maximal during the summer months. Semen testosterone measurements showed higher levels in July and October. Other authors found a higher concentration between July and August. Gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone exhibited a circular annual variation with a maximum in March for luteinizing hormone and in February for folliclestimulating hormone. Growth hormone is maximum in October and thyroid stimulating hormone is maximum in May. The authors studied the seasonal variations of the cell composition of human semen in 575 men between 25 and 40 years old seen between 1976 and 1977 because of sterility of the couple. These men were compared to 14 healthy students between 18 and 23 years old. In the first group temporal evolution of spermiogram parameters was not demonstable. In the second group spermatozoon concentration and teratospermia were maximal during the winter. N ecrospermia decreased in the spring. Other investigators have examined the spermatozoon concentration and found it to be minimal during the summer months, increased in October and peaking in February. In conclusion, in the United States and Western Europe sexual activity appears to be maximal during the summer. Testosterone secretion is maximal at the end of the summer and gonadotropins are maximal at the end of the winter. Spermatozoon concentration is minimal in the summer, and teratospermia and necrospermia are maximal in the winter. Necrospermia decreases in the spring. C.E.M. 4 figures, 23 references
Ultrastructural Studies in Morphological Assessment of Human Spermatozoa B.
BARTOOV, F. ELTES, J. LANGSAM, M. SNYDER AND J. FISHER, Department of Life Sciences and Computer Center, Bar-Han University, Ramat-Gan 52 100, Israel
Int. J. Androl., suppl., 5: 81-96 (Mar.) 1982 A quantitative analysis of the frequencies of the morphological characteristics in the ejaculated spermatozoa of fertile and suspected infertile populations was conducted. A discriminant analysis of the data revealed that 6 of 30 morphological characteristics examined by light microscope, 9 of 42 examined by scanning electron microscope and 8 of 35 examined by transmission electron microscope were discriminatory. This analysis enabled obtaining a morphological score for each semen sample for the 3 microscopic techniques. In this manner it was possible to separate the fertile from the infertile population. Finally, the authors discuss the practical use of the different morphological scores as diagnostic tools for male infertility clinics. E.D. W. 4 figures, 6 tables, 17 references Microfluorometric Assessment of Sperm Maturation in Testicular Biopsies From Men With Histologically Normal or Reduced Spermatogenesfo
JOHANNISSON, S. NOREN, G. RIOTTON AND R. ELIASSON, Centre de Cytologie et de Depistage du Cancer, Geneva, Switzerland, Department of Urology, Karolinska Hospital and Reproductive Physiology Unit, Department of Physiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Biochemical Analysis of Human Semen
ELIASSON, Reproductive Physiology Unit, Department of Physiology, Karolinska Instituet, Faculty of Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden
Int. J. Androl., suppl., 5: 109-119 (Mar.) 1982 The author reviews the extremely complex biochemical composition of the seminal plasma with the intent of informing clinicians and reproductive biologists of the possible significance of changes in the biochemistry of the seminal plasma as causes of male infertility. He states that the common subdivision of male fertility studies into patients with azoospermia, oligospermia, asthenospennia and teratospermia is unrealistic for studies relating to the biochemistry of semen. He states that biochemical analysis of seminal plasma can give information on 1) the secretory function or capacity of the accessory genital glands, 2) the ejaculatory process, 3) the integrity of the sperm membranes, 4) the secretion of endogenous and exogenous compounds into the seminal plasma and also the route of secretion, and 5) the effects of specific factors in the seminal plasma on functional properties of the spermatozoa. A detailed review of the secretory function of the accessory genital glands, the ejaculatory process, integrity of sperm membranes, secretion of compounds into seminal plasma, the effects of seminal plasma components on spermatozoa and, finally, a biochemical analysis of spermatozoa completes this article. The author concludes that properly performed biochemical analyses of seminal plasma and spermatozoa will be of great importance in the future for the clinicians in diagnosis and therapy of many andrological dysfunctions and for the reproductive biologists in their studies of the complicated mechanism involved in the production and delivery of fertile spermatozoa. E.D. W 1 figure, 4 tables, 41 references
Int. J. Androl., 5: 11-20 (Feb.) 1982 Spermatogenesis has been studied in testicular biopsies by means ofmicrofluorometric assessment of the deoxyribonucleic acid-2-4 dinitrophenyl complex using ethidium bromide in 10 men with histologically normal spermatogenesis and in 10 with histologically reduced spermatogenesis. According to the classic genetic principles the division of the diploid spermatocytes should give rise to haploid spermatids and their haploid amount of deoxyribonucleic acid should remain constant throughout spermiogenesis. This also has been confirmed by ultraviolet absorption studies of deoxyribonucleic acid. The expected haploid deoxyribonucleic acid value was found in the round spermatids, whereas only 70 per cent of the haploid fluorescence value was found in the elongated spermatids and around 60 per cent in the testicular spermatozoa. No difference was found in the mean fluorescence values between the pathological group and the controls. It is suggested that structural changes or an increase in basic nuclear proteins gradually exclude the ethidium bromide from binding to the deoxyribonucleic acid molecule and that this phenomenon occurs concomitantly with a decrease in double-stranded ribonucleic acid. H.D.P. 6 tables, 23 references
Urological Indications for Sperm Preservation F.
PONTONNIER AND P. PLANTE,
Urology Service, Hopital de
La Grave, Toulouse, France Int. J. Androl., suppl., 5: 199-204 (Mar.) 1982 Radiotherapy affects germ cells that are particularly sensitive to its effects but Leydig and Sertoli cells are more resistant. It currently is recognized that radiation therapy of testis cancer does not produce sterility when modern techniques (photon