Architectural design: a systematic approach: part 2

Architectural design: a systematic approach: part 2

Architectural design: a systematic approach: Part 2 Ralph Johannes, Systematic Architectural Design Studies, University of Essen, Department 9, Univer...

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Architectural design: a systematic approach: Part 2 Ralph Johannes, Systematic Architectural Design Studies, University of Essen, Department 9, Universitaetsstrasse 15, D-4300 Essen 1, Germany

This is the second part of a presentation of a teaching and design mode/for architectural studies, called the Mode/for A rchitectural Design Education (MADE), which is taught to students of architecture at the University of Essen, Germany. This part is a much abbreviated version of a complete MA DE Project, representing only some illustrative highlights. The project was carried out by second- and third-semester architectural students.

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elected highlights from the course of a M A D E Project carried out by second- and third-year students of architecture are described in brief below.

In 1987 a Federal Garden Show I (Note 1) which featured allotments among other exhibits, was held in Dusseldorf, the regional capital of North-Rhine Westphalia. This provided the impetus behind the M A D E Project ' B U G A '87 Allotment Garden Park' documented here. The following teaching and learning aspects were relevant to the selection of the project.

Keywords: architectural design, systematic design, design educa-

(1) Motivation: a real event provided the students with the opportunity to develop alternative proposals to the Allotment Garden Park which the Dusseldorf Parks Department had already designed.

tion

1 Trllltzsch, F 'Warum bewer-

(2) Relevance to architectural practice: this was to be established by

ben sich die Staedte um die Durchfuehrung einer LandesGartenschau? (Why do cities

• •

apply to stage a state garden

show?)' Garten + Landschafl, Vol 91 No 2 (1981) pp 81-97 (in German and English)



User polls in existing allotment garden facilities. Cooperation with a public client, in this case the Dusseldorf Parks Department, and its staff. Consultations with experts in relation to topics such as ecological building construction or drainage and sewerage to biological principles.

0142-694X/92/02157-43 © 1992 Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd

157

(3) Interdisciplinary studies: lecturers at the University of Essen from other disciplines and fields relevant to the project were to be involved. (4) Teaching and learning by example: on the basis of a complex and realistic task which contained aspects of building, town planning and landscaping, the students were to obtain important insights, knowledge and experience which could be applied to other, similar design problems.

Organization stage To carry out the M A D E Project in the best possible manner, the lecturer was obliged to devote attention to teaching procedures and design activities, and their related organizational problems, one of which was the fact that the University of Essen does not provide students with drawing boards or other relevant facilities for design work, thus they have to work at home. They only 'commute' to the university for lectures, seminars and the correction of their designs. The lecturer's decisions with regard to the course requirements (e.g. for the achievements expected of the students and the schedules to be maintained) were thus set down in the 'Project Plan' (Figure 6 (numbering follows on from Part 1)). This included the following.

The Project Task The B U G A '87 Allotment Garden Park is to be designed in a given area of the Suedpark in Dusseldorf-Oberbilk, where there are currently 17 allotment gardens. 15 of the existing allotments are to be preserved (see Figure 7). In addition, the following facilites are to be designed: 66 allotment gardens in sizes of 250-300 m 2 1 garden house per allotment 1 clubhouse of approx. 200 m 2 1 games and party lawn 1 store area of approx. 200 m 2 27 car parking places Due to limitations of space, this paper will concentrate on the Garden House. The following requirements should be taken into account: Allotment Park

• •

158

This should be a public green area accessible to everyone. The existing trees marked in the site plan must be preserved.

Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

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The Project Object Definitions (Figure 8) This clearly describes the objects to be designed by linguistic means, and conveys the appropriate technical terms. These definitions are intended to facilitate terminological distinctions between the objects to be designed and others, thus making a systematic search for relevant information possible. Furthermore, they are intended to make understanding between the students working on the project easier, and to enable individuals to approach the subject matter in as independent a manner as possible.

The Project Structure Breakdown (Figure 9) This forms the framework within which the organization, supervision and control of each complex M A D E Project is to take place. It provides a simple, clear and complete picture of the work required to achieve the aim of the project. In addition, it facilitates a clear allocation of responsibilities.

The Project Programme (Figure 10) This specifies the textual and graphic presentation of project results and the dates for submission. These rules on presentation contribute to uniformity, facilitating the exchange of information between those involved in the project, and thus permit 'more objective' evaluation of the learning results.

The MADE Phase Plan (Figure 11) The Project Learning Result Catalogue (Figure 12) This has two targets and six broad aims (see Part 1, Section 3: Learning goals of MADE) and the project modules to be worked through for this specific Project Task.

The Project Time Schedule This is used to plan the sequences and dates for the teaching/learning and designing processes. Following a set pattern, a bar chart whose simplicity and clarity makes it easy to handle is drawn up for each M A D E Project. This chart contains the following data Horizontal Vertical

time divisions (days, weeks, months) M A D E phases (following the M A D E Phase Plan)

The work submission dates set down in the Project Programme (Figure 10) are marked by a submission symbol. The students can therefore clearly see how much time they have between the proposed submission

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161

PROJECT:

BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park

0000

A2

MODULE RESULT:

Project Object Definitions: 'AGF', 'AG', 'GH', 'CH'

Proj. Obj. Definitions: 'AGF', 'AG', 'GH', 'CH'

COMPILER:

Prof. Ralph Johannes

1. 'Allotment Garden Facility' ('AGF') 'Green area in which allotment gardens are grouped together and access provided. '1 'Green areas' 'are areas allocated to settlements, which are predominantly characterized by the presence of plants. They are dedicated to relaxation, games and sport, integration in the design and planning of urban areas, and also serve the purposes of urban hygiene, social intercourse and culture. '2 'Open areas' 'are all natural or artificial areas which have not been built upon. They may be privately or publicly owned. The most important open areas comprise: • green areas in residential and other built-up areas, • children's playgrounds, sports facilities and school playgrounds, • grassy verges and central reservations for roads, and allotment garden facilities. '3 'Outdoor constructions' 'are planned and designed open areas and open spaces as well as accordingly designed constructions in connection with buildings or inside buildings. '4

2. 'Allotment Gardens' ('AG') 'are gardens which 1. serve the user (tenant) for non-commercial horticultural purposes, and in particular for cultivation of horticultural products for the user's own consumption and for relaxation, and 2. are located in a facility in which several individual gardens are grouped together with communal facilities such as paths, play areas and clubhouses (allotment garden facility).'s 'Use' 'The concept of use i s . . . subdivided into building and other uses. Other uses are taken to mean non-constructional use such as roadways or green areas, whereas building u s e . . , is defined as a general type of building use (built-up areas) and a special type and general measure of building use (building zones). '6 3. 'Garden House' ('GH') 'Garden houses in allotment gardens should serve the purposes of horticultural use and also provide temporary accommodation for the allotment gardener. 's 'Ancillary structures and subsidiary buildings' (1) Facilities which by their nature are not designed for permanent use or which are to be erected for a limited period (ancillary structures) may be accepted for limited periods from the requirements of Articles 25 to 48 if public order or safety are not endangered. (2) Paragraph 1 also applies to small buildings serving supplementary purposes or incineration facilities and to other free-standing buildings which have no more than one storey and are not intended for residence, or are only intended for temporary accommodation, such as garden houses and huts. '7 'Projects exempted from approval' (1) The erection or modification of the following structures and other structures and facilities is exempted from planning permission: t. Buildings enclosing up to 30 m3 of space and without residential rooms . . . . 2. Garden houses in allotment garden facilities complying with the federal allotments act . . . . ,7 'Building structures' 'are facilities joined to the ground and constructed of building materials and components. Such structures are also considered to be joined to the ground if they rest on the ground as a result of their own weight or are movable to a limited extent only on fixed tracks, or if the purpose of the facility is such that it is intended to be used predominantly in a single, fixed location.

