Biological oceanography

Biological oceanography

180 OLR(1980)27(3) 13. Waves 18. Miscellaneous 80:1295 Maruyama, Taketo, 1979. Equatorial wave intensity over the Indian Ocean during the years 19...

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13. Waves

18. Miscellaneous

80:1295 Maruyama, Taketo, 1979. Equatorial wave intensity over the Indian Ocean during the years 1968-1972. J, met. Soc. Japan, (Ser. II)57(1): 39-51.

80:1296 Alt, B. T., 1979. Investigation of summer synoptic climate controls on the mass balance of Meighen Ice Cap [Queen Elizabeth Islands]. Atmos. Ocean, 17(3): 181-199.

Spectral analysis of data from 3 equatorial stations reveals the intensity and zonal propagation of equatorial waves in the lower stratosphere. Two kinds of wave disturbance are identified: eastward propagating 10-20 day disturbances of the zonal wind component, and westward propagating 4-5 day disturbances of the meridional wind component. The 4-year averaged spectra and biennial and annual cycles are discussed. Meteorological Research Institute, Suginami, Tokyo 166, Japan. (rlo)

A synoptic classification of summer atmospheric circulation accounts for observed variations in the energy and mass balance climates of Meighen Ice Cap. Three synoptic types are defined which are related to variations in surface conditions, solar angle, and precipitation form; the types are represented by the position of the 500-mb Low influencing Meighen Island thus providing a link between mass balance conditions and the general circulation. Polar Continental Shelf Project, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. (izs)

E. B I O L O G I C A L

1, Apparatus and methods 80:1297 Chandler, J. A., 1979. Principles of X-ray microanalysis in biology. (Review.) Scanning Electron Microsc., 1979(2): 595-606, 618. Basic theoretical principles of X-ray production, design and operation of detectors, sample preparation, and microscope operation are reviewed. Reliable specimen preparation and sample damage by irradiation are cited as problems currently limiting interpretations of soft tissue data. Tenovus Institute for Cancer Research, Welsh National School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF4 4XX, U.K. (izs) 80:1298 Dye, A. H., 1979. Measurement of biological oxygen demand in sandy beaches. S. Afr. J. Zool., 14(2): 55-60. Rates of oxygen uptake measured in the field using undisturbed cores were approximately three times lower than laboratory measurements of interstitial oxygen changes. Disturbance increased the oxygen demand by up to 60% due to increased bacterial


activity, an effect evident after 24 hours. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. (mjj) 80:1299 Grenon, J.-F., J. Elias, J. Moorcroft and D. J. Crisp, 1979. A new apparatus for force measurement in marine bioadhesion. Mar. Biol., 53(4): 381-388. Low cost, portable equipment which can measure the adhesive forces attained by marine organisms is described. The Stefan type of adhesion can be quantified with this apparatus. NERC Unit of Marine Invertebrate Biology, Marine Science Laboratories, Menai Bridge, Gwynedd LL59 5EH, North Wales, U.K. (rlo) 80:1300 Hodson, P. V., 1979. Metering device for toxicants used in bioassays with aquatic organisms. Progve Fish-Cult., 41(3): 129-131. Reliable equipment for accurately metering the introduction of toxicants into a continuous flow system over long time periods is described. Coefficients of variation for the metered concentrations


E. Biological Oceanography

are less than 10% over periods of up to one year. Great Lakes Biolimnology Laboratory, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario, Canada LTR 4A6. (rio)

80:1301 Howard, K. S. and M. T. Postek, 1979. Dehydration of scanning electron microscopy specimens: a bibliography (1974-1978).Scanning Electron Microsc., 1979(2): 892-902. These 276 references on dehydration techniques used in preparing wet specimens for scanning electron microscopy are arranged alphabetically by senior author with a cross-referencekey organizing the citations by dehydration method. Department of Microbiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La. 70803, U.S.A. (izs) 80:1302 Landers, D. H., 1979. A durable, reusable enclosure system that compensates for changing water levels. Limnol. Oceanogr., 24(5): 991-994. Low-cost enclosures (2-m diameter) made of UVresistant, cross-laminated polyolefin sheeting reinforced with a grid of twisted polyester filaments have a depth-compensating capacity from 0.5 to 2.2 m and can be used where water level may fluctuate. Field testing for 126 days showed six such enclosures to be convenient and durable. Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 47401, U.S.A. 80:1303 Lean, D. R. S. and B. K. Burnison, 1979. An evaluation of errors in the J4C method of primary production measurement. Limnol. Oceanogr., 24(5): 917-928. Polycarbonate, cellulose ester and glass-fiber filters all retain some water containing [14C]bicarb o n a t e which m u s t be e l i m i n a t e d before radioassay. Membrane filters may be simply and effectively decontaminated with 0.1 to 1.0 mL of 0.5 N HC1 in scintillation vials prior to addition of a scintillation fluor. The history of filtration artifact correction is reviewed. National Water Research Institute, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6, Canada. (mjj) 80:1304 Malone, T. C., M. B. Chervin and D. C. Boardman, 1979. Effects of 22-um screens on sizefrequency distributions of suspended particles and biomass estimates of p h y t o p l a n k t o n size f r a c t i o n s . Limnol. Oceanogr., 24(5): 956-960.


Fractionation of whole water samples through 22gm mesh screens reduced the concentration of particles with mean spherical diameters (MSD) >10 urn. Fractionation did not affect particle concentrations <10 gm when nanoplankton dominated but resulted in an increase when net plankton dominated as a consequence of the breakup of chains. A 50% removal usually occurred at a MSD of 16 gm. Correlations between the chlorophyll a content and volume of size fractions were significant, and nanoplankton had more chlorophyll a per unit volume than net plankton. Marine Biology, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, N.Y. 10964, U.S.A. 80:1305 Ott, J. A. and Anton Losert, 1979. A new quantitative sampler for submerged macrophytes, especially seagrass. Senckenberg. marit., 11(1/2): 39-45. The advantage of the new grab sampler is that macroflora growing on the sediment bottom can be completely removed from a given standard sampling area. Thus, quantitative investigations of macroflora, particularly seagrass meadows, are possible at any depth. Zoologisches Institut, Universitat Wien, Wahringer Strasse 17/VI, A1090 Wien, Austria. 80:1306 Reimer, L., 1979. Electron-specimen interactions. (Tutorial.) Scanning Electron Microsc., 1979(2): 111-124. This discussion is restricted to the physical results of electron-specimen interactions which are of the most importance in work with SEM, including electron scattering and diffusion, backscattered electrons, secondary electrons, contrast and X-ray microanalysis. Includes 64 references, Universitat Munster Physikalisches Institut Schloszplatz 7, D4400 Munster, F.R.G. (mjj) 80:1307 Steele, J. H., 1978/' 79. The uses of experimental ecosystems. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 583-595. Experiments conducted with large experimental ecosystems have probably taught us more about the general ecological interactions in such systems than about subtler long-term effects of pollutants. This knowledge is not only valuable in its own right but may be useful in understanding the robustness of these systems and evaluating the general effects of stresses. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, U.S.A.


E. Biological Oceanography

2. Invertebrates (systematics, life cycles, anatomy, physiology, etc.) 80:1308 Andres, H. G . , 1 9 7 8 / 7 9 . Gammaridea (Amphipoda, Crustacea) der AntarktisExpedition 1975/76. Auswertung der Dauerstation sudlich yon Elephant Island. [Gammaridea (Amphipoda, Crustacea) of the Antarctic Expedition 1975/76: results of the time station south of Elephant Island.1 Meeresforschung (Repts mar. Rex.), 27(2): 88102. Eleven species were collected from 5 depth intervals between 0 and 600 m, one of which is new: Eusirus propeperdentatus n.sp. E. propeperdentatus n.sp. and (\vphocaris richardi were dominant with diurnal differences in density, reaching abundance maxima at night. The four pelagic species are cosmopolites, while the 2 benthic-pelagic and 5 benthic species are almost entirely restricted to the A n t a r c t i c a n d s u b a n t a r c t i c . Figures include drawings. Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum der Universitat Hamburg und Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Hamburg, F.R.G. (sir) 80:1309 Barham, E. (L, 1979. Giant larvacean houses: o b s e r v a t i o n s from deep s u b m e r s i b l e s . Science, 205(44ll): 1129-1131. In view of the recent recognition of the importance of abandoned larvacean houses (fragile filterfeeding structures secreted by urochordates that retain the larval tunicate 'tadpole' anatomy) as a substrate for microorganisms and as a source of organic aggregates, several types of giant (30-100 cm) larvacean houses are discussed based on observations made over 10 years ago during deep submersible dives along the western Central American coast. The abundance of these structures in the deep ocean contrasts with the rarity of their collection in net hauls. Southwest Fisheries Center, NMFS, NOAA. La Jolla, Calif. 92038, U.S.A. (smf) 80:1310 Barnard, J. L. and M. M. Drummond, 1979. Gammaridean Amphipoda of Australia. IV. Smithson. Contr. Zool., 269:69 pp. Five Australian species (four of them new) in four genera of the new family Platyischnopidae and seven new Australian species of Urothoides, a genus of Urothoidae, are described. Two nonA u s t r a l i a n s p e c i e s f o r m e r l y a s s i g n e d to Platyischnopus (Platyischnopidae) are placed in a


new genus, Indischnopus. Three of the four A u s t r a l i a n p l a t y i s c h n o p i d g e n e r a a r e new: Tomituka, Yurrokus, and Tittakunara. The Australian species of Urothoides appear to be more primitive than the type-species from Kerguelen Island. Includes ca. 400 drawings. D e p a r t m e n t of I n v e r t e b r a t e Zoology, N a t i o n a l M u s e u m of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A. 80:1311 Bottazzi, E. M., 1978. Systematic-ecological aspects of Radiolaria with special reference to Acantharia. Boll. Zool., 45(2): 133-144. Arguments ior and against the separation of' Radiolaria and Acantharia into 2 distinct groups are considered. A synthesis of acantharian distributions in the Atlantic Ocean and Tyrrhenian, Adriatic and Ionian seas is presented. Istituto di Zoologia, Universita di Parma, Italy. (izs)

