Antibacterial activity of Venda medicinal plants

Antibacterial activity of Venda medicinal plants

Fitoterapia 78 (2007) 561 – 564 www.elsevier.com/locate/fitote Short report Antibacterial activity of Venda medicinal plants Vanessa Steenkamp ⁎, An...

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Fitoterapia 78 (2007) 561 – 564 www.elsevier.com/locate/fitote

Short report

Antibacterial activity of Venda medicinal plants Vanessa Steenkamp ⁎, Anthony C. Fernandes, Constance EJ. van Rensburg Department of Pharmacology, University of Pretoria, Faculty of Health Sciences, South Africa Received 21 September 2006; accepted 26 February 2007 Available online 24 May 2007

Abstract Crude methanol and water extracts of 36 plants, employed in the treatment of diseases of probable bacterial etiology by the Venda people, were screened for antibacterial activity. Combretum molle, Peltophorum africanum, Piper capense, Terminalia sericea and Zanthoxylum davyi were the most active and presented MIC values ≤ 1.00 mg/ml. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Antibacterial activity; South African plants; Bacterial etiology

1. Plants Thirty-six plants, collected in Venda, South Africa, were identified by Dr N Hahn, Head of Soutpansbergensis Herbarium as well as by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (Tshwane). Voucher specimens are deposited in the Soutpansbergensis Herbarium. 2. Use in traditional medicine Plants for investigation were selected on the base of their ethnomedical application in the treatment of diseases of probable bacterial etiology [1]. 3. Previously isolated constituents Terminalia spp. contain tannins and saponins [2] and the compound anolignan B [3], tannins are present in Combretum spp. [4], Peltophorum africanum [5], Cassine transvaalensis [6] and tannins and coumarins in Ximenia caffra [7]. 4. Tested material Water and methanol extracts [8]. ⁎ Corresponding author. Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences,University of Pretoria, PO Box 2034, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. Tel.: +27 12 3192547; fax: +27 12 3192411. E-mail address: [email protected] (V. Steenkamp). 0367-326X/$ - see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2007.02.014

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Table 1 Antibacterial activity of the Venda plant extracts Plants

Family

Plant part

Afzelia quanzensis Welw.

Fabaceae

Bark

Albizia versicolor Welw. ex Oliv.

Fabaceae

Bark

Asparagus falcatus Thunb.

Asparagaceae

Root

Brackenridgea zanguebarica Oliv.

Ochnaceae

Root

Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill.

Euphorbiaceae

Bark

Burkea africana Hook.

Fabaceae

Bark

Capparis tomentosa Lam.

Capparaceae

Root

Carissa edulis Vahl.

Apocynaceae

Root

Cassine transvaalensis (Burtt. Davy) Codd

Celastraceae

Bark

Catharanthus roseus G. Don.

Apocynaceae

Root

Combretum molle R.Br. ex G. Don

Combretaceae

Root

Combretum paniculatum Vent.

Combretaceae

Root

Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. et Perr.

Fabaceae

Bark

Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight et Arn. subsp. africana Brenan et Brummitt Ficus capensis Thunb.

Fabaceae

Bark

Moraceae

Fruit

Ficus sycomorus L.

Moraceae

Fruit

Gladiolus dalenii van Geel

Iridaceae

Bulb

Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. subsp. africanus Kubitzki

Hernandiaceae

Root

Hexalobus monopetalus (A. Rich.) Engl. et Diels.

Annonaceae

Root

Lannea schweinfurhtii (Engl.) Engl.

Anacardiaceae

Rootbark

Obetia tenax (N.E.Br.) Friis

Urticaceae

Root

Parinari curatellifolia Planch ex Benth.

Chrysobalanaceae

Bark

Peltophorum africanum Sond.

Fabaceae

Root

Piper capense L.f.

Piperaceae

Bark

Rapanea melanophloeos (L.)Mez.

Myrsinaceae

Bark

Rauvolfia caffra Sond.

Apocynaceae

Bark

Rothmannia capensis Thunb.

Rubiaceae

Fruit

Solvent

Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water

a MIC (mg/ml) microorganism

S. epidermidis

S. aureus

− − − 3.25 − − 3.00 6.50 4.00 1.25 3.40 2.50 − − − − 1.26 17.22 − − − − 2.77 14.44 − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − 0.50 3.61 0.52 4.97 − − − − − −

− − − − − − 3.00 6.50 4.00 5.00 6.75 2.50 − − − − 2.53 17.22 − − 1.00 − 1.85 14.44 − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − 2.00 3.61 0.52 4.97 − − − − − −

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Table 1 (continued) Plants

Family

Plant part

Solvent

Solanum aculeastrum Dun.

Solanaceae

Fruit

Solanum panduriforme Dun.

Solanaceae

Fruit

Syzygium cordatum Hochst.

Myrtaceae

Bark

Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf.

Apocynaceae

Root

Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC.

Combretaceae

Root

Warburgia salutaris (Bertol.f.) Chiov.

Canellaceae

Bark

Ximenia caffra Sond.

Olaceae

Root

Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.)Spreng.

Araceae

Root

Zanthoxylum davyi (I. Verd.) P.G. Waterman

Rutaceae

Bark

Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water Methanol Water

b

Ampicillin

a MIC (mg/ml) microorganism

S. epidermidis

S. aureus

− − 2.00 − 3.75 2.50 − 7.50 2.50 1.00 − − 1.42 10.30 − − 1.00 6.50 0.16

− − − − 3.75 2.50 − 7.50 5.00 2.00 − − 5.66 1.29 − − 1.00 − 0.16

(−) MIC not determined since screening of the crude plant extract showed no zone of inhibition. a MIC:Minimal inhibitory concentration representing the mean value of three replicates. b Standard positive.

5. Studied activity Antibacterial activity determined by the plate-hole diffusion and broth microdilution methods [9,10]. 6. Used microorganisms Escherichia coli ATCC 1175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600, Staphylococcus epidermidis (clinical isolate) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. 7. Results None of the extracts showed activity against the Gram (−) organisms, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. MIC values obtained against the Gram (+) microorganisms are reported in Table 1. 8. Conclusions Fifteen extracts were found to have activity against the Gram (+) bacteria. C. molle, P. africanum, P. capense, T. sericea and Z. davyi were the most active and presented with MIC values ≤1.00 mg/ml. Acknowledgements The National Research Foundation, Pretoria is thanked for financial support. References [1] Arnold HJ, Gulumian M. J Ethnopharmacol 1984;12:35. [2] Baba-Moussa F, Akpagana K, Bouchet P. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;66:335.

564 [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

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