Figure 8 Project Object Definitions: "Allotment garden facility", "Allotment garden", "Garden house", "Clubhouse"

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Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

Building structures include 1) landfills and pits, 2) depots and exhibition sites, 3) camping and weekend recreation sites, 4) sports facilities and playgrounds, 5) car parks. '7 'Buildings' 'are independently usable, roofed constructions, which can be entered by people and are suitable or intended to protect people, animals or artifacts. '7 'Accommodation rooms are spaces which are intended or suitable for accommodation of people on a not merely temporary basis. '7 4. 'Clubhouse' ('CH') 'Inns are building structures or parts of building structures used for the serving of food or beverages or for commercially organized overnight accommodation, accessible to the public or particular group of persons. '8

Bibliography of Project Object Definitions 1Deutscher Verband fuer Wohnungswesen, Staedtebau und Raumplanung (Ed.) 'Begriffsbestimmungen' Mitteilungen des Deutschen Verbandes tuer Wohnungswesen, Staedtebau und Raumplanung No 2 (1968) p 28 2Forschungsausschuss Landespflege der Akademie f0r Raumtorschung und Landesplanung Hannover 'Begriffe aus dem Gebiet der Landespflege' Landschaft und Stadt, Vol 1 No 2 (1969) pp 57-61 3Walper, K H 'Die Baunutzungsverordnung, Erlaeutereung zur BauNVO, Anwendung in der Praxis' Verlagsgesellschaft Rudolf Mueller, Cologne-Braunsfeld (1978) 4Architektenkammer Nordrhein-Westfalen (Ed.) 'Verordnung ueber Honorare fuer Leistungen der Architekten und Ingenieure (HOAI) of 1.1.1985, Begriffsbestimmungen' contained in: Architektenjahrbuch 1986/87. Christians & Reim Verlag, Eutin (1986) SDreyer, J und Haas, W 'Neues Bundeskleingartengesetz (BKleinG), Gesetzestext und Erlaeuterungen' Der Fachberater fuer das deutsche Kleingartenwesen, vol 32 No 1 (1983) pp 3-4 8Fickert, H C und Fieseler, H 'Baunutzungsverordnung (BauNV), Kommentar', Neue Kommunale Schriften No 28, (4th edn) Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Cologne (1979) ZRoessler H G 'Bauordnung fuer das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, Landesbauordnung (BauONW)' (11th edn) Carl Heymanns Verlag, Cologne (1979) "Boeckenfoerde, D, Krebs, W und Temme, H G 'Landesbauordnung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Sonderbauvorschriften, Verordnung ueber den Bau und Betrieb von Gaststaetten Gaststaettenverordnung, GastBauVO), Werner Verlag GmbH, Dusseldorf (1985)

Figure 8 conthzued

dates to achieve the project learning results required by the Project Learning Result Catalogue (Figure 12).

The Project Literature List With notes on relevant specialist literature and sources of information, such as architectural period bibliographies, catalogues of building research work and booksellers' listings.

Realization stage This follows the M A D E Phase Plan (Figure 11) and the Project Learning Result Catalogue (Figure 12). It starts with the subsidiary phase A.

Subsidiary phase A: manage project procedures The Project Plan was first introduced and explained to the students. The project was scheduled to last two semesters including the vacations. Four

Architectural design

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[Deporlment 4. Industrial Design), Ergonomics (Dept. 9, Landscape Archltecture), Planning of gardens and green areas )Dept. 9, Landscape Architecture), Planning of gardens and green areas (Ouesseldod Parks Deparlmenfl (Archltecfl, Building with natural materials

Figure 9 Project Structure Breakdown

hours per week were available for formal teaching activities during the two semesters. The project group met regularly on two days each week and started work as a team with clarification of the Project Task. This process was initiated by the following subsidiary phase 3.

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Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

PROJECT:

BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park

MODULE RESULT:

Project Programme

COMPILER:

Prof. Ralph Johannes

SEQUENCE RESULTS CERTIFICATES

0000

A4 Proj. Prog.

The MADE Project is to be implemented with the aid of the MADE Phase Plan. The learning results to be achieved in the project and its individual modules are given in the Project Learning Result Catalogue. Certificates are required for the following learning result packages (= group of learning results from individual modules): SUBLEARNING RESULT PACKAGE SUBMISSION CERTIRCATE PHASE DATE A

Project Plan

B

Situation Documents

C

Object Plan

D

Assessment Documents

E

Scheme Design

F

Design

The dates stipulated for submission of work to be certified must be maintained. Later submissions will not be accepted unless the student can prove this was due to circumstances beyond his or her control. PRESENTATION The following should be noted with regard to presentation of the learning and design results: a) Paper size either A4 portrait and A3 landscape (folded max. twice to A4 size) or A3 only. b) Each sheet is to be provided with a heading block and filled in as follows: Heading block as specimen PROJECT: MODULE RESULT: COMPILER:

Heading block with explanation PROJECT:

Project name

MODULE RESULT: e.g. name of project module COMPILER:

first name, surname

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COMPILER:

3.6.85

John Smith

I

35

Figure 10 Project Programme

Architectural design

165

c) Only one side of each page should be used. d) Texts should be typewritten or stencilled. e) Drawings should be in ink and lettering applied with a stencil. f) All results are to be bound or filed together to form a Project Report. The Project Report should be compiled in accordance with the following rules: 1. The report is to be arranged in three parts with the following contents: Part 1 (as a preface) University: University GHS Essen, Department 9 Discipline: Architecture, design studies Subject: MADE Lecturer: Prof. Ralph Johannes Project: ............................ Compiler: ............................ Declaration (written declaration by the author - with signature and date - that the parts of the Project Report bearing his or her name are the result of his or her own work) Table of contents Introduction (e.g. personal comments on the sequence of the project or content of the lectures and tutorials.) List of abbreviations (with explanations) Part 2 (as the main part of the report) All project learning and design results are to be included here in the sequence given in the Project Learning Result Catalogue. Part 3 (as an appendix) (list of sources of information used, e.g. regulations, professional literature, consultants, other sources of information) Collection of relevant brochures and supplementary material 2. The graphic design of the Project Report cover should reflect the subject of the project. SUBMISSION DATE See notice (no work submitted later than the dates given will be accepted unless this was demonstrably beyond the student's control) The final result (= Project Report) will only be assessed if all certificates previously required ASSESSMENT have been issued.

Figure tO continued

Subsidiary phase B: identify the situation and acquire information The first stage of this was a lecture on 'The history of allotment gardening in Germany and its significance for the present day' delivered by Prof. K. Eick of the Landscape Architecture Department.

Project module BI: collect and process object literature This section was designed to fill the students' lack of specialized knowledge, providing them with enough information to perform their tasks. To do this, it was necessary to obtain, select and process information in order to acquire knowledge. Relevant articles from professional journals, textbooks and research reports were examined for information relevant to the project. To reduce the large amount of time which would otherwise have been expended on procuring literature, relevant texts were provided as photocopies, which were then jointly read and analysed.

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Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

Phases of MADE

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Architectural design

167

PROJECT:

BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park

MODULE RESULT:

Project Learning Result Catalogue: 'BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park'

COMPILER:

Prof. Ralph Johannes

0000

A6

P.L.R.C.: 'BUGA '87 AGP'

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,

= LEARNING RESULTS

PROJECT LEARNING GOALS AND COURSE CONTENT I.

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Ability to conduct pre-design research A Ability to manage project procedures 1 Understand the content, context and requirements of the problem 2 Establish clear connections between technical terms and designations, so as to comprehend their content 3 Break down project work and allocate responsibilities 4 Set up uniform rules and conditions for the project and its representation 5 Ensure scheduled project sequence 6 Clarify project learning goals and course content, agree the nature and scope of the project learning results 7 Determine and visually represent schedules for project duration, corrections and reports 8 Supply relevant project literature references B Ability to identify the situation and acquire information 1 Collect and process object literature on the AGF, AG, GH and CH

= Pre-design Results = Project Plan = Project Task = Project Object Definitions = : = =

Project Structure Breakdown Project Programme MADE Phase Plan Project Learning Result Catalogue = Project Timetable