80:1312 Brinkhurst, R. O. and H. R. Baker, 1979. A review of the marine Tubificidae (Oligochaeta) of North America. Can. J. Zool., 57(8): 15531569. T h i r t y - n i n e species of marine t u b i f i c i d s are reported here for North America, the list being compared to the known world fauna. Nine of the species are new to science, and several other species are redescribed, leading to revisions of genera and subfamilies. Other species remain to be described by colleagues. Includes ca. 65 drawings. Ocean Ecology Laboratory, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Patrieia Bay, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada. 80:1313 Bruce, A. J., 1979. Ctenopontonia cyphastreophila, a new genus and species of coralassociated pontoniine shrimp from Eniwetok Atoll. Bull. mar. Sci., 29(3): 423-435. Includes a species list, 2 photos and ca. 35 drawings. Heron Island Research Station, via Gladstone, Queensland 4680, Australia. 80:1314 Bryan, B. B., 1979. The diurnal reproductive cycle of Evadne tergestina Claus (Cladoeera, Podonidae) in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Crustaceana, 36(3): 229-236. Chas. T. Main, Inc., Southeast Tower, Prudential Center, Boston, Mass. 02199, U.S.A.


E. Biological Oceanography

80:1315 Caine, E. A., 1979. Population structures of two species of capreliid amphipods (Crustacea). J. expl mar. Biol. Ecol., 40(2): 103-114. Population structures of CapreUa laeviuscula Mayer and Deutella californica Mayer are compared and factors structuring the populations are discussed. The number of D. californica per instar continuously decreased after emergence from the brood pouch. Populations of C. laeviuscula had (1) an initial decrease in numbers; (2) an increase in cohort size at middle instars; and (3) decreasing population size. For both species population declines were caused by molting-related deaths. Population structures of C. laeviuscula were also caused by selective predation, intraspecific conflict during amplexus, and by rapidly molting juveniles becoming slow molting as adults. Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington, Friday Harbor, Wash., U.S.A. 80:1316 Cornelius, P. F. S., 1979. A revision of the species of Sertulariidae (Coelenterata : Hydroida) recorded from Britain and nearby seas. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 34(6): 243-321. The nominal species of hydroids belonging to the family Sertulariidae recorded from Britain and neighboring seas are revised. Twenty-four valid species are provisionally recognized. Includes 7 pages of references and a 5-page index. Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Read, London SW7 5BD. 80:1317 Dahl, Erik, 1979. Amphipoda Gammaridea from the deep Norwegian Sea: a preliminary report. Sarsia, 64(1/2): 57-59. Includes species lists. Zoological Institute, University of Lund, Helgonavagen 3, S-22362 Lund, Sweden. 80:1318 Doyle, R. W., 1979. Ingestion rate of a selective deposit feeder in a complex mixture of particles: testing the e n e r g y - o p t i m i z a t i o n hypothesis. Limnol. Oceanogr., 24(5): 867874. A simple hyperbolic model describes the relationship between the rate at which Corophium volutator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) ingests sediment and the particle-size spectrum in the sediment. Mixtures of natural sedimentary floc and glass spheres were used in the feeding experiments. Ingestion rate depends not only on the concentration of edible material but also on its composition as measured by the ratio of sphere volume:floc volume. The parameters of the model are therefore


functions of the nutritional value of the ingested material, as required by the hypothesis that feeding rate is adjusted to maximize the energy return. Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B 3 H 4J1.

80:1319 Geddes, M. C., 1979. Occurrence of the brine shrimp Artemia (Anostraca) in Australia. Crustaceana, 36(3): 225-228. Zoology Department, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia.

80:1320 Harbison, G. R. and V. L. McAlister, 1979. The filter-feeding rates and particle retention efficiencies of three species of Cyclosalpa

(Tunicata, Thaliacea). Limnol. Oceanogr., 24(5): 875-892. Particle retention spectra for C. floridana, C. affinis and C. polae are reconstructed from Coulter Counter measurements of differential grazing with respect to particle size. Particles >-4 # in diameter are removed with 100% efficiency while for particles as small as 1 ~ the efflcienciesare about 20%. The fraction of small particle retention is inversely proportional to the size of the salps. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, U.S.A. (rlo)

80:1321 Heard, R. W. and R. C. Reames, 1979. Callianassa (Callichirus) acanthochirus (Stimpson, 1866) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinidea) from the coastal waters of Alabama [range extension 700 km northwestward from southern Florida into the north-eastern Gulf of Mexico]. NE Gulf Sci., 3(1): 51-52. Includes 4 drawings. Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Ocean Springs, Miss. 39564, U.S.A 80:1322 Holthuis, L. B., 1978. A collection of decapod Crustacea from Sumba, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Zool. verh., 162:55 pp. Includes ca. 35 drawings, 9 crustacean-inspired textile designs and ca. 80 references. 80:1323 Holthuis, L. B., 1979. H. Milne Edwards's "Histoire naturelle des Crustaces" (18341840) and its dates of publication. Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53(27): 285-296. Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, Netherlands.


E. BiologicalOceanography

80:1324 Ikeda, Tsutomu, 1979. Respiration rates of copepod larvae and a ciliate from a tropical sea. J. oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 35(1): 1-8. The respiration rates measured [2 to 9 ~L 02(mg wet weight) -~ h ~ at 25.5 to 29.2°C] for copepod larvae and a ciliate were not significantly different. Microzooplankton respiration may be nearly as important as that of net zooplankton in the energy flow of tropical, pelagic ecosystems. PMB No. 3, Townsville, M.S.O., Queensland, Australia. (mjj)

80:1325 Kusakin, O. G., 1979. [Marine and brackishwater crustaceans (Isopoda) of the cold and temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Suborder Flabellifera.] (In Russian.) Opred. Faune SSSR, 122:471 pp. Includes a taxonomic index and ca. 1000 drawings and ca. 900 references. 80:1326 Lewinsohn, Ch. and L. B. Holthuis, 1978. Notes on Stenopus spinosus Risso and Engystenopus spinulatus Holthuis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Stenopedidae). Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53(20): 226-236. Includes 10 drawings. Zoological Institute, University of Tel-Aviv, Israel. 80:1327 McNamara, J. C., 1979. Ultrastructure of the chromatophores of Palaemon affinis Heilprin (Crustacea, Decapoda): modifications in the shape of hindgut chromatophores associated with pigment movements. J. expl mar. Biol. Ecol., 40(2): 193-199. On the d o r s a l s u r f a c e of the h i n d g u t , chromatophores with dispersed pigment appear as flattened discs from which radiate short cell extensions. Chromatophores with aggregated pigment appear as raised hemispherical masses which lack cell extensions. These transformations, the result of the movements of pigment granules and cytoplasm, are discussed in relation to the degree of contact between the chromatophores and the surrounding tissues. Department of Zoology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.


dogenous metabolic rhythms to observed circadian processes (swarming, vertical migration, feeding activity) of as yet unclear motivation (internal or environmental). Some correlation was found between endogenous metabolic rhythms and cyclic feeding activity. Institute of Aviation Medicine, Warsaw, and Institute of Ecology, Warsaw, Poland. (slr)

80:1329 Nishida, Shuhei, 1979. A new species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from the central Pacific. Bull. natn. Sci. Mus., Tokyo (A. Zool.), 5(2): 89-93. During the course of a study on the family Oithonidae collected from the Pacific Ocean several female specimens of an Oithona which differs from all the known species were encountered. It is named and described as Oithona fragilis n.sp. Figures include drawings. Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

80:1330 N i v a l , P a u l a n d S u z a n n e N i v a l , 1979. Calculations of particle retention efficiency. Limnol. Oceanogr., 24(5): 995-998. Station Zoologique, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France. 80:1331 Percy, J. A., 1979. Seasonal changes in organic composition and caloric content of an Arctic marine amphipod, Onisimus ( = B o e c k o simus) affinis H. J. Hansen. J. expl mar. Biol. Ecol., 40(2): 183-192. Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, chitin, ash, and caloric energy contents were determined at intervals over two and one half years. The lipid content exhibited the most pronounced seasonal change, from a minimum of about 14-17% of dry wt to a maximum of 25-27% of dry wt in the spring coinciding with the reproductive period of the species. Lipid and caloric content increased during the summer to levels that were maintained through the winter, indicating that the animals do not store significant nutritional reserves for winter use. Arctic Biological Station, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, P. O. Box 400, Ste Anne de Bellevue, P.Q., Canada H9X 3L6.

