Association for Research Annual Meeting

Association for Research Annual Meeting

VOL. 64, NO. 1 EDITORIALS health measure. He has cited support from one general practitioner who asserts that shooting off fireworks is a lot less d...

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VOL. 64, NO. 1

EDITORIALS

health measure. He has cited support from one general practitioner who asserts that shooting off fireworks is a lot less dangerous than skiing. This is an interesting evalua­ tion of relative "danger," in that it ranks sheer number of accidents, especially frac­ tures, as more serious than damaged or lost vision—for only in those terms is skiing a greater threat to health than fireworks. Dr. Schumacher argues that the only fire­ works classed as "safe" and hence legal in Maine, caps, are too primitive a form of therapy and are thus an unsatisfactory out­ let for normal children to get rid of their tensions by blowing off steam. It would seem then that Class C fireworks should be an equally unsatisfactory outlet if they were classed as safe, for it is the element of dan­ ger itself that provides the kicks in skiing, fast driving and other such activities. Since firecrackers would thus, in time, prove to be inadequate to release tensions, someone might then advocate even more dangerous explosive playthings. A more serious visual threat arises from the difficulty in supervising the numerous small roadside stands and small shops that sell fireworks. Nearly every accident in­ volves purchase of illegal explosives and the proliferation of retail outlets selling fire­ works, which such legislation would en­ courage, could not help but endanger eyes. Frank W. Newell ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH ANNUAL MEETING Over 200 enthusiastic scientists converged on Clearwater Beach, Florida, on the last day of April to attend the annual meeting of the Association for Research in Ophthal­ mology. The two-day meeting, May 1 and 2, was held in pleasant surroundings, stimu­ lating sunbathing as well as science. A diverse program was presented with subjects of interest to many scientific tastes. On one morning the meeting was divided into four concurrent specialty seminars in

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immunology, biochemistry, anatomy and visual electrophysiology, forcing the listener to evaluate carefully what indeed his major interests were. This division was necessitated by the large volume of papers submitted for the meeting. Baum and Martola reported that corneal edema is an insufficient stimulus for stromal vascularization and cited clinical examples of chronic corneal edema without the for­ mation of new vessels. Trenberth, Mishima and Valentin found that ouabain applied to the rabbit corneal endothelium causes cor­ neal swelling. The relationship between swelling and ouabain concentration suggests an inhibition effect on a Na K ATPase sys­ tem which is probably part of an active cat­ ion transport system present in the region of the corneal endothelium. Klyce and Dohlman found that shrinkage of hydrogel mem­ branes of glyceryl methacrylate implanted intralamellarly in rabbit and steer corneas was related to corneal swelling pressure. Kaye and Mishima found that corneas per­ fused with a calcium free K E I medium un­ dergo a marked increase in permeability due to a separation of endothelial cells. Mehta and Maisel reported that purified bovine alpha crystallin and albuminoid from adult lenses show nearly identical subunit patterns. From the discussion following this paper it was obvious that lens biochemists do not all agree on the definition of albu­ minoid. Zwaan and Ikeda noted that in the differentiating chicken lens, delta-crystallin appears first, beta-crystallin slightly after­ ward and alpha-crystallin last. Spector and Zorn reported that apha-crystallin contains one sulfhydryl group for each monomeric unit. Li and Spector described properties of calf lens alpha-crystallin. Lerman, Forbes and Zigman found that the hyperchromicity in dog, fish, and rat lens gamma-crystallin is due to the tyrosine residues within the crys­ tallin substance. Lerche and Wulle studied the fine structure of the lens of 8, 11 and 20-mm human embryos. Amrute and Green reported alpha-glycer-

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY

ophosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat lens homogenates. Farkas described the effect of insulin administration on the glu­ cose utilization and glucose uptake of the lenses of chromium-treated animals. Kuck found that oxidized and reduced nucleotides decrease in the aging rabbit lens but glucose and fructose content do not change. Barber found an increase in free amino acids in early cataracts but also eventually a decrease as progression occurs. The initial increase probably plays an important role in attract­ ing water into the lens. According to Lam­ bert and Kinoshita, roentgen or beta irradi­ ation of the rabbit lens results in increased permeability in about one week and a cata­ ract in about 15 days. These changes are dose dependent. Fraunfelder and Burns originated the classification "acute reversible lens opacity" for characteristic reversible lens changes produced by alteration of various environ­ mental factors such as humidity, tempera­ ture, various gas concentrations, etc. Some previously reported experimental cataracts, in which physical or chemical agents were implicated, may actually be of this type since they could be prevented by closure of an animal's eyelids or by alteration of tem­ perature in the environment. Nichols, Jacabowitz and Hottenstein re­ ported that during light adaptation there is an increase in retinal dopamine in rats and rabbits and in choroidal norepinephrine in guinea pigs and rabbits. Bernstein noted a progressive depletion in retinal pigment epi­ thelium secretory material over a seven-day period of dark adaptation. However, expo­ sure to light restored the normal state with­ in minutes. Futterman and Bishop evaluated the ac­ tive pathways in visual cell outer segments capable of supplying reduced pyridine nu­ cleotides for the enzymatic reduction of vi­ tamin A aldehyde to vitamin A during light adaptation. Kinoshita and Merola found that high concentrations of urea caused a loss of activity of two types of ATPases in rod outer segments and intermediate concentra­