= Project Literature List = Situation Documents = Data List: AGF, AG, GH, CH and Idea Archives (continuously updated) 2 View, describe and assess existing AGF objects = Excursion Report: AGF 3 Interview users of AGs, GHs and CHs and record existing objects = Survey Report and User Questionnaire: AG, GH, CH 4 Examine and analyse the object circumstances for the AGF and GH on a = Typological Synopsis: typological basis AGF layouts, GH grouping 5 Determine and define the object characteristics tot AGF, AG, GH and = Object Characteristics Table: CH AGF, AG, GH, CH C Ability to plan and ascertain use, gestalt and technology factors = Object Plan 1 Develop and present a guideline image for the object design in words = Association Chad, Breakdown and pictures for the objects AG/GH and CH List, Collage: AG/GH, CH 2 Determine, structure and link object users, functions and spaces for the = User- Function- Space GH and CH Matrix: GH and CH 3 Identify, order and group design objectives for the objects GH and CH = Catalogue of Objectives: GH, CH 4 Determine and group the object floor areas required for the GH and CH = Floor Area Schedule: GH, CH 5 Link the spaces inside and outside the objects AG/GH and CH = Adjacency Graph: AG/GH, CH 6 Relate the object spaces in the CH to each other = Block Diagram: CH II. Ability to create a design = Design Results D Ability to weight and rank aspects ofquafity = Assessment Documents 1 Select design objectives for the GH, CH and AGF, formulate and rate = Rating Table: GH, CH, AGF criteria E Ability to create and evaluate possible solutions = Scheme Design 1 Sketch conceptual plans and elevations (scale 1:100) of variants (at = Variant Plans: GH least 2) for the object GH 2 Sketch conceptual plans and elevations (scale 1:100) of variants (at = Variant Plans: CH least 2) for the object CH 3 Sketch conceptual plans (scale 1:500) of variants (at least 2) for the = Variant Plans: AGP object AGP 4 Assess the best object variant for GH, CH and AGP = Evaluation Table: GH, CH, AGP

Figure 12 Project Learning Result Catalogue for the MA DE Project "BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park"

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Ability to complete the scheme design

= Design

1

= AGP Site Plan

4

Compile final drawings of the AGP site plan in a scale of 1:500 and in colour Compile final drawings of the CH scheme design in floor plans, sections and elevations in a scale of 1:100 Compile final drawings of the GH scheme design in floor plans, sections and elevations in a scale of 1:20 Describe the object designs for the AGP, CH and GH

5

Calculate the object areas and volumes (to DIN 277)

6 7

Compile the results of the project Construct a representation model of the object CH in a scale of 1:100 and the object GH in a scale of 1:20

2 3

= Design Plans: CH = Design Plans: GH = Explanatory Report: AGP, CH, GH = Area and Volume Calculations: CH, GH = Project Report = Model: CH, GH

Key to abbreviations: AGF AG CH

= Allotment Garden Facility = Allotment Garden = Clubhouse

AGP GH

= Allotment Garden Park = Garden House

Figure 12 continued

The information obtained was recorded in 'Data Lists' under the separate headings of 'Allotment Garden Facility (AGF)', 'Allotment Garden (AG)', 'Garden House (GH)' and 'Clubhouse (CH)', sorted and stored. Here, the students learned, among many other things, that

The Allotment Garden •

has undergone a change of use tending towards being a family and

• •

recreational garden is becoming increasingly important for active leisure should preferably be oriented in a north-south direction so as to catch more sun

The Garden House • •

should be suitable for DIY construction should not cost significantly more than DM 10,000 (relative to 1980



price levels) should be located in the north-east corner of the allotment (for the



sunshine) should be constructed of appropriate materials for the purpose and have a colour which blends in with the surroundings would be an eyesore with large roof tiles or large smooth plastered



surfaces should not be a 'miniature residence' or 'baroque castle"



Architectural design

169



could create a nuisance, particularly noise, if several were grouped into a single building, and this should always be taken into account in the planning



should have an appropriate internal layout for the purpose, and



should be adaptable to permit future modification should have a sitting room (8-12 m2), a storeroom with dry toilet (3-4 m 2) and a roofed-over open sitting area (8-9 m 2)

The Clubhouse •

in relatively small allotments facilities should be located near the entrance, so as to avoid unnecessary disturbances and high develop-



ment costs should be situated and fitted out in such a way that it becomes the



communications centre of the facility should be an attractive design, even if the available funds are severely



limited is in most cases built by joint effort



can accommodate a bar.

Project module B2: view, describe and assess existing objects The next step consisted of excursions to three existing allotment facilities in Dusseldorf and Duisburg. The impressions obtained were recorded in Excursion Reports. The overall conclusion following the tours was: 'We could never design such ugly garden houses as those!' The Allotment Garden Park designed and already completed by the Dusseldorf Parks Department for B U G A '87 (= the M A D E Project B U G A '87 Allotment Garden Park) was not viewed, so as to prevent the students' deliberations and design ideas from being influenced by the existing solution.

Project module B3: interview users and record existing objects In connection with the user poll which was carried out, 21 existing allotment garden facilities throughout the Ruhr were visited. Garden houses were photographed inside and out, and their rooms measured. Each project worker had to interview at least two allotment tenants with the aid of a 50-item questionnaire to discover their special needs and motives. Although the statements of the interviewees are not representative in a scientific sense due to the small scope of the poll, they nevertheless revealed some interesting and constructive points. It was thus, for example, discovered that with regard to the garden house:

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Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992



almost all garden houses had electricity and running water, a cooker and a toilet (chemical or biochemical disposal of excr6ta or earth closet in older facilities)



almost all had heating (predominantly with propane gas, as this is cheaper than electricity)



half had sleeping accommodation (in some cases, holidays were spent there by up to four people).

With regard to the users (= tenants): •

half of them washed at the washbasin in the lavatory or storeroom, a quarter at the sink in the sitting room, a quarter at the pump or tap in the garden



a quarter had a shower inside the garden house, a quarter outside the garden house, and half none at all, but the overwhelming majority would not be adverse to having one, preferably on the outside of the garden house

• •

half were in favour of larger garden houses with an area of more than 20 m 2 more than half were dissatisfied with the size of their storeroom. It should not be smaller than 2.5 m 2



the majority were in favour of garden houses in brick or stone, both because of the greater resistance to fire and security from burglaries, and because of the better internal climate



half wanted to build their garden houses themselves, a quarter to buy and erect them themselves, and a quarter to buy them and have them erected



99% rejected the idea of double or triple garden houses

The last question on the questionnaire was 'What further ideas or wishes do you have to give us?' Some of the answers the allotment tentants gave are as follows: 'We need more allotment facilities.' 'Rather allotments than tennis courts.' 'New garden houses should be larger and gardens smaller: that cuts the work down.' 'Let us design the garden houses as we want them, with no regulations.' 'No rectangular gardens.' 'More opportunities to build your own garden house - not so many strict limitations on what you can do.' ' A parking space for every allotment.' 'There should be a telephone box near the facility.'

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171

'Not too many different types of garden house; two at most.' ' A continuous path without dead ends.' 'Curving pathways.' Only two allotment tenants from a total of 75 questioned were 'totally satisfied'. Finally, six existing clubhouses were viewed, measured, and the floor areas and space allocations analysed. With the aid of a 19-item list, clubhouse tenants and allotment club chairmen were questioned about their experiences and suggestions for improvements. It was shown, for example, that it is more advantageous from the point of view of financing the building and providing services to guests to design a clubhouse for construction in two stages: in the first stage without, and in the second stage with a bar and cafeteria. Now that the situation had been recorded in detail and the information had been processed (Above and beyond this, the individual students were able to note their own personal ideas and thoughts in private 'Idea Archives'.) to constitute a body of knowledge, the first assessments could be carried out in the next two project modules, B4 and B5.

Project module B4: examine and analyse the object circumstances typologically With the aid of the data obtained in B1 and B3, Typological Synopses were compiled with relation to the layout of allotment garden facilities and the grouping of garden houses.

Project module B5: determine and define the object characteristics

2 ISO International Organlsatlon for Standardlsatlon

(lEd.)

Drafl International Standard ISO/ DIS 1087 'Terminology - Vocabulaq/ Tarminologie - Vocabulaire', Geneva (1988)

3 Archltektenkammer Nordrheln-Weatfalen

(Ed.)

'Verordnung ueber Honorare fuer

The project group had to clearly define the concepts (Concept: unit of thought constituted by those characteristics which are attributed to an object or to a class of objects. It should be noted that concepts are not bound to particular languages. They are, however, influenced by the social or cultural background. 2) of the objects (Objects are buildings, other structures, outdoor constructions and interior spaces. 3) to be designed, i.e. a 'Garden House' and a 'Clubhouse'. To do that, it was necessary to identify the characteristics (Characteristic: element of thought which reflects a property of an object and which serves to form and delimit its concept, e.g. one of the characteristics of the concept 'fish' is 'having fins'2.) of these two objects. Four kinds of characteristics were to be covered, viz.