80:1328 Mezykowski, T. and St. Rakusa-Suszczewski, 1978/79. The circadian rhythms in Euphausia superba Dana and its carbohydrate metabolism. Meeresforschung (Repts mar. Res. ), 27(2): 124-129.

80:1332 Randall, R. H. and Ying-Min Cheng, 1977. Recent corals of Taiwan. I. Description of reefs and coral environments. Acta geol. taiwan., 19: 79-102.

Rhythmic circadian changes in glucose, lactates and glycogen content were observed in laboratorymaintained krill in an attempt to relate en-

A general physiographic description of the reef zone; notes on current, sedimentation, and turbidity; and records of the dominant associated corals,

OLR(1980)27 (3)

E. Biological Oceanography

flora, and other fauna at each of 52 stations were given for the 2240 specimens collected. In general, two principal types of coral growth and development occurring in Taiwan were recognized: (1) 'fringing reefs' on the southern coasts, and (2) 'coral community' chiefly occurring on the northern and eastern coasts. University of Guam, Marine Laboratory, P.O. Box EK, Agana, Guam, Mariana Islands. 80:1333 Sander, Finn and Euna Moore, 1979. The colonization of Barbados coastal waters by the copepod Oithona oculata. Crustaceana, 36(3): 215-224. This 'once typically Pacific cyclopoid copepod' is permanently established and becoming numerically important in Barbados waters. Migration around the Cape of Good Hope and passage via the South Equatorial Current are proposed. Bellairs Research Institute of McGill University, St. James, Barbados, West Indies. (slr) 80:1334 Shiel, R. J., 1979. Synecology of the Rotifera of the River Murray, South Australia. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res., 30(2): 255-263. Ecological data are presented on 35 planktonic Rotifera species of the lower tract of the River Murray. These are predominantly cosmopolitan limno-plankters; their synecology in the Murray, and that of the zooplankton per se, reflect the variability of habitat conditions in a river that is alkaline (pH 7.5-8.7), turbid (10-225 nephelometric turbidity units) and moderately saline (0.2-1.0 g/L). Figures include species lists. Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide, G.P.O. Box 498, Adelaide, S.A. 5001. 80:1335 Sibuet, Myriam, 1979. Distribution and diversity of asteroids in Atlantic abyssal basins. Sarsia, 64(1/2): 85-91. Includes a species list. Centre Oceanologique de Bretagne, B.P. 337, 29273 Brest Cedex, France. 80:1336 Spangenberg, D. B., 1979. Statolith synthesis and ephyra d e v e l o p m e n t in Aurelia m e t a morphosing in strontium and low calcium c o n t a i n i n g s e a w a t e r . Scanning Electron Microsc., 1979(2): 433-438, 432. Aurelia metamorphosing in artificial seawater supplemented with Sr 2+ incorporated Sr 2+ into their statoliths. It is suggested that statoliths from jellyfish medusae might be used to detect radioactive Sr 2+ contamination of marine environments. Includes 8 micrographs. Department of Pathology,


Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Va. 23501, U.S.A. (izs) 80:1337 Squires, H. J., 1979. A x i o p s i s c a e s p i t o s a (Thalassinidea, Axiidae), a new species from the Pacific coast of Colombia. Can. J. Zool., 57(8): 1584-1591. Includes 1 photo and 15 drawings. 122 University Avenue, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. 80:1338 Staples, D. J., 1979. Seasonal migration patterns of postlarval and juvenile b a n a n a prawns, Penaeus merguiensis de Man, in the major rivers of the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res., 30(2): 143157. The Gulf of Carpentaria can be divided into four major areas of seasonal postlarval migration, as determined by sampling 20 major rivers for juvenile P. merguiensis, although the main nursery areas are the rivers of the east and southeast coasts with emigrations largely occurring during the monsoon (November to February). An hypothesis to explain the geographic differences in seasonal migrations is presented. Division of Fisheries and Oceanography, CSIRO, P.O. Box 120, Cleveland, Queensland 4163, Australia. (sir) 80:1339 Suzuki, Mampei, Toshio Kobayashi and Masakatsu Yanagimoto, 1979. T h e r m a l characteristics of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. (In Japanese; English abstract.) Bull. japan. Soc. scient. Fish., 45(6): 745-751. Density, specific heat and conductivity of fresh gravid females did not differ from that of frozen samples. A temperature-time course curve was drawn for three different body sizes. Includes 4 color photos of krill. Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Kachidoki, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104, Japan. (mjj) 80:1340 Veron, J. E. N. and T. J. Done, 1979. Corals and coral communities of Lord Howe Island. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res., 30(2): 203-236. Lord Howe Island corals (57 species, 33 genera) form the southernmost coral reef in the Pacific (NNW of New Zealand's south island), possibly in the world. The reef's existence at the extreme environmental limits for formation and the relatively few species and associations make it a valuable study area. Data suggest a balance between periodic d e n u d a t i o n by cold currents and recolonization by larvae carried in tropical


E. Biological Oceanography

currents. Figures include species lists and reef photos. Australian Institute of Marine Science, P.M.B. No. 3, M.S.O. Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia. (slr)

80:1341 Vives, F., 1978. Sobre la distribucion de Calanus helgolandicus, Claus (Copepoda, Calanoida) en el Mediterraneo occidental. [On the distribution of Calanus helgolandieus Claus in the western Mediterranean Sea; Copepeda, Calanoida.] Result. Exped. cient. B / O Cornide de Saavedra, 7: 83-92. Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras, Paseo Nacional, s./n. Barcelona-3, Spain. 80:1342 Vives, F., 1978. Distribucion de la poblacion de copepodos en el Mediterraneo occidental. [Distribution of populations of copepods in the western Mediterranean.] Result. Exped. cient. B~ 0 Cornide de Saavedra, 7: 263-302. Distributions and ecological aspects of copepod species (118) and populations in Spanish Mediterranean waters, including those of the Balearic Islands, are described. Correlation indexes are given for temperature, salinity and depth. Includes species lists. Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras, Paseo Nacional, s./n. Barcelona-3, Spain. (smf)

3. Algae (systematics, life cycles, morphology, physiology, etc.) 80:1343 DeManche, J. M., H. C. Curl Jr., D. W. Lundy and P. L. Donaghay, 1979. The rapid response of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum to changes in external and internal nutrient concentration. Mar. Biol., 53(4): 323-333. Assimilation of nitrate, ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen into intracellular pools, and the growth of cellular particulate nitrogen are m o n i t o r e d in S. c o s t a t u m c u l t u r e s . A mathematical model simulates these uptake results. Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Wash. 98115, U.S.A. (rlo)

80:1344 Kremer, B. P., 1979. Light independent carbon fixation by marine macroalgae. J. Phycol., 15(3): 244-247. Photosynthesis, dark carbon fixation, and activities of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were


studied in representatives of Chlorophyceae, Rhodophyceae and Phaeophyceae. All brown algae had high rates of dark fixation. The incorporation of dark fixed C-14 into various species of organic molecules was assessed. Includes species lists. Botanisches Institut der Universitat, Gyrhofstrasse 15, D-5000 Koln 41, F.R.G. (rlo)

80:1345 McKnight, D. M. and F. M. M. Morel, 1979. Release of weak and strong copper-eomplexing agents by algae. Limnol. Oceanogr., 24(5): 823-837. By means of potentiometric titrations, the coppercomplexing properties of organic compounds released by 21 algal species are characterized. Most eucaryotic species released measurable amounts (10 6 M) of copper-complexing agents that could be modeled as weak organic acids. Of seven bluegreen algal species studied, four produced about 5 x 10 7 M concentrations of strong coppercomplexing agents with conditional stability constants in the range 10~ to 10~ ; two produced complexing agents similar to those produced by the eucaryotes. Ralph M. Parsons Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, U.S.A. 80:1346 Natour, R. M., J. Gerloff and M. Nizamuddin, 1979. Algae from the Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan. I. Chlorophyceae and Phaeophyceae. Nova Hedwigia, 31(1-3): 39-67. A first taxonomic contribution to knowledge of" marine algae from the Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan, includes descriptions of 25 species of green and brown algae. Six species of Chlorophyceae and 4 species of Phaeophyceae are new records from this coast. Includes species lists and many drawings. University of Jordan, Faculty of Science, Amman, Jordan.

80:1347 Natour, R. M., J. Gerloff and M. Nizamuddin, 1979. Algae from the Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan. II. Rhodophyeeae. Nova Hedwigia, 31(1-3): 69-93. A total of 28 species of red algae, collected in the Aqaba area (Jordan), were identified and described. 17 are new records for the Jordan part of the gulf, 12 of them are new to the gulf as a whole. All red algal species (totalling 63) reported to occur in the gulf, whether near Aqaba or in other localities, are listed in a table. Includes a species list and many drawings. University of Jordan, Faculty of Science, Amman, Jordan.


