In spite of these minor objections, this book will continue to be a valuable addition to the library of every eye surgeon, just as it has been a favorite ever since its first publication in 1918. Alice R. Deutsch.
DEL 3 8
della Stampa, 1950, v. XL The physiology of the cornea was the principal subject of discussion at the 38th meeting of the Italian Ophthalmological Society which was held in Taormina, Octo ber, 1949. The main papers were presented by members of the University of Catania. In his introduction G. Favarolo gave a survey on the various theories of the physiology and pathology of Descemet's membrane and the endothelium. He pointed out that a pathologic change of the endo thelium may be due not only to degenerative processes (kerato-endotheliosis) but also to inflammatory conditions (kerato-endothelitis). The most important report was made by G. Scuderi who only recently has published an excellent monograph on corneal permea bility. He dealt with many aspects of corneal physiology. In discussing the water exchange of the cornea he objects to both Cogan's and Davson's dynamic theories of a flow of fluid out of or into the stroma. On the basis of his experiments with aniline dyes he believes that there is no exchange of water between the corneal stroma and the tears or the aqueous. He gave a short survey of the nutrition and respiration of the cornea and dealt more extensively with corneal permeability. The epithelium has a selective permeability; Descemet's membrane is pervious but the endothelium is pervious only for a flow from the stroma toward the aqueous, but is a barrier in the reverse di rection.
A. Bonaccorsi reported on the influence of the temperature on the corneal permeabil ity ; a solution of a mydriatic penetrated best
at 16°C. From the University of Pavia came several papers on the experimental use of some new drugs. G. B. Bietti reported for the first time on the experimental use of thiosemicarbazone (Domagk's Tb 1/698, Conteben) in ocular tuberculosis. He found this new drug superior to streptomycin and PAS whether these are applied alone or combined. In the transactions of the Ophthalmologi cal Society of the Lombardy, which are in cluded in this volume, Bietti and F. Cartasegna described their results in the ex perimental and clinical use of PAS in ocu lar tuberculosis. C. Brognoli studied the penetration of PAS into the eye. He found the highest con centration in the aqueous after systemic ad ministration of the drug. After local ad ministration this concentration was much lower, but it could be enhanced by adding hyaluronidase to the drug. But even then the PAS level in the aqueous is low compared with the level after systemic administration. The last mentioned experiments were done in collaboration with A. Giarlini. M. Azzolini and S. Faldi studied the tolerance of the eye to aureomycin when injected into the aqueous or into the vitreous of rabbits. Severe inflammatory reactions followed intravitreal injections. Up to 1.5 mg. aureomycin was tolerated when injected into the aqueous. The effect of tetraethyl-ammonium on the eye was reported by V. Cima. He found the intraocular pressure lowered after the ad ministration of this autonomic ganglia-block ing agent. M. de Vincentiis reported on the distri bution and metabolism of nucleinic acids in the retina on the basis of his histochemical studies. M. Focosi and P. de Muro succeeded in producing a thrombosis of the central retinal
BOOK REVIEWS vein on an allergic basis. They injectioned lamb serum intravitreally in sensitized guinea pigs. E. Tosti and F. Leonardi made an ex tensive study on the damage and recovery of the corneal sensitivity after various opera tions. They constructed their own ingenious apparatus. Among numerous papers on operative procedures is C. Persichetti's report on the usefulness of the cyclodialysis. The author used this operation not only as an antiglaucoma procedure, but also to sever anterior synechias, to loosen an incarceration or pro lapse of the iris after a corneal wound, to extract a foreign body or even a cataract. R. Campos described his goniodialysis combined with a basal iridectomy. In another paper he maintained that an interruption of neuro-vascular reflexes explains the effect of his operation. F. Contino found a neurinoma of the iris in a patient with no signs of Recklinghausen's disease. The report is well illustrated and the bibliography is exhaustive. E. da Pozzo reported a case of acute keratoconus which occurred during pregnancy and regressed after pregnancy was inter rupted. G. Renard, M. David, and L. Rigaud continued their study on the acute edematous intracanalicular optic neuritis. They dealt with the difficult differential diagnosis and advised decompression surgery. In this volume are included the transac tions of the first meeting of the Latin Ophthalmological Society. This new society aims to connect more closely the Latin-European and Latin-American countries. The papers are in French. The transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Lombardy contain, among other reports, a study by F. Morpurgo and L. Ferrata on the respiration of the cornea before and after transplantation. They found that a clear transplant has the same oxygen consumption as the normal cornea. An opaque transplant has a much higher oxygen consumption. They also read a paper on the
histology of corneal transplants. E. Oxilia studied the effect of ultrasonic waves on the isolated rabbit cornea. G. C. Urbani found not only fundus changes but also a cataract in a case of diver's disease. The cases presented before the Ophthalmological Society of the three Venetian provinces include the report on an oligodendroglioma of the retina in a 74-yearold man by E. Sipala. Among the papers read before the Ophthalmological Society of Tuscany, Umbria, and Emilia is a report by C. Francia on another patient with corneal lesions in Hodgkin's disease. Frederick C. Blodi.
TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCTETE FRANQAISE
D'OPHTALMOLOGIE, 1950, v. 63, pp. 1-328.
During the scientific sessions of July, 41 papers on various topics were presented. The main report on night vision and its dis turbances, given by G. E. Jayle and A. G. Ourgaud, is not included in this volume but is published as a monograph (Reviewed: Am. J. Ophth., 34:644 (April) 1951). The discussion on this report shows that it is a most comprehensive review on this specific field of ophthalmology. H. Goldmann showed his new automatic adaptometer and R. Weekers demonstrated a modified self-registering perimeter for the examination of the light sense in every part of the visual field. Both are made by HaagStreit, Lieberfeld, Berne. N. Matavulj describes the changes of uni lateral stasis and the physiologic process that brings it about. H. Chavanne and M. Devic call attention to the appearance of retinal hemorrhages and their possible prognostic evaluation in intracranial aneurysm. Petit-Dutaillis and Guillaumat emphasize the importance of sphygmomanometry of the retina in surgery of the intracranial vessels. P. Bregeat and M. David believe that arteriography of the caro-