Leistungen der Architekten und Ingenieure (HOAI) of 1.1.1985' contained in: Architektenjahrbuch 1986/87. Christians & Reim Verlag, Eutin (1986)

172

• • • •

user characteristics type characteristics purpose characteristics inherent characteristics

Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

User characteristics These tell us for whom or what (people, particular groups of people, animals, plants or artifacts) an object is designed, e.g. •

People:



tenants ~ block of flats Special groups of people: handicapped ~ workshop, elderly people --* old people's home, small children ~ kindergarten

• •

Animals: horses ~ stable Plants:



orchids ~ greenhouse Artifacts: paintings ~ gallery.

The user characteristics for the objects ' G a r d e n House' and 'Clubhouse' were derived from the Project Object Definitions (Figure 8) and the data obtained in BI and B3. For the ' G a r d e n House', these were: • •

tenants (allotment gardeners) relatives (possibly children or young people)



visitors



possibly plants

For the 'Clubhouse', these were: •

the public

• • •

m e m b e r s of the club relatives (possibly children or young people) friends



wheelchair users



clubhouse tenant



kitchen staff



suppliers

Type characteristics These provide information pertaining to the type of an object, i.e. on the type group to which the particular object belongs, and with which it has fundamental characteristics in c o m m o n , defining it as, for instance, a

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173

'building', 'outdoor construction' or 'interior space', and information on its special type or use where applicable. Examples: The type group of 'buildings' (Buildings are defined as independently usable, roofed constructions, erected for the long term, which can be entered by people and are suitable or intended to protect people, animals or a r t i f a c t s . . . 4 ) comprises, for instance: Residential buildings (e.g. detached houses, terraced houses, halls of residence, old people's homes) Nonresidential buildings (e.g. hospitals, barracks, office buildings, agricultural buildings, hotels, public houses, university buildings, museums, theatres, opera houses, sports buildings, school buildings, nurseries, churches, community centres, monasteries, garage buildings, petrol stations, slaughterhouses, parliament buildings, factories, buildings for accommodation of animals or plants) The type group of 'buildings of special types or use' comprises, for instance: • • • • • • • •

Skyscrapers Commercial buildings (e.g. department stores, shopping centres, cash and carry markets) Assembly buildings (e.g. cinemas, theatres, concert halls, conference centres, circus facilities, large auditoriums) Restaurants, public houses and inns Entertainment facilities (e.g. slot machine arcades) Office and administration buildings Hospitals, nursing homes, maternity homes Schools and sports facilities (e.g. rifle ranges)

The type group of 'interior spaces' comprises for instance: • 4 Statlstlachea Bundesamt Wiesbaden (Ed.) 'Systematische Verzeichnisse - Systematik der

Bauwerke' W, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart and Wiesbaden (1978)

174



Accommodation spaces (e.g. living rooms and bedrooms, kitchens, housework rooms, workrooms such as offices, shops and salerooms, workshops, public houses and assembly rooms, classrooms, hospital rooms, sports and playrooms, DIY and hobby rooms) Nonaccommodation spaces (e.g. halls, stairwells, washrooms and lavatories, pantries and boxrooms, laundries, garages, boiler rooms, storerooms)

Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

The type group of 'interior spaces of special types or use' comprises for instance: • •

Spaces covering large areas (e.g. exhibition and trade fair halls, warehouses) Spaces with high risks of fire or explosion (e.g. paint spraying shops, explosive stores)

The following type characteristics were arrived at for the objects to be designed:

The Garden house: belongs to the type group of 'buildings' and 'nonresidential buildings', and in particular to the group of "subsidiary buildings' The Clubhouse: belongs to the type group of 'buildings' and 'nonresidential buildings', and in particular to the group of 'public houses', and 'assembly buildings'. Purpose characteristics These provide information on the purposes to be served by the object. In relation to the object 'building', a distinction is made between two groups of purposes: (a) general purposes and (b) specific purposes. According to the definition of the concept 'building', all buildings are used for a general purpose, i.e. "to protect people, animals or artifacts' (see Figure 8: 'Project Object Definitions'). Above and beyond this, each 'building' also serves specific purposes, which characterize each individual building. For example, a motorway service station serves in general to protect people, animals or artifacts, and specifically to provide supplies for road users and their vehicles. A kindergarten serves in general to protect people, animals or artifacts, and specifically to provide care, stimulation and education to children aged between three and five. The general purpose for the 'buildings' to be designed for B U G A '87, i.e. the 'Garden House' and 'Clubhouse' were derived with the aid of the 'Type characteristics' (see above) and from the Project Object Definitions (see Figure 8). The specific purposes were formulated with the aid of the Project Object Definitions (see Figure 8) and/or from the information acquired in project modules B1 to B3. For the 'Garden house', this resulted in the following purpose characteristics: generally, to protect people, animals or artifacts; specifically, for only temporary accommodation and for use in connection with tending the

Architectural design

175

allotment. And for the 'Clubhouse', this resulted in the Purpose characteristics: generally, to protect people, animals or artifacts; specifically, for eating and drinking, organizing club activities, specialist consultancy and training and for social events within the club.

Inherent characteristics These tell us something about the external and/or internal appearance of an object as the bearer of a 'message' with which the owner or user identifies himself, e.g. Image projection by a public client: 'Democratic building with values such as freedom, openness, accessibility, coming together and tolerance' (Prof. Dr. Rita Suessmuth, President of the German Parliament, on the planned new Parliament building in Bonn) Image projection by a private client: ' A palace for Emperors and Kings who visited him; a massive monument to himself and the economic power of the company' (Alfred Krupp, 'Villa Huegel', the former private residence in Essen of the Krupp family who, in the late eighteenth century, owned the largest factory in the world.) Image projection by a corporation: corporate identity expressed by a 'typical' colour or symbol, logo, or the building as an advertising medium. For the objects to be designed, the 'Garden House' and 'Clubhouse', the inherent characteristics with regard to the 'owner' or 'user', respectively were taken from the Data Lists for the 'Garden House' and 'Clubhouse' compiled in BI: For the 'Garden House' they were: 'The need for a habitat, predominantly based on a villa in miniature, . . . the desire for freedom - the ranch of the wild west . . .5. For the 'Clubhouse' there were no such inherent characteristics. The students found the process of determining the object's characteristics difficult, as they had little practice of analytical and terminological ways of thinking. But only when what is to be designed is clear (see Figure 13), should one move on to the next subsidiary phase, namely how. 5 Nohl, W 'The aesthetics of

home separated gardens in Germany: Traces of participatory

aesthetics' Landschaft + Stadt, Vol 4 No 3 (1985) pp 177-187

176

Subsidiary phase C: plan and ascertain use, gestalt and technology factors This subsidiary phase is the pivot point around which everything else in M A D E revolves. How the course is set for a solution to the Project Task

Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

depends on the creative, clever and consistent handling of this (solutionoriented) phase. The basis of this work is the information processed into a body of knowledge in the previous subsidiary phase.