E. Biological Oceanography

80:1348 Paul, J. S., 1979. Osmoregulation in the marine diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis. J. Phycol., 15(3): 280-284. A dynamic equilibrium between mannose and polymannose in intracellular pools is sensitively linked to the external osmotic pressure. Responses of certain enzymes are shown to be key features of this regulatory mechanism. Includes i r a d i o a u t o g r a p h . L a b o r a t o r y of C h e m i c a l Biodynamics, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 94720, U.S.A. (rlo) 80:1349 Sullivan, C. W., 1979. Diatom mineralization of silieic acid. IV. Kinetics of soluble Si pool formation in exponentially growing and s y n c h r o n i z e d N a v i c u l a p e l l i c u l o s a . J. Phycol., 15(2): 210-216. The diatoms took up Si, expanding the water and PCA soluble Si pools by 2.5-fold at the cell cycle stage where silica frustule development is initiated. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 90007, U.S.A. (mjj) 80:1350 Turner, M. F., 1979. Nutrition of some marine m i c r o a l g a e w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to vitamin requirements and utilization of nitrogen and carbon sources. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 59(3): 535-552. Microalgae vitamin requirements (47 strains) and thiamine moiety specificity (11 strains), plus data on the ability of 44 strains to grow in the dark on acetate and glucose, are presented. The N source DL-tryptophan was widely used by green algae, and L-lysine by all Chlamydomonas and Brachiomonas strains. Includes species lists. Dunstaffnage Marine Research Laboratory, Oban, Scotland. (mjj) 80:1351 Walker, L. M. and K. A. Steidinger, 1979. Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. J. Phycol., 15(3): 312315. A laboratory study of the sexual cycle of G. monilata Howell revealed the production of thickwalled hypnozygotes which, resting in marine sediments, could serve as a benthic source stock for red tide blooms. Includes 21 micrographs. Florida D e p a r t m e n t of N a t u r a l Resources, Marine Research Laboratory, 100 Eighth Avenue S.E., St. Petersburg, Fla. 33701, U.S.A. (sir)


4. Chemistry of marine organisms and biochemistry 80:1352 Lecuyer, Bernard, Bernard Arrio, C h a n t a l Fresneau and Pierre Volfin, 1979. Dinoflagellate luciferases: purification of luciferases from Gonyaulax polyedra, Pyrocystis lunula, and Pyrocystis fusiformis. Archs Biochem. Biophys., 196(2): 371-384. The three luciferases have molecular weights of 30,000 or 40,000 and are single polypeptidic chains, probably metalloproteins. Light emission was increased by Mn ~+, Mg 2÷, and Ca 2+ and was inhibited by Fe 2+, Fe 3+, Cu ~÷, Ni ~+, Zn 2÷, chelating agents, sodium azide, and potassium cyanide. Optimum activity was near pH 7. Includes 3 micrographs and 54 references. Equipe de Recherche No. 118 du C.N.R.S., Institut de Biochimie, Universite de Paris-Sud, Centre d'Orsay, 91405 Orsay-Cedex, France. (mjj) 80:1353 Muller, D. G., 1978/79. Olefinic hydrocarbons in s e a w a t e r : signal molecules for sexual reproduction in brown algae. Pure appl. Chem., 51(9): 1885-1891. A discussion of the potential dangers of environmental contaminants at the chemotaxis level is presented, using three olefinic hydrocarbons and their role in seaweed reproduction as examples. Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 7750 Konstanz, F.R.G. (bwt) 80:1354 Wells, R. J., 1978/79. New metabolites from A u s t r a l i a n m a r i n e species. Pure appl. Chem., 51(9): 1829-1846. The plethora of new metabolites isolated from Australian marine organisms since 1975 is surveyed in a phylogenetic framework. Research concentrated on algae, poriferans and coelenterates. Includes 63 references. Roche Research Institute of Marine Pharmacology, P.O. Box 255, Dee Why, N.S.W., 2099, Australia. (izs)

5. P l a n k t o n (zooplankton, phytoplankton, nannoplankton, primary productivity, seston and detritus) 80:1355 Anderson, O. R., M. Spindler,A. W. H. Be and Ch. Hemleben, 1979. Trophic activity of planktonic Foraminifera. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 59(3): 791-799.


E. BiologicalOceanography

Most planktonic Foraminifera (spinose and nonspinose) are omnivorous, feeding primarily on diatoms and dinoflagellates. The carnivorous Hastigerina pelagica is an exception. The diversity of prey accepted, the ability to survive without food for days, and a moderate predation pressure may help to explain foraminiferal abundance and geographical diversity. Includes a species list and 5 digestive system micrographs. Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades N.Y. 10964, U,S.A. (mjj)

80:1356 Barlow, J. P. and J. D. C. Monteiro, 1979. Selective grazing by zooplankton populations in Southampton Water [England]. Mar. Biol., 53(4): 335-344. Experiments with natural mixed populations demonstrate that selective grazing can be explained by the similar setous filtering mechanisms of the two dominant zooplankters. Section of Ecology and Systematics, 227 Langmuir Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850, U.S.A. (rio)

80:1357 Dodson, S. I., 1979. Body size patterns in Arctic a n d t e m p e r a t e z o o p l a n k t o n . Limnol. Oceanogr., 24(5): 940-949.


80:1359 Hulburt, E. M., 1979. An asymmetric formulation of the distribution characteristics of phytoplankton species: an investigation in interpretation. Mar. Sci. Communs, 5(3): 245-268. A scheme is presented which portrays the decrease in abundance of oceanic species in shallow marginal areas of the western North Atlantic, based on both nutrient concentration and the capacity to absorb it. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, U.S.A. (mjj)

80:1360 K a r a b a s h e v , G. S., 1979. On t y p e s a n d characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescence vertical distributions in the active layer of the ocean. (In Russian; English abstract.) Okeanologiia, 19(3): 468-475. In-situ fluorometer data indicate that unimodal vertical distributions are predominant at low and temperate latitudes, and that four other profile types are variants on the unimodal type. Diurnal changes, depths of fluorescence maxima and remote sensing applications are discussed. (rlo)

80:1361 Kemp, W. M. and W. J. Mitsch, 1979. Turbulence and phytoplankton diversity: a general model of the 'paradox of plankton'. Ecol. Model., 7(3): 201-222.

In 36 Arctic tundra ponds near Barrow, Alaska, there were 21 examples of a large species association, 9 of a small association, and 6 intermediate associations. Statistically, the species show evidence ef nonrandom association. Intermediates are found to occur, and in some cases make up a high proportion of the observed cases. Distinct associations are the result of a constellation of the proper chemical, physical, and biological factors and, for that reason, distinct associations are expected to be uncommon. Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 53706, U.S.A.

A model similar to Bella's (1972) is presented which simulates the relationship between hydrodynamics and phytoplankton diversity. Competing phytoplankton species can coexist only when there is both advective and turbulent water movement, and when the major turbulent frequency approaches the species' turnover times. Includes ca. 75 references. University of Maryland, Horn Point Environmental Laboratories, P.O. Box 775, Cambridge, Md. 21613, U.S.A. (mjj)

80:1358 Hempel, Irmtraut, 1978/79. Vertical distribution of eggs and nauplii of krill (Euphausia superba) south of Elephant Island. Meeresforschung (Repts mar. Res.), 27(2): 119-123.

80:1362 Ledbetter, Max, 1979. Langmuir circulations and plankton patchiness. Ecol. Model., 7(4): 289-310.

Intermediate water layers at 50-400 m had high abundances of less developed eggs, whereas advanced eggs and naupliar stages were restricted to deeper layers at 400-600 m. The numbers of less developed eggs far surpassed those of advanced eggs, nauplii and metanauplii. Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Fischerei, Institut fur Seefischerei and Institut fur Meereskunde an der Universitat, Kiel, Kiel, F.R.G. (rlo)

A computer simulation model illustrates the role of Langmuir cells as forcing mechanisms in interactions with diel zooplankton migration and phytoplankton sinking, resulting in a spatially heterogeneous community. The simulations are limited to twilight and nocturnal events, and also deal with feeding strategies. Institute of Animal Resource Ecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., V6T lW5, Canada. (mjj)


