other toxic materials. However, so far there are relatively few books or articles dealing specifically with the combined technique, a notable exception being McFadden’s recent monograph. The appearance of this extensive account of g.c.-m.s. is therefore greatly to be welcomed. The first part deals specifically with the general principles of gas chromatography, detectors, and qualitative and quantitative analysis by g.c., whilst the second part is concerned with the general principles of mass spectrometry and instrumentation, qualitative structural analysis, and quantification using mass spectrometry. Both these parts could stand on their own as individual texts, and it is only in Part III that integrated g.c.-m.s. is specifically discussedin three chapters dealing with vacuum technology and interfacing, optimisation of instrument parameters, and finally data presentation and the use of computerised data systems. Overall, the three volumes are clearly written and well presented with a wealth of diagrams and abundant references, although the text has apparently been produced directly from typescript. However, the size (and price) might usefully have been reduced by cutting out somematerial, and changing the emphasis. The first part in particular is probably about one third to one half too long; the chapter on quantitative analysis by g.c. is not very relevant to the combined theme of g.c.-m.s., much of the chapter on qualitative structure determination by g.c. could also have been pruned (e.g. the sections on functional group analysis and thermal and pyrrolytic degradation patterns). The balance of the material in parts It and III is, however, much better, although it is debatable whether a book of this type needs to include a section on interpretation of fragmentation patterns (when this is so adequately reviewed in many other books). On the other hand, the section on mass analysers is too brief, and for example no mention is made of double focussing instruments with ‘reversed geometry’ (i.e. with the magnetic sector preceding the electric sector). Some of the more recent developments such as g.c.-m.s. with field ionisation, negative chemical ionisation, and the problems of high resolution g.c.-m.s. might also have received more intensive treatment. In many of its applications m.s. may be regarded simply as a very expensive, but very sensitive and highly specific, g.c. detector. To that extent it might have been useful if the authors had also included a brief section contrasting the g.c.-m.s. method with other less expensive techniques. The very high price WIII preclude all but the most opulent readers from buying their own personal copies. Yet it is a book one hopesmight be found in due course in the mass spectrometry laboratory as a referencetext, as well as in the library. A. H. Jackson
Water Purification of-the-art review
in the EEC: a stata-
A report prepared by the Water Research Centre for the Directorate-Genera/for
Research, Science and Education and rhe Environment andconsumer Protection Service of the Commission of the European Communities. Pp. 468. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 19 7 7. $42.50.
In view of the opposition in the UK to certain EEC proposals on water quality and pollution control (the National Water Council has described some EEC directives as‘irrelevant or even ridiculous’) it is useful to have such a book as this to give factual information about current water and sewage treatment practices in each of the EEC countries, plus Swedenand the USA. The bulk of the book (394 pages) is contained in Appendix 1, which comprises an entry for each of the eleven countries giving information under the following headings: General (population, water consumption, etc.); potable water treatment, classified under ten main processes; legislation; details of specific water treatment plants (up to four examples from each country, described in considerable detail); sewage treatment. The text is well supported by line diagrams and tables. Appendix 2 tabulates average capital and operating costs of water treatment in the UK, and Appendix 3 is a glossary of technical terms. The relatively short main report (30 pages) summarizes the information contained in Appendix 1 and makes recommendations for a middle- and long-term programme of research and development, emphasizing topics of interest to all or most members of the Community. F. E. Bruce
guidelines for the naming of plant varieties (approved in 1973). P. J. Jarvis
Radio Galaxies byA. G. Pacholczyk. Pp. 225. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 19 7 7. $2 7.50.
The second in a trilogy on extragalactic radio sources, ‘Radio Galaxies’ deals with the dynamics and radiation of plasma clouds ejected from the nuclei of parent galaxies. The first part of the book summarises the considerable quantity of observational data on these sources, with suitable classifications and comparisons. Following on from the first book, the radio emission mechanisms described therein are applied to the plasma cloud situation and form a detailed account of the way in which theoretical and observational descriptions of the clouds can be compared. The later sections of the book deal with specific models of the plasma clouds, applied to various source morphologies. The author clearly has a strong preference for the models based on explosive ejection of massive plasma clouds, which plough through a less dense external medium. While the treatment of these models is quite thorough, I found the dismissal of several other situations (especially the possibility of external pressure confinement) far too cavalier, and felt that the author’s credibility in selecting his preference was thus diminished. As a treatise on one of the principal models of radio galaxies, the book is therefore worthwhile. However, 1 do not feel that it does completejustice to its more general title. N. J. Ho110waJ>
by Charles Jeffrey. 1977.$4.75;f1.95.
The author’s aims are to provide a guide to the use of the nomenclatural parts of taxonomic literature; to promote understanding of the problems, principles, and practice of biological nomenclature; and to introduce the three Codes of Nomenclature. The result is an elegantly lucid account which carefully guides the reader through the intricacies of the subject. The reasoning behind the rules and recommendations of the Codes is shown; the implications of decisions are demonstrated; and many examples are sprinkled throughout the text to good effect. Systematics are explained as a subject, and the need for classification and nomenclature is indicated. Subsequent chapters are on the Codes of Nomenclature; scientific names; stability and change in nomenclature; operative principles of nomenclature; name-change and synonymy; authorities and their citations; and special cases.The index doubles as a glossary and is a model of its kind. This second edition incorporates information on modifications to the Zoological Code first published in summary in 1974 and 1975; amendments to the Botanical Code made by the International Botanical Congress in 1975; the radically revised Bacteriological Code (1975); revised rules on viral nomenclature (1976); and
by E. CartmellandG. W. A. Fowles. Pp. 350. Butterworths, London. 1977. f4.95; $10.00.
In preparing this fourth edition of their wellknown textbook the authors have brought up to date their coverage of a number of areas. They have extended their discussion of fiveand seven-fold coordination in complex chemistry; they have based their discussionsof bonding on more modern data; and they have included a chapter on the spectra of complexes. The book is very much an inorganic text, for it is weak in explanation but strong in application. For instance, electron spin is said (p. 40) to be ‘linked with a complicated oscillatory spiral motion of the electron’, a remark which could hardly be made more obscure, and there is only a perfunctory analysis of the contributions to the strengths of bonds. Furthermore, while content rather than presentation must take precedence,one cannot escape the impression that the feeble diagrams make the book look duller than the text deserves. Those criticisms having been made, one must applaud the extensive discussionof a wide range of types of compound which occupies the bulk of the text. The examples given will ensure that it will be referred to extensively by those interested in simple 49