Project module CI : develop and present a guideline image for the object design in words and pictures With the aid of an 'A-B-C procedure', group work was first carried out in an attempt to set the process of discovery of a guideline image in motion by 'Association'. Suitable concepts were selected from the Project Task or the object characteristics to serve as stimuli for the formation of trains of thought in various directions (word association) (see Figure 14). The 'messages' in the word sequences which evolve were then discussed. Each student had the opportunity to decide on a promising concept or combination of concepts from these word sequences to explain his or her own guideline image for the object design. Where necessary, new word sequences were formed by students on their own. The students then individually worked on an intensive 'Breakdown' of the selected guideline images in relation to their intellectual and sensory perception effects on the user (Figure 15). The interpretation of these effects was then to be visually represented in the form of a 'Collage'

('Collage, a picture made entirely or in part of photographs, tickets, fabric, newspaper clippings, and other 'found' objects and materials, which are pasted or glued to the picture surface. '6) The purpose of this process is to educate the students in thinking and make them aware of how we use our sensory receptors, or at least to make them more sensitive in this respect, as the time required for active experiencing of the senses would go far beyond the bounds of solving a Project Task. Nevertheless, the procedure described succeeded in promoting creative abilities and training the capacity for association, combination and variation. Depending on the level of talent he or she possesses, the student creates in this manner an object which - either as a 'tangible' interior, an 'individual' building or a 'memorable' location - which is identifiable in its intellectual effect as the bearer of a message and will have a greater or lesser effect on the sensual perception of human beings. 6

Shores, L (Ed.) Collier's En-

cyclopaedia, Vol 6 CrowellColliers Educational Corporation,

New York (1969)

Architectural design

As Figure 16 clearly shows, the senses are addressed: the form and material of an object can be felt. It can, of course, also be seen, and the gestalt perceived visually. But the senses of smell and hearing too are not left out in the cold, if we think for example of the cosy smell of wooden

177

PROJECT:

BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park

MODULE RESULT:

Object Characteristics Table: 'Garden House' and 'Clubhouse'

COMPILER:

Ulrich Reit

1110, 1120

I

[

B5

O.C.T.: 'GH', 'CH'

Object concept: 'Garden House' Kinds of characteristics

Characteristics

User characteristics

• • • •

Tenants Relatives (possibly children or young people) Visitors Plants • Non-residential buildings • Subsidiary buildings

Type characteristics

Generally

Purpose characteristics

• To protect people, animals or artifacts,

Specifically • • • • • •

Inherent characteristics

Temporary accommodation only Tending the allotment Need for a habitat Villa in miniature Rural idyll Ranch of the wild west

Object concept: 'Clubhouse' Kinds of characteristics

Characteristics

User characteristics

• • • • • • • • • • •

Type characteristics

Public Club members Relatives (possibly children or young people) Friends Wheelchair users Clubhouse tenant Kitchen staff Suppliers Nonresidential buildings Public houses Assembly buildings

Generally

Purpose characteristics

• To protect people, animals or artifacts

Specifically • • • • •

Inherent characteristics

Eating and drinking Organizing club activities Specialist consultancy and training Social events within the club None

Figure 13 Object Characteristics Table: "Garden house" and "Clubhouse"

7 Schwanzer, B 'Die Bedeutung der Architektur fuer die Corporate Identity eines Untemehmens: eine

178

materials or the acoustics of a hall (following Reference 7). When this occurs, the user can identify himself with 'his' b u i l d i n g - and, in reverse, it is also identifiable from the inside and outside as 'his' building.

Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

Bio pond

I

Ecology ~'

I

~

PoUulion I

q-°~ \ ~

/\

~"

x4'x

¢~

~

~

._c

o

,~//

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~ "~

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_:,¢,~

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:

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Ooj

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Idyll

~./~

J

t~

Inlacf world

-

I

Freedom

Figure 14 Association C/tart 1 (formation

of possible

trains of thought) triggered by the word 'nature'

Project module C2: determine, structure and link object users, functions and spaces This was carried out in parallel (see Note 2) with the concept analysis and the production of a collage. On the basis of the users with their needs and

empirische Untersuchung von Geschaeften und Bankfilialen'.

Architektur-Marktforschung, Vo/ 1, Modul Verlag, Vienna (1986) 8 Burbank, J and Stelnar P

possible handicaps, functions (A function is the mode (perhaps we could also say way or method) of a subject's self-realization vis-a-vis the external world. 8) were deduced and allocated to spaces (Spaces - in the sense of M A D E - are to be understood either as indoor spaces (e.g. rooms with walls or delimited by pillars) or as outdoor spaces (e.g. natural spaces in the environment or designed open spaces).) which would then constitute the objects 'Garden House' (see Figure 17) and 'Clubhouse'.

(Eds) Structure, Sign and Func-

tion Selected Essays by Jan Mukarovsky Yale University Press (1978)

Architectural design

These three interdependent complexes, Users --, Functions ~ Spaces, were linked with the aid of an allocation grid in the form of a 'matrix'. The process involved here should be examined in further detail.

179

PROJECT:

BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park

MODULE RESULT:

A-B-C Procedure: Breakdown List 'Eco Garden House'

COMPILER:

Claudia Conzelmann, Prof. Ralph Johannes

1110

I

C1

A-B-C Procedure: B 'Eco Garden House'

Example for guideline idea of 'Eco Garden House' I. Determine the relationships between concepts from the point of view of intellectual effect on the user, by 1. Breaking down overall concept Eco Garden House 2. Forming series of concepts (series of concepts on the same level under a common heading) Example of a series of concepts under the heading of 'garden house': summer house, garden pavilion, gazebo, orangery, tabernacle, loggia 3. Deriving concept terms (a term is a description of a concept by a single word or phrase) Example: garden house = 'allotment garden house', 'second villa', 'datcha'. 4. Deciding in favour of one term, e.g. 'garden house' a) Constructing a component list (a component list is created by breaking down an entity into its constituent pads) Example: a 'garden house' consists of a terrace, accommodation room, loft, storage room, toilet, water tap, floor, walls, windows, doors, roof, garden . . . . On the basis of both this list and the 'specific purposes' (see Figure 13: Purpose characteristics) and taking ecological aspects into account, b) Experience fields are generated Examples: The terrace as a 'natural habitat' (= promotion of emotional feeling by the experience of nature) Accommodation room as an 'action room' (= promotion of the physical senses by experiencing enclosed space) Floor, walls, roof as 'a third skin' (= promotion of perceptive faculties by natural building materials) II. Under the aspect of the sensuous effect on the user A. Determine form Example: 'organic' (= not square), integration in the garden as an 'ancillary facility' B. Determine material Example: natural building materials (e.g. clay, reeds, wood), provision of plants on the roof and/or facade C. Determine colour Example: nat0rai colours: large wall surfaces in 'neutral' colours; individual elements such as doors, windows, frames, shutters in 'active' colours D. Determine light Example: rhythmical change and contrast between light and shade

Figure 15 Breakdown List for the guideline idea, e.g. "Eco Garden House"

Guided by the User characteristics (see Figure 13: User characteristics (Each student was able to decide for which user, e.g. a retired couple, a family, a wheelchair user, a blind person etc., the garden house was to be designed.)), the functions relevant to the building to be designed (GH or CH) with regard to the user requirements were to be determined. These were derived from the Type and Purpose characteristics already determined (see Figure 13: Type characteristics and Purpose characteristics), resulting first in the main functions, for the 'Garden House', these were: a) Protecting users and artifacts (from the Purpose characteristic 'generally to protect people, animals or artifacts') b) Using the object and artifacts (from the Type characteristic 'subsidiary building')

180

Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

• El

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i I

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Figure 16 Sensuous effect of 'buildings'

Architectural design

181

Figure

17

User-Function-

2. FUNCTIONS

Space matrix for tile 'Garden

Specific functions

House'

o

c

1. USERS

o

B

3. SPACES Object spaces

Water

ter

Object areas

Object

Terrace Area

r

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]

e Add6t,0ns

Protedinq h'cnl Proteclin~ Irom t~ll~tlOn FTOteC~I~[foal |ire ~otecling from earthquakes Rromctincj from burcJ~ ProIL~L'II~from ir1~Je(~ F~rOleChn0 from accidents Fiotectin(j from glare ~ole£1in9 from pollution Protecting Imm belnq watched Protecling from heal Protectinq from dayli~hl Protectinq lmm d~auqhts ProteCtlnq horn rain

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lllllllllllll[][Jll~lllllllllm..~ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ~ i i i I i i i i i i l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l t ] l [ ] l l l l l l l l l l i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i IIDIIIII[)III[)III[)IIIII:]II[)II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i i i i i i i i i i I I ~ I I I I I I I I I I I i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i i i i i i i i i i i i i I I i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i i i i i i i i i i i i i

lmmmmmmmmmmlmmmmm~mmmmmmmmmmm llllllllllUllllllllllllll--

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Wipnq shoes Kee~rKj floors ck~an Cleaning windows Cleaning paths ~nq snow and Ke Perforrnir~ macntenance WOrk Do~ng rel~i~ Sl~ng cleaninq equipment

access to g~"~-n-n-n-n-n-n-n~ O~lin~ dlhere~e~ in h ~ h t Provldlr~l access I0~ wheel£halr users ProvIclin9 access lot the |ire bfl~a~ FrOVldlr~.access lol" ~Irbac~e InJCksI furnitui~e vans, ambulances

I ~ l

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Stoonq lUel Burning luel Cl~nnelmg o! Ilue o ~ Feeding in frmh air

COnneCl,nq to public streets Connecling to ulililles Connectrnq to drainaqe systems

SUl~OlIpngv~th heat 5uppIyinq ~ m cooiir~] ,~ppl~nq With G~i'C~lqht Supplyinq wdh arltlicial I~ht S u l ~ n q wlth drinkinq waler S u l ~ n q with Sunshine

iiUiiiiiiiMiiiiiiMii iiiUiiiiiiii!i iiiiiUi iii

mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm~m mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm:)mmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm~ mmmmnmnmmmmmm:Dmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmm~mmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm~mmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm~mmmmmmmmmmmmm~r | m m m m m m m m m m m m m m ) m2m m m m m m m m m m m mmmmmmmm~mmmmmmm::mmmmm::mm:)mm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm~mmmmmmmm~r

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Parking veh¢les

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fhrovidl access(O lhe

l~,,po~ng of was|e

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!