E. Biological Oceanography

80:1363 Nast, F., 1978/79. The vertical distribution of larval and adult krill (Euphausia superba Dana) on a time station south of Elephant Island, South Shetlands. Meeresforschung (Repts mar. Res.), 27(2): 103-118. Amplitudes of vertical migration are shown to increase from larval to adult stages of krill. Diurnal distribution variations between krill and salps are discussed. Institut fur Meereskunde an der Universitat Kiel, Kiel, F.R.G. (rio) 80:1364 O'Brien, W. J., 1979. The predator-prey interaction of planktivorous fish and zooplankton. Am. Scient., 67(5): 572-581. None of the 'optimal' behavioral and structural characteristics for successful predation by planktivorous fish and successful evasion by their zooplankton prey have been maximized by any single species; rather, natural selection is responsible for each species' adaptation to its total physical and biological environment. Department of Systematics and Ecology, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans. 66045, U.S.A. (smf) 80:1365 Sapozhnikov, V. V. and I. V. Sviridova, 1979. Denitrification and the formation of the concentration extrema of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen in the Peruvian Upwelling Zone. (In Russian; English abstract.) Okeanologiia, 19(3): 417-420. The transformation of nitrogen compounds is considered under anaerobic conditions and a sharp oxygen minimum (<0.1 mL 02/L) in the Peruvian Upwelling Zone. Bacterial denitrification is shown to result in the accumulation of nitrites and associated decrease of nitrates. According to the denitrification equation, at intermediate depths an increase of ammonium nitrogen may be expected; its absence is attributed to accumulation by nitrobacteria as nitrates are reduced. A new denitrification equation reflecting this lack is presented. 80:1366 Sorokin, Yu. I., 1979. Zooflagellates as a component of the eutrophic and oligotrophic communities of the Pacific Ocean. (In Russian; English abstract.) Okeanologiia, 19(3): 476480. Ranges of zooflagellate abundance, biomass and distribution were determined off the Peruvian coast and in the South Equatorial Current. The


hypothesis that microflora of tropical oligotrophic waters utilize organic material derived from more productive oceanic regions was supported. (rlo) 80:1367 Walters, J. M., R. B. Cain, I. J. Higgins and E. D. S. Corner, 1979. Cell-free benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity in marine zooplankton. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 59(3): 553-563. Benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity was found in all the cell-free preparations of zooplankton, microplankton and calanoid c0pepods. Exposure of Calanus to hydrocarbons (50 to 200 ~g/L) increased enzyme activity up to two-fold. Biological Laboratory, The University, Canterbury, Kent, England. (mjj) 80:1368 Winter, Amos, Zeev Reiss and Boaz Luz, 1979. D i s t r i b u t i o n of l i v i n g c o c c o l i t h o p h o r e assemblages in the Gulf of Elat ('Aqaba). Mar. Micropaleont., 4(3): 197-223. Bathymetric distributions between 0-400 m and seasonal variations in abundances were determined from 84 samples containing 52 species, 7 described for the first time. Seasonal changes in hydrological conditions were related to 3 distinct coccolithophore assemblages. Standing crop was negatively correlated with insolation; species diversity was positively correlated with water t e m p e r a t u r e . Includes species lists and 61 micrographs. Department of Geology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. (rio) 80:1369 Wood, A. M., 1979. Chlorophyll a :b ratios in marine planktonic algae. J. Phycol., 15(3): 330-332. Chlorophyll a:b ratios for ChloreUa capsulata, Nannochloris atomus, Micromonas pusiUa, and Chlorosarcinopsis halophila are 1.74, 1.89, 1.53, and 2.46, respectively. These values are consistent with a published average value of 2.17 for 25 species in 15 genera. The results support the hypothesis t h a t marine algae have lower chlorophyll a : b ratios than other plants containing chlorophyll b. Includes a species list. Department of Zoology, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 30602, U.S.A. (rlo) 80:1370 Youngbluth, M. J., 1979. The variety and abundance of zooplankton in the coastal waters of Puerto Rico. NE Gulf Sci., 3(1): 15-26. Zooplankton samples were collected in the uppermost 3 m at seven locations within 1 km of the


E. Biological Oceanography

coast of Puerto Rico. Total zooplankton densities ranged from 41 to 7568 organisms/m 3. Copepods formed 65-84% of all zooplankton caught; meroplankton constituted 2-17%. Larger densities of' zooplankton tended to be caught at night. Regional differences in the abundance of meroplankton were related to water circulation patterns, community development of benthic organisms, and recruitment from an embayment. The total abundance of zooplankton was similar to densities of zooplankton near other Caribbean islands. Includes extensive species lists. Harbor Branch Foundation, RR1, Box 196, Fort Pierce, Fla. 33450, U.S.A.

6. Microbiology (bacteria, fungi, etc.) 80:1371 Gutteridge, C. S . and J. R. Norris, 1979. The application of pyrolysis techniques to the identification of micro-organisms. (Review.) J. appl. Bact., 47(1): 5-43. The combination of analytical pyrolysis (molecular cleavage at 200 ° to 1200°C in an inert atmosphere) with gas-liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry has great potential as a rapid means of identifying micro-organisms, and possibly also for development of new or improved taxonomies. Principles of pyrolysis and r e c e n t t e c h n i c a l developments are discussed. Includes ca. 130 references. Agricultural Research Council, Meat Research Institute, Langford, Bristol BS18 7DY, England. (mjj)

80:1372 Hohnk, Willy and Annemarie Ulken, 1979. Pilze aus marinen Schwammen. [Fungi from marine sponges.] Veroff Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerh., 17(2): 199-204. Poriferans from Ischia's Mediterranean shores yielded 2 species of Phycomycetes and 7 species of Fungi Imperfecti. Includes 7 micrographs. Virchowstr. 5, D 2850 Bremerhaven, F.R.G. (izs)

80:1373 Maeda, M. and N. Taga, 1979. Chromogenic assay method of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for evaluating bacterial standing crop in seawater. J. appl. Bact., 47(1): 175-182. LPS in a range of 0.2 to 10 n g / m L was reliably d e t e r m i n e d using a e o t o r i m e t r i c m e t h o d . Distributions of LPS, chlorophyll-a and bacterial numbers in the neritie Sea of Japan are compared. Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Minamidai, Nakano, Tokyo 164, Japan. (mjj)


80:1374 Mikhajlenko, L. E. and A. S. Ftomov, 1979. Sanitary and microbiological characteristics of water bodies of the north-western part of the Black Sea. (In Russian; English abstract.) Gidrobiol. Zh., 15(3): 18-24. 80:1375 Mitskevich, I. N., 1979. The total number and biomass of microorganisms in deep waters of the B l a c k Sea. (In Russian; English abstract.) Mikrobiologiya, 48(3): 552-557. The numbers and biomass of' microorganisms were much greater in the hydrogen sulfide zone (depths over 150 m) of the Black Sea (3.8 to 34.9 x 103 cells/mL; 10.8 to 55.6 m g / m 3) than in the oxygen zone above 150 m, consisting primarily of filamentous forms (Lebedeva 1953, 1963) that apparently participate in sulfur turnover. (slr)

80:1376 Tan, Tihing Lok and H.-J. Ruger, 1979. Denitritiers in sediments of the Weser Estuary and the German Bight: densities of nitrate-dissimilating and nitrite-dissimilating bacteria. Veroff Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerh., 17(2): 189-197. The most probable numbers ( M P N / g dry wt sediment) of nitrate.dissimitating (denitrifying) bacteria ranged from 0 to 156 (up to 0.8% of heterotrophic bacteria). The MPN of nitritedissimilating bacteria (not capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite) ranged from 0 to 2352 (up to 13% of h e t e r o t r o p h i c b a c t e r i a ) . I n s t i t u t fur Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, D-2850 Bremerhaven, F.R.G. (mjj)

80:1377 Tejero, A., 1978. Estudio bacteriologico de la zona de afloramiento del NW de Africa: campana Atlor VII. II. Taxonomia numerica de bacterias heterotrofas aisladas en el NW de Africa. [Bacterial study of the upwelling region off NW Africa: Atlor VII cruise. II. Numerical taxonomy of heterotrophic bacteria.] Result. Exped. cient. B/ O Cornide de Saavedra, 7: 131-143. One hundred and seven pelagic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated and subjected to cluster analysis for phenotypic similarities; 8 groups were defined. Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras, Paseo Nacional, s/n. Barcelona-3, Spain. (slr)

80:1378 Tejero, A., E. Esteves and F. Vallespinos, 1978. E s t u d i o b a c t e r i o l o g i c o de la zona de


E. Biological Oceanography

afloramiento del NW de Africa: campana Atlor VII. I. Tecnicas de identificacion taxonomica y resultados. [Bacterial study of the upwelling region off NW Africa: Atlor VII cruise. I. Taxonomic identification procedures and results.] Result. Exped. cient. B~ 0 Cornide de Saavedra, 7: 59-76. Taxonomic investigations on 107 bacterial strains isolated proved difficult, but the bacteria may tentatively be identified as Aeromonas, Enterobacter,

Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, Cytophaga, Bacillus and Micrococcus. Includes a species list. Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras, Barcelona, Spain. (slr)

80:1379 Thormann, Detlef and Horst Weyland, 1979. Beziehungen zwischen verschiedenen Brackwasser- und Meeresbakterien und der wachstumshemmenden Wirkung yon Cadmium und Blei. [Relationships of various types of bacteria from brackish water and marine sediments to the growth inhibiting effect of cadmium and lead.] Veroff. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerh., 17(2): 163-188. Cd-sensitive bacteria were more sensitive to lead, and vice versa, than were tolerant strains. Gramnegative bacteria were more tolerant of Cd and Pb than were gram-positive strains. Metal tolerance of isolates also varied with genus and geographical origin. I n s t i t u t fur Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, D-2850 Bremerhaven, F.R.G. (mjj)

80:1380 Tzschaschel, Gunter, 1979. Marine Rotatoria aus dem Interstitial der Nordseeinsel Sylt. [Marine rotifers from the interstitial zone of the North Sea Island of Sylt.] Mikrofauna Meeresbodens, 71:64 pp. Includes a species list, drawings and micrographs. Zoologisches Institut und Museum der Universitat, Gottingen, F.R.G. 80:1381 Vaughn, J. M., E. F. Landry, M. Z. Thomas, T. J. Vicale and W. F. Penello, 1979. Survey of h u m a n enterovirus occurrence in fresh and marine surface waters on Long Island. Appl. environ. Microbiol., 38(2): 290-296. A variety of surface water systems, including a lake, a creek, and two marine embayments, was analyzed on a monthly basis for indigenous human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. Findings are discussed in terms of the probable pollution sources and their relationship to data from


previous studies. Department of Energy and Environment, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N.Y. 11973, U.S.A.