JULY, 1967

tions caused a loss of activity in only one enzyme. Cooper and Meyer studied the ontogeny of retinal oil droplets in chick embryos. Yel­ low oil droplets, found in the chief cones, appear first during development; green oil droplets, in the excessory cones, appear sec­ ond; and red oil droplets, in single cones, appear last. Dowling noted that bipolar cells in frog and pigeon retinas can synapse di­ rectly to amacrine cells which in turn sy­ napse to ganglion cells. These data support the notion that the amacrine cells are nerve rather than glial cells. Henkind found that retinal capillaries develop like those of other tissues. Carr and Ripps reported normal rhodopsin kinetics by reflection densitometry, a normal EOG, and an ERG with only an ab­ normal b-wave in a patient with Oguchi's disease. Perry, Childers, Dawson and Stew­ art showed that the appearance of the visu­ al-evoked response (VER) is affected by the stimulation rate, the retinal area stimu­ lated, and the adaptation state of the eye. Suzuki, Masuda and Jacobson found that the VER is enhanced by light-adaptation or by direct stimulation within the reticular formation. Optic nerve stimulation has no affect. Dawson, Stewart and Childers dem­ onstrated high frequency activity in the VER of man. Liebman, Rice, Carrol, Entine and Laties showed that both the c:wave and pigment migration in the frog are probably triggered by light absorbed in rods and cones rather than by changes in a pigment epithelium organelle, the myeloid body. Stewart and Dawson analyzed high frequency subcom­ ponents of the ERG in man and animals after filtering out the large a- and b-waves of the response. Hamasaki reported a nega­ tive wave, with superimposed oscillations, at on and a positive wave at off in the octupus ERG. Witkovsky found the a-wave of the carp ERG to be most sensitive to short wavelength stimulation and the b-wave to long wavelength stimulation. Flax, Elliott and Daly described the pa-

VOL. 64, NO. 1

EDITORIALS

thology of the limbal cellular infiltrate asso­ ciated with classic delayed hypersensitivity reactions of the cornea. Lorenzetti and Kaufman discussed concentrations of corticosteroids effective in preventing corneal graft reactions. Cromroy, Morrison and Capella used sequential surface doses of 5,000 and 10,000 roentgen equivalent beta irradia­ tion to suppress the immune reaction ordi­ narily seen when pig corneas are implanted in rabbit corneas. Khodadoust and Silverstein noted that donor epithelium survives for many months in lamellar corneal transplants in the rabbit. Rejection of the donor epithelium may occur with or without active rejection of the donor stroma. Eifrig and Prendergast im­ planted lymph nodes in the anterior cham­ bers of rabbits and studied responses to local and systemically administered homolo­ gous antigens. Segawa and Smelser noted that the ear­ liest region of cellular infiltration after a single intravitreal injection of bovine serum albumin was in the base of the ciliary body. Slightly later, considerable infiltration was found in the root of the iris, the pars plana and the peripheral choroid. Wacker and Lipton described immune response in guin­ ea pigs after a single injection of homolo­ gous retina emulsified in Freund's adjuvant. Genis-Galvez and Maisel found significant quantitative and qualitative changes in lens protein distribution with age in chick lens analyzed by immunologie and electrophoretic methods. Goldstein and Botelho studied lacrimal flow rates in rabbits after intra-arterial in­ jections of pilocarpine and norepinephrine with or without prior atropine and tolazoline. Atropine abolishes and tolazoline facili­ tates the flow of pilocarpine. Tolazoline pre­ vents the inhibitory effect that norepineph­ rine produces with pilocarpine but alpha receptor blocking agents do not. Goldberg, McElroy and Pilkerton demonstrated how the Doppler transcutaneous flow indicator "measures" blood flow in the carotid artery system. Instrument position, as well as the