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c) Accommodating users temporarily d) Using the object horticulturally ('c' and 'd' from the Purpose characteristic 'specifically for only temporary accommodation and use in connection with tending the allotment') The main functions arrived at deductively and listed under a) and b) are the general functions, i.e. these apply across the board to all buildings, and do not have to be deduced again each time. They were presented to the students in a hierarchically structured form as a 'finished product'. The main functions deduced and listed under b) and c) are the specific functions, i.e. these must be deduced anew for each building to be designed.

9 National Bureau of Stan-

The subsequent derivation (from the main specific functions) of further subsidiary, partial and basic functions was a process which the students found difficult (because they had little practice in function-oriented thought) but extremely revealing. Complex reflection was required, in which an attempt was made inductively to take the various concrete needs and motives of the users into account. It also took a certain amount of effort to formulate (see Note 3), delineate and interrelate these functions until they were equivalent to the relevant main function and could be arranged in a clearly hierarchical order (see Figure 17: '2. Functions'). This process not only touched on exclusively rational intellectual and cognitive fields, but these were embedded in a uniform approach and all-encompassing fields of experience. To this extent, one can also speak of 'conceptual experiences' in this form of conceptual education and its processes: an important condition for the subsequent conversion of the specific and general function-orientated requirements of the users into the creation of 'spaces' which are to make up the 'Garden House' (see Figure 17: '3. Spaces') and the 'Clubhouse'.

dards (Ed.) Performance Con-

cept in Buildings Vol 1, Washington O.C. (1972) 1 0 International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO Standard 8241-1984 (E), 'Per-

formance standards in building -

Critics oppose this type of conceptual education on the grounds that it requires an unreasonable degree of time and effort at the expense of 'real' designing (i.e. the architect's pet activity). It must, however, be stressed that this education in ways of thinking for tomorrow's architects places more weight on user processes (e.g. living, working or playing) than only on objects and their production (without of course neglecting these).

Principles for their preparation and factors to be considered, ( 1st

edn), Geneva (1984)

11 Rush, R D (Ed.) The Building Systems Integration Handbook John Wiley, New York (1986)

184

Thinking in functions (An important condition for the determination of the performance of a building in its entirety and in its parts in the sense of function-orientated methods such as the 'Performance Concepts'9-tl.) is of fundamental importance for the M A D E teaching and design model, because it is intended to prevent: attention being centred on objects

Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

rather than their users, lack of originality, and the development of only one possible solution. To ensure that the spaces for the objects to be designed ('GH' and 'CH') function correctly, i.e. that they are capable of fulfilling the assigned functions with regard to use, gestalt and technology in a manner acceptable and beneficial to users, project module C3 was then used.

Project module C3: identify, order and group design objectives for the object This involved the formulation and compilation in catalogues of objectives for each of the objects 'Allotment Garden Park', 'Allotment/Garden house' (Figures 18 and 19) and 'Clubhouse' of mandatory, recommended, optional and desirable objectives, known in M A D E as 'Must', 'Should', 'Can' and 'Wish' objectives.

Must objectives: are objectives which comprise regulations or given conditions. Regulations are statutory requirements or prohibitions which must be followed. These set down current standards in the form of minimum qualitative or quantitative requirements, with the intention that 'public safety or order, and in particular life or health, are not endangered'. The implementation of such regulations can be enforced by administrative or legal means. Any infringements can result in criminal proceedings or statutory fines. Regulations comprise the laws and by-laws of the area in which the object is to be constructed, and stipulations imposed for example by planning and zoning boards, design and architectural review boards, building code officials, environmental protection agencies, health and safety boards and public utility commissions. Given conditions can be natural (e.g. site and soil conditions, climate and vegetation), technical (e.g. power supply, roads) or legal (e.g. site data, property rights, contractual clauses) in character.

Should objectives: are objectives which contain standards or agreements. Standards are guidelines formulated by privately organized institutions, European Community committees or international standardization institutes, and set down and compiled in sets of specifications whose application is recommended. No special dispensations or exceptional rulings are therefore required for projects which deviate from these. Standards only have a legal effect when stipulated in agreements (e.g. between the owner and the architect), laws, by-laws, and - with the creation of the Single European Market in 1993 - the 'Codes' compiled by the CEN programme committee on the construction industry. These codes specify mandatory aims to be achieved. The individual member states of the European

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Community are, however, free to choose how they incorporate the requirements of the codes in their national laws or statutes. Such standards are issued by associations and quality control institutions such as: • • • • •

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) = ISO Standards Comit6 Europ6en de Normalisation (CEN) = E U R O Codes Federation International de Natation (FINA) = F I N A Pool Construction Guidelines Deutsches lnstitut fuer Normung e.V. (DIN) = DIN Standards Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) = VDI Guidelines

Agreements are supplementary arrangements between public or private clients and the architect (e.g. on town planning, form and use related, financial, energy and ecological aspects), which are set down in writing in the architect's 'schedule of designated services' and are to be fulfilled by the architect, or otherwise litigation may follow.

Can objectives, are objectives which contain requirements. Requirements comprise qualitative or quantitative properties of the object to be designed and its parts, which are stipulated by the architect. In stipulating these requirements, he will use his own expertise, i.e. his scientific knowledge and practical experience, supplemented or backed up as necessary by relevant information, data or advice from third parties (e.g. research reports, professional literature, specialists in individual fields).

Wish objectives, are objectives which contain ideals. Ideals are futureoriented wishes which represent a conscious challenge by the architect or client to the actual conditions he encounters. The conditions, i.e. the circumstances created by the time or physical environment in which the object is designed, generally prevent these wish objectives from being achieved in practice. One can only strive towards the closest approximation. For the 'Garden House' and 'Clubhouse', the must objectives were derived from the stipulations and prohibitions of the relevant regulations (see Note 4) and the given conditions of the site and its environment. The should objectives were arrived at from standards and from agreements between the 'client' (= lecturer) and the students. The can objectives were taken from the relevant Data Lists (see project

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Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

PROJECT:

BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park

MODULE RESULT:

Catalogue of Objectives: 'Garden House'

COMPILER:

Karin Soboll, Frank Hohmann

1110

I

C3

Cat. Obj.: 'GH'

I

Object/area/unit

'Garden House' (see Figure 17)

Users Number of users Main functions (specific) Main functions (general)

Pensioner couple and visitors Temporarily 2, occasionally 2-4 Accommodating users temporarily, using the object horticulturally Protecting users and artifacts. Using object and artifacts

Space structure (see Figure 17: '3. Spaces')

Garden House

Terrace area Accommodation area Sanitary area Storage area Greenhouse area External area