80:1382 Wu, I. C. H. and C. R. Curds, 1979. A guide to the species of the genus Aspidisca [Ciliata]. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 34(6): 1-34. Diagrams, descriptions and species keys are included in this paper whose aim is to facilitate specific identifications of Aspidisca. Includes many drawings. Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. (sir)

7. B o t t o m f a u n a a n d f l o r a (including attached coastal forms) 80:1383 Chrzanowski, T. H., L. H. Stevenson and Bjorn Kjerfve, 1979. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate flux through the North Inlet Marsh system [North Carolina]. Appl. environ. Microbiol., 37(5): 841-848. There was a net import of adenosine 5'triphosphate (ATP) across the marsh-ocean interface, based on data gathered at three depths from 10 points across a large salt marsh creek. Maximum ATP levels were found at high tide and m i n i m u m v a l u e s at low t i d e . D e t a i l e d characterization of a creek transect for any parameter requires simultaneous measurement of both parameter concentration and velocity at every point sampled, since data corrected only for direction of flow may be misleading. Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine Biology and Coastal Research and Department of Biology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. 29208, U.S.A. (mjj)

80:1384 Cognetti, Giuseppe, 1978. On some aspects of the ecology of the benthic littoral polychaetes. Boll. Zool., 45(2): 145-154. A population dynamics approach is utilized in a consideration of the adaptations of polychaete communities to changing environmental conditions. Istituto di Zoologia, Universita di Modena, Italy. (izs)

80:1385 Dye, A. H., 1979. Aspects of the ecology of meiofauna in M n g a z a n a Estuary, Transkei. S. Afr. J. Zoo/., 14(2): 67-73.


E. Biological Oceanography

A fifteen-month survey of the distribution and abundance of meiofauna from an east South African estuary provided a base for comparison with estuarine work elsewhere in southern Africa. The area under study has been proposed for a new harbor complex, imbuing the research there with new importance in the assessment of developmental impact. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, P.O. Box 1600, Port Elizabeth, S. Africa. (slr) 80:1386 Hager, R. P. and R. A. Croker, 1979. Macroinfauna of northern N e w England marine sand. IV. Infaunal ecology of Amphiporeia virginiana Shoemaker, 1933 (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Can. J. Zool., 57(8): 1511-1519. A. virginiana's life history (previously undescribed) includes segregation by sex within the habitat and annual population fluctuations of up to 14-fold (geometric basis) which are related to life history events and sedimentation. The species is a dominant inhabitant of high energy beaches, occupies the upper 2.5 cm of sand and is a detritivore. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Stockton State College, Pomona, N.J. 08240, U.S.A. (smf)

80:1387 Kamihira, Yukiyoshi, 1979. Ecological studies of macrofauna on a sandy beach of Hakodate, Japan. II. On the distribution of peracarids and the factors influencing their distribution. (In Japanese; English abstract.) Bull. Fac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ., 30(2): 133-143. Vertical distributions (Sept. 1970-Nov. 1972) were influenced by peracarids' burrowing ability and desiccation tolerance. Two patterns of horizontal distributions were apparent: 'the density gradient of the animal population running parallel to beach lines' and extension of the population offshore in a p a t t e r n c o r r e s p o n d i n g to m i n u t e onshore topography. Laboratory of Biology, Hakodate College, 142 Takaoka-Cho, Hakodate, 042, Japan. (smf) 80:1388 Kinsey, D. W. and P. J. Davies, 1979. Effects of elevated nitrogen and phosphorus on coral reef growth. Limnol. Oceanogr., 24(5): 935940. Long term phosphate and nitrogen enrichment of a patch reef at One Tree Island, Great Barrier Reef, caused >50% suppression of reef calcification, attributed primarily to the phosphate. It is suggested that this effect is involved, together with algal competition and the more usually accepted depres-


sion of temperature, in reducing the growth rate of reefs adjacent to upwellings. It is possible that the effect was more general during the first half of the Holocene transgression. University of Georgia Marine Institute, Sapelo Island, Ga. 31327, U.S.A. 80:1389 Lukas, K. J., 1979. The effects of marine m i c r o p h y t e s on c a r b o n a t e s u b s t r a t a . (Review.) Scanning Electron Microsc., 1979(2): 44%455. Destructive effects on calcified tissues and inorganic carbonate substrata caused by endolithic microphytes are investigated. Algal boring rates are determined to be 0.3-36 um day ' . Filament densities, depth ranges and distributions of end o l i t h i c algae are d i s c u s s e d . The boring mechanism is not yet known, but it appears to be a chemical process. Includes 87 references. Department of Geology and Geography, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 12601, U.S.A. (rlo) 80:1390 Michanek, G., 1979. Phytogeographic provinces and seaweed distribution. Botanica mar., 22(6): 375-391. Phytogeographic groupings (tropical, warm temperate, cold temperate, subarctic and Arctic) are characterized and represented with a global map. The Resident Representative of the UNDP, P.O. Box 358, Tripoli, Libya. (mjj) 80:1391 Moore, C. G., 1979. The zonation of psammolittoral harpacticoid copepods around the Isle of Man. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 59(3): 711-724. Three species groups with similar distributions were identified from six sandy beaches: sublittoral fringe copepods; sand fiat interstitial copepods limited shoreward by lowered salinity and seaward by narrow pore diameters; and upper shore euryhaline interstitial species. Includes a species list. Regional Biology Laboratory, Wessex Water Authority, c/o Avon & Dorset Division, Nuffield Road, Poole, Dorset, England. (slr) 80:1392 Moore, C. G., 1979. The identification of faunal gradients and associations of meiobenthic copepods by multivariate analyses. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 59(3): 725-736. Distribution patterns of the meiofauna and macrofauna in the Irish Sea are closely related, although the meiofauna are more variable. A nearshore to offshore line is suggested along a gradient of decreasing sediment grain size, with


E. Biological Oceanography

separate faunal associations in muddy sand and pure m u d due to the narrow transitional zone between these sediment types. Regional Biology Laboratory, Wessex Water Authority, c/o Avon & Dorset Division, Nuffield Road, Poole, Dorset, England. (mjj) 80:1393 Tsukidate, Jun-ichi and Shigeki Takamori, 1978. The seasonal fluctuation of the biomass of Zostera m a r i n a and S a r g a s s u m horneri and their attached zooplankton and p h y t o p l a n k t o n in H o s o n o s u , H i r o s h i m a Prefecture [Japan]. (In Japanese; English abstract.) Bull. Nansei reg. Fish. Res. Lab., 11: 33-46. Seasonal variations in the length, wet weight and density of Z. marina were observed. Changes in the numbers, wet weight and species dominance of phytoplankton and zooplankton attached to both species were also determined as a function of time. (rio) 80:1394 Vance, R. R., 1979. Effects of grazing by the sea urchin, Centrostephanus coronatus, on prey community composition. Ecology, 60(3): 537546. Grazed control sites, ungrazed control sites and urchin removal sites were monitored over 27 monthly intervals for the composition and diversity of biota in each quadrant. The results demonstrated major changes in composition and increases in diversity in response to urchin removal. Grazing may actually increase diversity on a community-wide basis. Dietary preferences are reported. Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 90024, U.S.A. (rio)

