Appendices

Appendices

10 Appendices Abbreviations AC Annual cost AFE Area-based field efficiency CC Capital consumption CPM Critical path method CRF Capital recovery factor...

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10 Appendices Abbreviations AC Annual cost AFE Area-based field efficiency CC Capital consumption CPM Critical path method CRF Capital recovery factor DFE Distanced-based field efficiency EFC Effective field capacity ERP Enterprise resource planning FC Fixed costs FE Field efficiency GNSS Global navigation satellite system HYVs High-yielding varieties IC Interest charge ICC Instantaneous centre of curvature ICT Information and communication technology LC Lubrication consumption LCA Life-cycle assessment LP Linear programming LPG Liquefied petroleum gas PERT Program evaluation and review technique PTO Power take-off RMC SP Repair/maintenance costs self-propelled RV Remaining value SFC Specific fuel consumption SWOT Strengthseweaknesseseopportunitiesethreats TFC Theoretical field capacity TSP Travelling salesman problem VRP Vehicle routing problem

Operations Management in Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809786-1.00010-2 Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

209

S (km h Implement

L1

)

Machine Parameters

Field Efficiency Ef (%)

Mean Value

Range

Mean Value

Width Units

5.0e10.0 5.0e10.0 5.0e10.0

8.0 8.0 7.0

70e90 70e90 70e90

85 85 80

tools tools m

226 294 652

5.0e10.0 5.0e10.0

8.0 8.0

70e90 70e90

85 85

tools tools

5.0e10.0

7.0

70e90

80

6.5e11.0 6.5e11.0

10.0 10.0

70e90 70e90

6.5e11.0 6.5e11.0

10.0 10.0

6.5e11.0 6.5e11.0 6.5e10.5 6.5e10.5

Range

Soil Parameters

A

B

C

F1

F2

F3

0.0 0.0 0.0

1.8 2.4 5.1

1.0 1.0 1.0

0.70 0.70 0.70

0.45 0.45 0.45

91 107

5.4 6.3

0.0 0.0

1.0 1.0

0.85 0.85

0.65 0.65

tools

123

7.3

0.0

1.0

0.85

0.65

80 80

m m

309 216

16.0 11.2

0.0 0.0

1.0 1.0

0.88 0.88

0.78 0.78

70e90 70e90

80 80

m m

364 254

18.8 13.2

0.0 0.0

1.0 1.0

0.88 0.88

0.78 0.78

10.0 10.0

70e90 70e90

80 80

m m

124 86

6.4 4.5

0.0 0.0

1.0 1.0

0.88 0.88

0.78 0.78

8.0 8.0

70e90 70e90

85 85

tools tools

46 32

2.8 1.9

0.0 0.0

1.0 1.0

0.85 0.85

0.65 0.65

Major Tillage Tools Subsoiler/manure injector Narrow point 30 cm winged point Moldboard plow Chisel plow 5 cm straight point 7.5 cm shovel/35 cm sweep 10 cm twisted shovel Disk harrow, tandem Primary tillage Secondary tillage Disk harrow, offset Primary tillage Secondary tillage Disk gang, single Primary tillage Secondary tillage Field cultivator Primary tillage Secondary tillage

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURE

Field Speed

210

Table I Draft Parameters and Expected Range in Drafts Estimated by Model Parameters for Tillage and Seeding Implements

Row crop cultivator S-tine C-shank No-till

5.0e11.0 5.0e11.0 5.0e11.0

8.0 8.0 8.0

70e90 70e90 70e90

80 80 80

rows rows rows

140 260 435

7.0 13.0 21.8

0.0 0.0 0.0

1.0 1.0 1.0

0.85 0.85 0.85

0.65 0.65 0.65

13.0e22.0 8.0e13.0 8.0e13.0 7.0e12.0 7.0e12.0

19.0 11.0 11.0 10.0 10.0

70e85 70e90 70e90 70e90 70e90

80 85 85 85 85

m m m m m

600 2000 600 2600 8000

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

9.0

50e75

65

rows

500

0.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

9.0 9.0

50e75 50e75

65 65

rows rows

900 1550

0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0

1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0

9.0

50e75

65

rows

1820

0.0

0.0

1.0

0.96

0.92

8.0 8.0 8.0

55e80 55e80 55e80

70 70 70

rows rows rows

400 300 200

0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0

1.0 1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0 1.0

8.0 9.0

55e80 50e75

70 65

rows m

720 3700

0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0

1.0 1.0

0.92 1.0

0.79 1.0

Minor Tillage Tools Rotary hoe Spring-tooth harrow Roller packer Roller harrow Land plane Seeding Implements

Chapter 10  Appendices

Row crop planter, prepared seedbed Mounted Seeding only 6.5e11.0 Drawn Seeding only 6.5e11.0 Seed, fertilizer, herbicides 6.5e11.0 Row crop planter, no-till Seed, fertilizer, herbicides 1 fluted coulter/row 6.5e11.0 Grain drill w/press wheels <2.4 m drill width 6.5e11.0 2.4e3.7 m drill width 6.5e11.0 >3.7 m drill width 6.5e11.0 Grain drill, no-till 1 fluted coulter/row 6.5e11.0 Pneumatic drill 6.5e11.0

211

212

Table II

Rotary Power Requirement Parameters Field Efficiency

S (km hL1)

Ef (%)

Parameter

Implement

Range

Mean Value

Range

Mean Value

a (kW)

b (kW mL1)

c (kWh tL1)

Baler, small rectangular Baler, large rectangular bales Baler, large round (variable chamber) Baler, large round (fixed chamber) Combine, small grains Combine, corn Cotton picker Forage harvester, corn silage Forage harvester, direct-cut Mowereconditioner, disk Mower, cutterbar Mower, disk Mower, flail Mowereconditioner, cutterbar Potato harvester4 Rake, side delivery Rake, rotary Tedder

4.0e10.0 6.5e13.0 5.0e13.0 5.0e13.0 3.0e6.5 3.0e6.5 3.0e6.0 2.5e10.0 2.5e10.0 8.0e19.0 5.0e10.0 8.0e19.0 8.0e19.0 5.0e10.0 2.5e6.5 6.5e13.0 6.5e13.0 6.5e13.0

6.5 8.0 8.0 8.0 5.0 4.0 4.5 5.5 5.5 11.0 8.0 11.0 11.0 8.0 4.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

60e85 70e90 55e75 55e75 65e80 60e75 60e75 60e85 60e85 75e90 75e85 75e90 75e90 75e85 55e70 70e90 70e90 70e90

75 85 80 65 70 65 70 65 65 80 80 80 80 80 60 80 80 80

2.0 4.0 4.0 2.5 20.0 35.0 0 6.0 6.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 9.3 0 0 8 1.2 5.0 10.0 4.5 10.7 0.4 2.0 1.5

1.01 1.3 1.1 1.8 3.62 1.62 0 3.33 5.73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1

Increase by 20% for straw. Based upon material-other-than-grain, MOG, throughput for small grains and grain throughput for corn. For PTO driven machine, reduced parameter a by 10 kW. 3 Throughput is units of dry matter per hour with a 9 mm length of cut. At a specific throughput, a 50% reduction in the length of cut setting or the use of a recutter screen increases power 25%. 4 Total power requirement must include a draft of 11.6 kN m 1 (40%) for potato harvesters and 5.6 kN m 1 (40%) for deet harvesters. A row spacing of 0.86 m for potatoes and 0.71 m for beets is assumed. 2

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURE

Field Speed