Garden House Location Floor area Use Privacy Equipment/Fixtures Fittings

Security Extension Modification

C1 M1 M2 C2 M3 M4 C3 C4 C5 Wl W2

Adjacency Appearance

C6 W3 W4

W5 W6 Building construction Building method Building materials

Building form Building costs

M5 W7 W8 S1 C7 M6 C8

North-eastern corner of the allotment garden ~3 Max. 24 m2 including roofed terrace area ~ Not for permanent residence 1 Windowless wall facing neighbours s Simple 1 Without fireplace 2 Electricity connection e Water connection 8 Protection from burglaries s 'Growing' garden house from 20-24 m2 12 'the internal layout shall . . . . . if necessary permit future alterations (variable ground plan) '12 Garden House- Main Garden Path s 'The user should be enabled to fashion "his own garden house" without creating a chaos of materials, colours or forms.'S ' . . . proportions are just as important as the details- windows, doors, cover strips, cladding hoards and the use of thin formats for stone structures. Large roof tiles ruin the image just as much as large smooth plaster surfaces.'12 'the external proportions must be in harmony (no miniature residences or baroque castles).' ~2 'it should have individual features, but simultaneously appear to be part of the whole. '~2 Simple structure ~ 'possibly of prefabricated parts '12 'built by the allotment gardeners themselves.. ,~2 Permanent, easy to use and clean 9 'The material and colour must be appropriate for the purpose and environment d2 'detached, single storey . . . . exceptions may be allowed for garden houses '2 ' . . . should not exceed a certain financial framework, the upper limit of which is around DM 10,000 at 1980 prices.'12

Figure 18 Catalogue of Objectives for the 'Garden House'

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PROJECT:

BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park

MODULE RESULT:

Catalogue of Objectives: GH 'Terrace Area (TA)'

COMPILER:

Martina Kellner

1110

C3

Cat. Obj.: GH 'Terrace Area ('l'A)'

Object/area/unit

'Terrace Area'

Users Number of users Sub-functions (specific) Basic functions (specific)

Tenants and visitors Temporarily two, occasionally two to four Consuming meals, relaxing Sitting and relaxing, listening to music, reading books, playing games, having parties, sunbathing, enjoying nature Preventing damage Protecting from accidents, from being watched, from heat, from draughts, from rain Ensuring comfort Supplying with daylight, with artificial light, with sunshine Providing access to the object Cleaning the object Wiping shoes, keeping floors clean Eating unit Terrace Area Reclining unit

Sub-function (general) Basic functions (general) Sub-function (general) Basic functions (general) Sub-function (general) Sub-function (general) Basic functions (general) Space structure Terrace Area Location Floor area Construction type Privacy Adjacency Floor covering

C9 C10 C11 W9 M7 C12 C13 C 14 C15 W10

South-west orientation 1 'Facing the garden '1 Min. 9 m2 s 10to 12m 2 Roofed ~ 'Not overlooked from the "public" path' ~1 Screened off from the neighbourss Terrace A r e a - Main Garden Path Terrace A r e a - Accommodation Area ~ 'It is thus to be recommended that concrete surfaces should be divided up by grids or strips of clinker brick. '~

C16

Min. 5.40 m 2 8

Eating unit Floor area required

2.00

-t t-to o--t-

- 60 t

2.80 2.20

asi r~

30 ! L . . . . . . . . . . . . .

~

Figure 19 Catalogue of Objectives for the 'Terrace A rea' in the 'Garden House'

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~1"2"q0

80

-~~l I 60

"---~

I ,

Recfining unit Floor area required

Wl 1

Min. 6 m2 8

Bibliography for the Catalogue of Objectives 'Garden House', 'Terrace Area'

1Dreyer, J und Haas, W 'Neues Bundeskleingartengesetz (BKleinG), Gesetzestext und Erlaeuterungen' Der Fachberater fuer das deutsche Kleingartenwesen, Vo132 No 1 (1983) pp 3-4 2Roessler, H G 'Bauordnung fuer das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, Landesbauordnung (BauONW)' (1 lth edn) Carl Heymanns Verlag, Cologne (1979) SLaage, E 'Der ueberdachte offene Sitzplatz' Das Gartenamt, Vo120 No 4 (1970) pp 166-170 6Bieler, O 'Die Dreifachlaube - Formexperiment oder sinnvoller Laubentyp' Das Gartenamt, Vo126 No 9 (1977) pp 593-595 "MADE Project Group "Prof. Ralph Johannes l~Borchert, E 'Der Raum urn die Laube, Drehscheibe aller Gartenaktivitaeten' Deutscher Kleingaertner No 9 (1981) pp 120-121 ~2Gassner, Fund Goettlicher, M 'Gaerten im Staedtebau, Dokurnentation zum 1.-14. Bundeswettbewerb,Wettbewerb fuer Kleingartenanlagen der Staedte und Gerneinden und ihrer kleingaertnerischen Organisationen' (Ed Bundesrninister fuer Raumordnung, Bauwesen und Staedtebau) Series No 05.011, C F Mueller, Grossdruckerei und Verlag GrnbH, Karlsruhe (1981) ~3Engelberg,W 'Gedanken zur Kleingartenlaube' Der Kleingarten, No 6 (1976) pp 107-108 lSRheinisch-Wesffaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG (Ed.) 'RWE Bau-Handbuch, Technischer Ausbau 1984/85' Energie Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg (1984) l S'Auch darueber muss man real sprechen Trockentoiletten: umwelffreundlich und hygienisch' Deutscher Kleingaertner, No 11 (1984) pp 176-179, 182

Figure 19 continued

module B2) and agreed jointly by the students and lecturer. Furthermore, each student was able to formulate further can and wish objectives from his or her Idea Archive. In the following two project modules, the design objectives contained in the Catalogue of Objectives which refer to the floor area of individual spaces and linking of distinct spaces were determined and represented in drawings. Project module C4: determine and group the floor areas required The aim of this module was to produce a Floor Area Schedule for each of the objects 'Garden House' and 'Clubhouse', a list of all the spaces coming into question and their areas in m 2.

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189

1. Numbering

3. Matrix

list

Access Road to Suedpark, Dusseldorf Car Park for BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park Access Path to BUGA '87 Allotment Garden Park

:ice no. 10

Io

2o1~o ,o ,0,60

0% •

50

Clubhouse Children's Playground/Party lawn

72

Main Garden Path

73

\

,,,o~8o

8,

8,

,3i~ I 3 S

1

\

\O

1

2



O\OOO

oX • •

7l, Side Path

,,

i

71

Entrance to Allotment Garden

,3



7O Storage Area

,~





60

~

2

\O!O 20 o",,,,,o 30 O O \ O O 4O

,o

eee

5 ee~

\

i

\

1

75

Flower Garden Vegetable Garden Compost Heap

\

1761

,

go

8O

e\

81

,

82

Rainwater Collection Space

J

83

\

\,

,

Terrace Area for Garden House Accommodation Area Storage Area Sanitary Area

4. Graph

2. Binary list

@[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected]

@[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected]

////~ •

.............

°............

Figure 20 Adjacency Graph for 'Garden House' compiled by Claudia Conzelmann

190

. . . . . . ..........

Allotment

Garden

Garden House

Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

Project module C5: link the spaces inside and outside the object An Adjacency Graph was produced for each of the objects 'Allotment/ Garden house' (Figure 20) and 'Clubhouse'. The sequence adopted in the construction of such a graph (A graph is a collection of points, certain pairs of which are joined by lines. In practical applications of graph theory the points usually represent a set of objects under investigation, and the lines usually represent relationships between pairs of objects, t2) is as follows: 1) All the spaces concerned are listed and sequentially'numbEred. The result is the numbering list. 2) In accordance with the stipulations of the Catalogue of Objectives, each space is allocated to another space in sequence in a binary form. The result of this is the binary list. 3) All the binary relationships are interlinked in a matrix, and the number of links per line totalled. 4) The graph is drawn.