10. Nekton (molluscs, fish and fisheries, reptiles and mammals) 80:1395 Agarkov, G. B. and S. A. Gilevich, 1979. On the problem of chemoreception in dolphins. (In Russian.) Vest. Zool., 1979(3): 3-11. Includes 11 micrographs. 80:1396 Boness, D. J. and H. James, 1979. Reproductive behaviour of the grey seal (Haliehoerus grypus) on Sable Island, Nova Scotia. J. Zool., Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 188(4): 477-500. An unusual mating system is described for western Atlantic grey seals--unusual in that this form of polygyny would be adaptive for pinnipeds breeding


on pack ice but is unique among land breeders. Males neither defend territoriesnor do they form dominance hierarchies but, rather, they vie for 'tenure,'the right to remain within the temporary aggregations formed by females. With circumstantial evidence suggesting that grey seals were originallypack-ice breeders, the persistence of this type of reproductive behaviour in a land-breeding colony raisessome interestingquestions. Includes 8 call sonograms. National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (izs) 80:1397 Condy, P. R., 1979. Annual cycle of the southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linn.) at Marion Island [southern Indian Ocean]. S. Air. J. Zool., 14(2): 95-102. The incidence of hauling out for breeding or moulting was observed for different age and sex classes. The mean monthly increase in day length was related to breeding haul-outs; temperature and radiation were causally linked with moulting haul-outs. M a m m a l Research Institute,University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. (rlo) 80:1398 Leatherwood, Stephen, C. L. Hubbs and Matilda Fisher, 1979. First records of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) from the Gulf of California with detailed notes on a mass stranding. Trans. San Diego Soc. nat. Hist., 19(3): 45-52. Includes 6 photos. Hubbs Sea World Research Institute, San Diego, Calif. 92109, U.S.A. 80:1399 Robins, C. R., D. M. Cohen and C. H. Robins, 1979. The eels, Anguilla and Histiobranchus, photographed on the floor of the deep Atlantic in the B a h a m a s . Bull. mar. Sci., 29(3): 401-405. The first documentation of an adult AnguiUa from 2000 m depth at Tongue-of-the-Ocean, Bahamas, is provided by photographs from the submersible, Alvin. It is unclear whether the specimen is AnguiUa anguiUa or AnguiUa rostrata. Includes 2 photos. Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, Fla. 33149, U.S.A. (izs) 80:1400 van Rhijn, F. A., 1979. Optic orientation in h a t c h l i n g s of the sea turtle, Chelonia mydas. I. Brightness: not the only optic clue in sea-finding orientation. Mar. Behav. Physiol., 6(2): 105-121. A 'redundant' system of orientation mechanisms encompassing both optic and non-optic corn-


E. BiologicalOceanography


ponents is indicated in C. mydas; the redundancy enables hatchlings to orient under various environmental conditions. Laboratory of Comparative Physiology, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands. (izs)

with unstable environments are considered as having arisen from two diverging evolutionary pathways. Dayton and Hessler's (1972) and Menge and Sutherland's (1976) intensive predation hypotheses are refuted. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, U.S.A. (izs)

12. General biological and logical studies and surveys

80:1405 Stevens, D. E. and H. K. Chadwick, 1979. Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary: biology and hydrology. Fisheries, 4(4): 2-6.


80:1401 Estes, J. A., 1979. Exploitation of marine mammals: r-selection of K-strategists? J. Fish. Res. Bd Can., 36(8): 1009-1017. This general discussion of the conceptual relationships among community ecology, life history evolution and the exploitation of marine mammals is intended to stimulate further consideration of the consequences of the exploitation of high trophic level predators. National Fish and Wildlife Laboratory, Center for Coastal Marine Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, Calif. 95064, U.S.A. (izs) 80:1402 Jorgensen, S. E. and H. Mejer, 1979. A holistic approach to ecological modelling. Ecol. Model., 7(3): 169-189. A holistic approach to ecological modelling is needed to deal with changes in ecosystem structure or to describe ecosystem responses by means of new functions such as 'exergy.' The modelling exercise presented examines the effects of model complexity and rate of phosphorus loading on ecological buffer capacity and exergy. Langkaer Vaenge, Vaerlose, Copenhagen, Denmark. (mjj) 80:1403 Proskurina, E. S., 1979. Condition and perspectives on acclimatizants' distribution in the Aral Sea. (In Russian; English abstract.) Gidrobiol. Zh., 15(3): 37-41. Changes in the numbers of euryhaline worms, molluscs and Caspian mysids were related to changes in salinity. (rlo) 80:1404 Sanders, H. L., 1979. Evolutionary ecology and life-history patterns in the deep sea. Sarsia, 64(1/2): 1-7. The stability of physical conditions is proposed as the determining factor in the high benthic diversity of the deep sea. Biologically Accommodated Communities associated with stable environments and Physically Controlled Communities associated

Knowledge of the environmental requirements of the aquatic community is summarized, with emphasis on the effects of estuarine hydrology on fish. Management conflicts, especially between the sport and commercial fishing interests, are also discussed. Bay-Delta Fishery Project, California Department of Fish and Game, Calif., U.S.A. (smf/

13. Biological effects of pollution, uptake and accumulation of elements, etc. 80:1406 Barber, R. T. and S. M. Warlen, 1979. Organochlorine insecticide residues in deep sea fish from 2500 m in the Atlantic Ocean. Environ. Sci. Technol., 13(9): 1146-1148. Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, N.C. 28516, U.S.A. 80:1407 Bayne, B. L., M. N. Moore, J. Widdows, D. R. L i v i n g s t o n e and P. Salkeld, 1978/79. Measurement of the responses of individuals to environmental stress and pollution: studies with bivalve molluscs. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 563-581. In an attempt to more clearly assess the effects of pollution, various methods for evaluating the physiological condition of Mytilus edulis, particularly as it relates to growth and fecundity, are presented. A cytochemical index of stress is described and a simple environmental transplant approach illustrated. Institute for Marine Environmental Research, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH, U.K. (slr) 80:1408 Bengtsson, B.-E., 1978/79. Biological variables, especially skeletal deformities in fish, for monitoring marine pollution. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 457-464.


E. Biological Oceanography

For a global monitoring program there are many practical limitations to the number of useful indicators. Skeletal deformities in fish are suggested as one possible indicator, and the occurrence, effects, causative factors and possible mechanisms of skeletal deformities in fish are reviewed. The National Environment Protection Board, Brackish Water Toxicology Laboratory, Studsvik, S-611 01 Nykoping, Sweden: 80:1409 Bijleveld, M. F. I. J., P. Goeldin and J. Mayol, 1979. Persistent pollutants in Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) in t h e w e s t e r n Mediterranean: a case-study with wide implications? Environ. Conserv., 6(2): 139-142. Seven eggs which did not hatch were analyzed for DDE, dieldrin, HE, HCB, PCB and mercury. High levels of DDE in these eggs suggested that further increases in DDT contamination could inhibit the reproductive success of L. audouinii. IUCN, 1110 Morges, Switzerland. (rio) 80:1410 Bryan, G. W., 1978/79. Bioaccumulation of marine pollutants. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 483-505. Absorption, storage and excretion of pollutants by marine organisms are discussed with particular reference to biological amplification along food chains and the development of tolerance. Ca. 150 references. Marine Biological Association, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, U.K. (mjj) 80:1411 Burton, J. D., 1978/79. P h y s i c o - c h e m i c a l limitations in experimental investigations [chemical speciation and biological impact]. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 443-456. Experimental simulations of sublethal pollution in seawater require that concentrations, activities and speciation of the p o l l u t a n t - - a n d other c h e m i c a l s which m a y i n d u c e s y n e r g i s t i c effects--accurately recreate those actually found in nature. This stringent requirement suggests that there are physico-chemical limits on the predictive value of such simulations. Toxic metal examples are used to illustrate this problem; nonequilibrium speciation is emphasized. Department of Oceanography, The University, Southampton SO9 5NH, U.K. (rlo) 80:1412 Cole, H. A., organizer, 1978/79. The assessment of sublethal effects of pollutants in the sea.


(Discussion held 24 and 25 May 1978.) Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 397-636; 14 papers. This discussion was held in collaboration with the Marine Pollution Subcommittee of the British National Committee on Oceanic Research, and considered (but not exclusively) topics such as: the need for sublethal studies, physico-chemical limitations in e x p e r i m e n t a l investigations, experiments with enclosed ecosystems, uses of experimental ecosystems, pollution-induced population changes, separation of natural from pollution-induced changes, and practical application of experiments and field trials to pollution control. (smf} 80:1413 Cushing, D. H., 1978/79. The monitoring of biological effects: the separation of natural changes from those induced by pollution. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 597-609. The impact of density independent mortality, such as that induced by pollution, generally shifts a fish population from K-strategy (self-stabilizing) to rstrategy (opportunism) and implies a decrease in density dependent mortality with a corresponding poor recovery in low stock populations. The impact upon high stock populations generates increased stock of decreased resilience with unknown consequences. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, U.K. (slr) 80:1414 Davies, J. M. and J. C. Gamble, 1978/79. Experiments with large enclosed ecosystems. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 523-544. Advantages and disadvantages of enclosure experiments are discussed as they relate to the problem of determining the effects of mercury in the marine environment. A need is cited for facilities which link pelagic and benthic systems. D.A.F.S., Marine Laboratory, Victoria Road, Torry, Aberdeen AB9 8DB, U.K. (izs) 80:1415 Eisler, R., 1978/79. Behavioural responses of marine poikilotherms to pollutants. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 507-521. Selected behavioural responses of marine fishes and invertebrates which are reportedly capable of disruption by petroleum, heavy metals, pesticides and other pollutants, are listed. Motor functions such as swimming performance, locomotion, and equilibrium, as well as physiological responses, especially respiratory patterns, may have some


E. BiologicalOceanography

potential for biomonitoring of wastes discharged into coastal environments. Includes ca. 110 references and a table: Behavioural responses of marine biota used as sublethal indicators of environmental stress. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, R.I. 02882, U.S.A.

