel and glycerol as an already commercial by-product, for which there is high demand in different industries. This study also demonstrates that the environmental impact stemming from the disposal of waste oil in bodies of water can be reduced. Moreover, the biodiesel manufactured from used cooking oils collected directly from homes in the MRC also came close to meeting the standards set by Brazilian law. As part of the proposal to collect the used cooking oils, the logistical plan now used to collect garbage from MRC houses, was expanded to include oil reservoirs attached to garbage trucks. The biodiesel industrial plant must be located in Barão Geraldo District, to be next to the petroleum refinery in Paulínia, to access highways of national importance and to distribute glycerol to nearby pharmaceutical companies. Thus, by interacting with local authorities, it is possible to reuse cooking oil and reduce the environmental costs of its disposal. The process would begin with the storage and collection of used oil and its subsequent use to produce biodiesel and glycerol. MRC City Halls could therefore reduce their environmental impacts and ecological costs by using biodiesel in their fleet of vehicles. Moreover, this biodiesel could be sold to a fuel distribution company and the glycerol could be sold to a variety of businesses, thereby leading to savings of 15.784 million USD/year and environmental gains in the form of carbon credits. References [1] ANP. Brazilian Regulatory Agency for Petroleum. ANP resolution – 2004; 2017. Available at: 〈http://www.anp.gov.br〉 [accessed August 2017]. [2] Ans VG, Mattos ES, Jorge N. Avaliação da qualidade dos óleos de fritura usados em restaurantes, lanchonetes e similares. Bibl Virtual do Futuro 2007;119:3. [USP ( line)]. [3] AOCS – American Oil Chemists Society. Official and Tentative Methods. 3ª ed., vol. 1, Chicago: EUA; 1985. [4] J.M. Ascar. Alimentos: Aspectos bromatologicos e legaise analisem percentuais, 1° edição, Alimentos: Aspectos bromatologicos e leais e analisem percentuaisvol.11, UNISINOS. São Leopoldo – RSUNISINOS; São Leopoldo, RS, Brasil; 1985, 330. [5] Bansal P. Evolving sustainability: a longitudinal study of corporate sustainable development. Strateg Manag J 2005;26:197–218. [6] Barakos N, Pasias S, Papayannakos N. Transesterification of triglycerides in high and low quality oil feeds over an HT2 hydrotalcite catalyst. Bioresour Technol 2008;99:5037–42. [7] Benjumea P, Agudelo J, Agudelo A. Basic properties of palm oil biodiesel–diesel blends. Fuel 2008;87:2069–75. [8] BIODIESELBR. – Brazilian Biodiesel Tudo sobre biodiesel; 2017. Available at: 〈http:// www.biodieselbr.com/biodiesel/biodiesel.htm〉 [Accessed July 2017]. [9] Burritt RL, Saka C. Environmental management accounting applications and ecoefficiency: case studies from Japan. J Clean Prod 2004;14:1262–75. [10] Cai X, Zhang X, Wang D. Land availability for biofuel production. Environ Sci Technol 2011;45:334–9. [11] Candeias RA, Freitas J.CO, Conceição MM, Silva FC, Santos IMG, Souza, AG. Análise Comparativa do Biodiesel Derivado do Óleo de Soja obtido com Diferentes Alcoóis, Proceedings of I Congresso Brasileiro da Rede de Tecnologia de Biodiesel; 2006. p. 69–74. [12] Cavalett O, Ortega E. Integrated environmental assessment of biodiesel production from soybean in Brazil. J Clean Prod 2010;18:55–70. [13] CETESB. Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Operation Winter: Report on air quality. SETESB, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, January 2017; 2016. 62p.

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