Project module C6: relate the object spaces to each other On the basis of the result from project modules C4 and C5, project module C6 involved the drawing of outlines for each individual floor area for the spaces of the object 'Clubhouse' to scale and arranging them in such a way that they corresponded to the linking relationships defined in the Adjacency Graph Clubhouse. This was accomplished by shifting and exchanging the individual spaces until the required linking relationships were established. The result of this work was a Block Diagram showing the Clubhouse spaces with the correct areas, taking adjacency relationships into account. This diagram formed the basis of the creation of possible layout solutions for the Clubhouse in subsidiary phase E. 12 Levln, P H 'Use of graphs to

Subsidiary phase D: weight and rank aspects o f quality

decide the optimum layout of

In M A D E Projects assessment procedures are used as a design aid, providing more precise guidance for the creation and evaluation of quality (see Note 5) t3 for the possible solutions to be worked out in subsidiary phase E which follows.

buildings' Arch. J. Vo1140 No 15 (1964) pp 809-1S

13 American Society of Civil Engineers (Ed.) Manual of professional practice: quality in the

constructed project: a guideline for owners, designers, and contractors' (preliminary edn for trial

Due to time constraints, a simplified procedure, the points method, divided into two separate stages, the first before the start and the second on completion of subsidiary phase E, is used in undergraduate studies, and thus also in the project described here.

use and comment) Vol 1, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York (1988)

Architectural design

In the first stage, suitable can and wish objectives (Must and should objectives are not normally used for assessment, as compliance with these

191

is mandatory.) were initially selected from the Catalogue of Objectives for the individual objects, the 'Allotment Garden Park', 'Garden House' and 'Clubhouse'. These were declared as 'target criteria', and entered in separate Rating Tables for each object. In consultation with the students, these target criteria were assigned a weighting in points according to their importance.

Subsidiary phase E: create and evaluate possible solutions Subsidiary phase E then followed in which at least two variants (Variant = a design solution to the same or only slightly different requirements as another. Alternative = a design solution to fundamentally different requirements.) of the relevant objects 'Allotment Garden Park', 'Garden House' and 'Clubhouse' were to be produced in the form of sketches. This creative act was supported and controlled with the aid of the relevant Project Learning Results previously compiled, i.e. the • • • • •

Catalogue of Objectives (Figures 18 and 19) Adjacency Graph (Figure 20) Floor Area Schedule Block Diagram Rating Table with the weighted target criteria

Where appropriate, a working model could be produced to assist in form-finding. The second stage of the points method (see above) then started: the.quality of the possible solutions sketched (variants) was assessed in pair by pair comparison using the criteria established in the first stage, and marked for fulfilment of these in Evaluation Tables. The variant with the higher total in each case constituted the Scheme Design, which was used as a basis for the last subsidiary phase.

Subsidiary phase F: complete the scheme design This section aimed to produce the drawings for a 'refined' design of the 'Garden House', 'Clubhouse' and 'Allotment Garden Park' with accompanying written Explanatory Reports. All the project learning results were then compiled and submitted to the lecturer in the Project Report.

Project module F7: construct a representation model of the object Project module F7 produced the three-dimensional composition of the 'Garden House' (Figures 21-28) and 'Clubhouse'. A scale of 1:20 was selected to ensure that the models appeared realistic and reflected the original as closely as possible. Great value was attached to the quality of workmanship, as a model is easier to comprehend in toto than the

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Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

Figure 21 Ruediger Loose

original. It conveys the complete appearance of the object from inside and outside (see Note 6), from all sides, and with all details. Frequently, a model displays inter-relationships and sizes better than they can be experienced in reality. A total time of one month was allotted to produce the models. It has in the meantime become customary to exhibit the results of M A D E Projects from undergraduate courses (see Note 7) publicly, either in the

Figure 22 Stefan Kemper

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193

Figure 23 Thomas Kelling

university or elsewhere, depending on the 'client'. The 'exhibition' is seen as a medium to provide the student with specific opportunities to present and 'sell' his or her design work. The exhibitors learn to deal with the circumstances of an exhibition and familiarize themselves with the presentation aids required (e.g. uniform presentation for the exhibition, poster design, press releases). Furthermore, they can check the response to their exhibits, e.g. by a questionnaire in which visitors are asked to express their criticisms.

Figure 24 Rail Schmidt

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Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

Figure 25 Burkhard Wildenhues

The results of the M A D E Project division 'Garden House', were exhibited at both the Dusseldorf and Essen City Halls and elsewhere. In Dusseldorf, they were in competition with the prize-winning entries for a garden house competition which the garden show organizer, B U G A '87 Dusseldorf GmbH, had launched among students of architecture at the Dusseldorf Fachhochschule and the Academy of Arts. The visitor opinion poll conducted at this exhibition revealed that three designs from Essen students received the greatest public acclaim. B U G A '87 Dusseldorf

k.

Figure 26 Birgit Sch wandt

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Figure 27 Gundula Richter: model and finished building

GmbH kindly had three MADE Garden House designs built, and had them erected in the Allotment Garden Park for which they had been designed.

Concluding remarks With the Model for Architectural Design Education, a challenge is issued to the figure of the 'architect by divine right' who designs buildings for architects rather than for users. The same applies to designing 'by gut feeling', 'facade fetishism' and architectural design by so-called artistic

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Figure 28 Claudia Conzelmann: model and finished building

inspiration. In the final analysis, the aim of this teaching and learning model is to educate students to be quality-conscious, so that they may be enabled in their future roles as architects to design building objects both

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for the o w n e r (client) and for the u s e r in the best possible way in terms of form, technology and economy, attaching due importance to the l o c a t i o n . MADE provides a broad range of procedural options for the achievement of this aim.

Notes

1 Garden exhibitions, garden shows: national or international public exhibitions of developments in horticulture, which are mostly connected with the establishment of permanent parks and gardens. In Germany, the BundesGartenschaun (BUGA), the Federal Garden Show, usually takes place avery two years. Every tan years it is replaced by the international Horticultural Exhibition (IGA), held in Hamburg in 1953, 1963 and 1973, and in Munich in 1983.1 2 It was carried out in parallel; firstly, to save time, as the process of discovery of a guideline image, to which the students were unaccustomed, and the subsequent representation of this image using 'collage' is usually time consuming. Secondly, because the development of the 'specific functions' and the search for a guideline image can have a cross-pollenating effect.

3 A function is described by a noun and a verb. It should be ensured that the data given only refers to the 'mode', e.g. of an object, and not to the means by which the function is fulfilled. For example, a function should not be articulated as 'climbing stairs' but as 'changing level'. Designations which express the manner in which a function is fufilled, e.g. 'changing level safely' are also to be avoided, as this formulation already contains a design objective. 4 These were located with the aid of the Vorschrifthen-lnformations-System (VIS). VIS is part of the data sheet library of the German Construction Document Centre in Celle. They provide, free of charge, a list of the laws, by-laws, ordinances and subsidy conditions which have to be complied with for a particular object to be built in a particular federal state.

5 Quality is defined as the totality of features, attributes and characteristics of a facility, product, process, component, service or workmanship that bears on its ability to satisfy a given need (fitness for the purpose). It is usually referred to and measured by the degree of conformity with a predetermined standard of performance. In simple terms, quality involved meeting the owner's requirements, which may be simple or complex. They may be stated in terms of a required end result or as a detailed description of what is to be done. 13 6 See video films: 'Wer entwerfen will, muss Entwerfen lernen' (U you want to be a designer, you have to learn to design) (1990) and 'Entwerfen zwischen Anspruch und Wirklichkeit'

(Designing - between wishes and

reality) (1991). Available gratis by sending a blank video cassette (VHS) and DM 10.00 p&p to: Universitaet GHS Essen, Medienzentrum (MZ), Univemitaetsstrasse 12, D-4300 Essen 1, Germany.

7 MADE Projects from graduate studies are published as Project Reports and are available for purchase, for example: Kluck, Frank and Wienkoetter, Ulrich: Kindergarten methodisch entworfen (Kindergarten, systematically designed) Essen, 1985. Schmicking, Rainer: Altentagesstaette methedisch entworfen (Senior Citizens' Centre, systematically designed) Essen, 1986. Peveling-Schlueter, Beate: Reitanlage methodisch entworfen (Riding school, systematically designed) Essen, 1987. The above three Project Reports are obtainable from: Informationszentrum RAUM und BAU (IRB) der Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Nobelstr. 12, D-7000 Stuttgart 80, Germany. Schaupp, Michael: Zan-Meditationsstaette methodisch entworfen (Zen Meditation Centre, systematically designed) Essen, 1990. Luckow, Dietmar: Kindermuseum methodisch entworfan (Children's Museum,

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Design Studies Vol 13 No 2 April 1992

systematically designed) Essen, 1991. The Project Reports by Schaupp and Luckow are obtainable from: Prof. Ralph Johannes, c/o Universitaet GHS Essen, FB 9, Architektur, Bio- und Geowissenschaf~en,Postfach 103764, D-4300 Essen 1, Germany, for DM 32.50 plus postage and packing.

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