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patency of the vascular system, affects sound intensity recorded; consequently this technique is only useful in detecting com­ plete occlusions where no sound is obtained. Knox and Bron described how applanation tonometry and tonography aid in the di­ agnosis of carotid artery disease. A pro­ longed initial pressure fall with indentation tonometry, low ocular rigidity and low ocu­ lar pulse pressures were usually noted from eyes with reduced ophthalmic blood flow. Armaly presented data indicating that applanation pressures are inherited and geneti­ cally determined. Becker described satura­ tion kinetics in the aqueous humor of guinea pig and rabbit with increasing ascorbate concentrations. Waitzman and Woods evalu­ ated sodium movement in excised ciliary process tissue from albino rabbits. Zeller, Shoch, Cooperman and Schnipper showed that the inhibition of monomine oxidase in tissues surrounding the anterior chamber causes a depression of aqueous se­ cretion four hours afterwards and a decrease in ocular tension by 24 hours. Katz and Eakins reported that intraocular pressure elevations occurring after succinylcholine and decamethonium in the anesthesized cat are explained only in part by increased extraocular muscle tension. Bito, Hyslop and Hyndman found that 0.25% Phospholine Iodide loses its miotic affect on rabbit and dog eyes in a few days and also prevents subsequent miosis after either carbochol or pilocarpine. Kozart de­ scribed regional morphologic differences in the adult albino rabbit ciliary epithelium. Kuwabara found an accumulation of iron in human and animal nonpigmented ciliary epi­ thelium which increases with age. Cheng, Ozawa and Liebowitz reported that denervation causes a rapid breakdown of some fibers in the extraocular muscles of rabbit and a much slower breakdown of others, suggesting two basic types of fibers in these muscles. Freeman, Jacobson, Toth, and Balazs showed that vitreous hyalocyte granules probably contain lysome enzymes and Jacobson demonstrated that these cells

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are capable of synthetizing hyaluronic acid. The Friedenwald Award was given to David M. Maurice from the Institute of Ophthalmology, London, England. He de­ scribed some of his classic fluorescein studies in his lecture. The meeting was a major success. It is hoped that both future meetings and loca­ tions will be as stimulating. Alex E. Krill

OPHTHALMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF THE U N I T E D KINGDOM 8 7 T H A N N U A L CONGRESS

The 87th Congress of the Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom was held in the Royal College of Physician's lovely and recently built building adjacent to Regent's Park, London, on April 19-21, under the able direction of Sir Tudor Thomas, the president. There were about 250 members and guests in attendance. On Wednesday morning, April 19, the Trade Exhibition was officially opened. Here were displayed the latest ophthalmic instruments and equipment by well-known British and some continental firms. The president gave his address to open the scientific congress early in the after­ noon. His subject was "Advancing knowl­ edge." He knew whereof he spoke for his well-known pioneer work on keratoplasty was an important milestone on the road to our knowledge of keratoplasty. Then fol­ lowed four papers relating to keratoplasty by Ruben, Leigh, B. Jones and C. G. Keith. After an interval for tea, our own Prof. Michael J. Hogan of San Francisco gave an extraordinarily good Bowman Lecture. His subject was "Bruch's membrane and macular degeneration," illustrated with excellent slides, many of which showed the ultramicroscopic structure of the normal macula and the changes that occur in macular de­

JULY, 1967

generation. Such was the excellence of the lecture that the hour devoted to it seemed as 30 minutes. At the conclusion, the president with a graceful speech, presented the Bow­ man Medal to Prof. Hogan amid warm and prolonged applause. The next morning's program included pa­ pers by J. D. Abrams ("Transillumination of the fundus using the light coagulator,"— a most ingenious and apparently effective method) ; I. M. Duguid on "Anterior seg­ ment necrosis following retinal detachment surgery" ; G. V. Catford, "Amblyopic occlu­ sion and its results," (reporting excellent results following occlusion during 1964-1965 in 1,160 cases). In the discussion Keith Lyle raised the important question of permanency of the results. The members and guests were then taken by bus to Westminister Abbey to attend a magnificent and awesome Special Service for Ophthalmology, largely arranged by Norman Ashton. This historic event, so pregnant with meaning for ophthalmology, will be fully described in T H E JOURNAL in a special report. Following lunch in the College, the entire afternoon was devoted to a discussion on "Microsurgery." The openers were RoperHall, R. C. Troutman, D. Pierse and Mackensen. Their papers were discussed by P. V. Rycroft, R. Smith, J. Draeger, A. I. Fink, Horwich, Malbran and Boberg Ans of Den­ mark. The symposium covered all aspects of the subject from instrumentation, illumina­ tion, difficulties, magnifications, cleansing of instruments, sterilization, suture materials and then the advantages. These were ex­ traordinary facility of accurate and refined surgery on every part of the globe. That evening the annual banquet was held in the spacious hall of the College. The feast was truly Lucullan, as is standard with the British on such occasions. The toast to the "Society" was proposed by Sir Arthur Porritt, among many other things the past pres­ ident of the Royal College of Surgeons, the active president of the Royal Society of