80:1416 Furness, Robert and Malcolm Hutton, 1979. Pollutant levels in the great skua Catharacta skua. Environ. Pollut., 19(4): 261-268. Measurements of pollutant concentrations (PCB's, DDE, HCB, heavy metals and dieldrin) and correlation in eggs and tissues of great skuas collected at Foula, Shetland, are reported. The great skua appears a suitable indicator of offshore pollution in the northeast Atlantic due to its migration and feeding habits. Department of Zoology, Glasgow University, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland. (smf) 80:1417 G o e r k e , H e l m u t , 1979. N e r e i s v i r e n s (Polychaeta) in marine pollution research: culture methods and oral administration of a polychlorinated biphenyl. Veroff Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerh., 17(2): 151-161. The suitability of this sandworm for laboratory experiments on the fate of pollutants in marine invertebrates is reported. The animal will live and grow in an aquarium for about one year, and will ingest approximately 79% of food dosed with contaminants. Institut fur Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, D-2850 Bremerhaven, F.R.G. (rlo)

80:1418 Goulder, R., A. S. Blanchard, P. J. Metcalf and B. Wright, 1979. I n h i b i t i o n of e s t u a r i n e bacteria by metal refinery effluent. Mar. PoUut. Bull., 10(6): 170-173. Water samples from the Humber Estuary, England, adjacent to a discharge of metal refinery effluent were found to have high dissolved metal concentrations and low pH. Bacterial activities and concentrations of viable bacteria were low, indicating inhibition of bacteria and reduction in self-purification. Toxicity tests demonstrated that acid conditions, copper and arsenic probably contributed to bacterial inhibition. Department of Plant Biology, The University, Hull HU6 7RX, England.

80:1419 Gray, J. S., 1978/79. Pollution-induced changes in p o p u l a t i o n s . Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 545-561.


The earliest and most significant change caused by pollution in a community may be the departure from a log-normal distribution of individuals among species. The dominant species in a polluted area may be those which have a flexible life history rather than those able to tolerate adverse conditions. If so, data from toxicity tests may not be ecologically relevant. Institutt for matin biologi og limnologi, Universitetet i Oslo, P.B. 1064, Blindern, Oslo 3, Norway. (mjj) 80:1420 Harris, J. E., G. J. Fabris, P. J. Statham and F. Tawfik, 1979. Biogeochemistry of selected heavy metals in Western Port, Victoria, and use of invertebrates as indicators with emphasis on Mytilus edulis planulatus. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res., 30(2): 159-178. Relationships of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in sediments, seagrasses and several invertebrates were studied. High concentrations are related to an old swamp environment source area and to suspended sediment transported by the net bay circulation. Analytical artifacts and cautions when comparing metal levels in mussels from different areas are also discussed. Marine Chemistry Unit, Ministry fbr Conservation, 7b Parliament Place, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 3002. (bwt)

80:1421 Kamatani, Akiyoshi, Mikio Takahashi and Yoshimi Morita, 1979. Zinc uptake in marine diatoms. (In ,Japanese; English abstract.) Bull. japan. Soc. scient. Fish., 45(6): 715-719. CycloteUa nana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira decipiens required 0.1 u g / L zinc for normal growth. The addition of EDTA prevented toxicity at high Zn concentrations. Tokyo University of Fisheries, Konan, Minatoku, Tokyo 108, Japan. (mjj) 80:1422 Linko, R. R., P. Rantamaki, K. Rainio and K. Urpo, 1979. P o l y c h l o r i n a t e d biphenyls in plankton from the T u r k u Archipelago [Baltic Sea]. Bull. environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 23(1/2): 145-152. Despite Finland's partial control in 1970 of PCB use, pollution by chlorinated hydrocarbons as measured in plankton studies continues to be a problem and may affect the stability of the area's aquatic ecosystem. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Turku, SF-20500 Turku 50, Finland. (smf)


E. Biological Oceanography

80:1423 Middleditch, B. S., E. S. Chang and Brenda Basile, 1979. Alkanes in barnacles (Balanus tintinnabulum} from the Buccaneer oilfield [Gulf of Mexico]. Bull. environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 23(1/2): 6-12. D e p a r t m e n t of Biophysical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, Tex. 77004, U.S.A. 80:1424 Mironov, O. G. and T. L. Shchekaturina, 1979. Oil change in excretory products of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Mar. Pollut. Bull., 10(8): 232-234. Oil ingested by mussels appears in the faeces and pseudofaeces but differs in composition from the oil to which the animals are exposed. It contains more heavy fractions and larger aromatics, and there is a shift of aliphatic hydrocarbons towards heavier alkanes and isoprenoids. There is evidence that these changes are the result of metabolic processes. Institute of Biology of South Seas, Sevastopol, U.S.S.R. 80:1425 Mori, K., 1979. Effects of artificial eutrophication on the metabolism of the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas. Mar. Biol., 53(4): 361-369. Inflow of sewage into Matsushima Bay, Japan, apparently disturbs the lipid and steroid metabolism of cultured oysters, and induces excessive soft body growth and over-maturation of the gonad. As a result, mortalities of more than 50% occur during spawning. Includes tissue micrographs. Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Tohoku University, Sendal 980, Japan. (mjj) 80:1426 N a k a m u r a , Ryoichi, Motokazu N a k a h a r a , Toshiaki Ishii, Taishi Ueda and Chiaki Shimizu, 1979. Combining of radionuclides with constituent materials of marine algae. Bull. japan. Soc. scient. Fish., 45(6): 757-762. The distribution of l~7Cs and l°6Ru- l°6Rh in solvent extract fractions, and elution patterns in gelfiltration, differed both among the radionuclides and between the two species of Eisenia studied. Radionuclides were eliminated at different rates from different cellular constituents. Division of Marine Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki, Nakaminato, Ibaraki 311-12, Japan. (mjj) 80:1427 P e a k a l l , D. B. a n d A. P. G i l m a n , 1979. Limitations of expressing organochlorine


levels in [Larus argentatus] eggs on a lipidw e i g h t basis. Bull. environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 23(3): 287-290. Wildlife Toxicology Division, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Canada, KIA 0E7. 80:142ff Pearson, T. H. and S. O. Stanley, 1979. Comparative measurement of the redox potential of marine sediments as a rapid means of assessing the effect of organic pollution. Mar. Biol., 53(4): 371-379. Changes in the redox potential of reduced sediments in a sea loch system (Scotland) were related to fluctuating inputs of organic waste from a pulp and paper mill and also to subsequent faunal changes. Scottish Marine Biological Association, Dunstaffnage Marine Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 3, Oban PA34 4AD, Argyll, Scotland. (mjj) 80:1429 Perkins, E. J., 1978/79. The need for sublethal studies. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 425-442. Measurements based upon acute poisoning tell nothing of the impact that lower concentrations found at some distance from the waste source have upon the ability of the affected organisms to undertake the responses necessary to ensure survival, and more particularly to reproduce successfully. Such responses can only be investigated with truly sublethal studies. University of Strathclyde, Department of Biology, Marine Laboratory, The Fort, Kilcreggan, Dunbartonshire, G84 0JR, U.K. 80:1430 Petrilli, F. L., G. P. De Renzi, R. P. Morelli and S. De Flora, 1979. Survey of the pollution in a coastal area of the Tyrrhenian Sea: aerial photography, physico-chemical and microbiological investigations and mutagenic monitoring. War. Res., 13(9): 895904. Suspended solids were identified, pollution spreading was monitored, and the underwater env i r o n m e n t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d with a e r i a l photography involving panchromatic, infrared and w a t e r - p e n e t r a t i o n films. D o m i n a n c e of the heterotrophic bacteria by fecal streptococci indicated selective inactivation. Survival of bacteria, a virus and a viral antigen was tested in laboratory e x p e r i m e n t s s i m u l a t i n g various conditions. Includes 4 aerial photos. Institute of Hygiene, University of Genoa, Via Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa, Italy. (rio)


E. BiologicalOceanography

80:1431 Phillips, D. J. H., 1979. The rock oyster Saccostrea giomerata as an indicator of trace metals in Hong Kong. Mar. Biol., 53(4): 353360. Preliminary tests of S. glomerata as an indicator organism in subtropical or tropical waters were encouraging; profiles of metal abundance agreed with local distributions of industrial and domestic discharges. Fisheries Research Station, 100A Shek Pal Wan Road, Aberdeen, Hong Kong. (smf) 80:1432 Preston, A., 1978/79. S t a n d a r d s and environmental criteria: the practical application of the results of laboratory experiments and field trials to pollution control. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 611-624. The derivation of standards and their application to the regulation of marine environmental quality are discussed, including the role of monitoring. The significance of experimentally determined sublethal effects in relation to the setting of environmental standards is considered. Contemporary approaches to pollution control are compared. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, U.K. 80:1433 Ryther, John et al., 1979. Concentration of elements in marine organisms cultured in seawater flowing through coal-fly ash. Bull. environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 23(1/2): 207-210. Marine organisms (Mya arenaria,

Mercenaria virginica and Nereis

mercenaria, Crassostrea virens) cultured in seawater flowing through a bed of fly ash were analyzed for 40 elements. Observed concentrations of arsenic and selenium, probably the elements of most concern in terms of toxicity, appeared not to constitute a hazard. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, U.S.A. (smf) 80:1434 Stebbing, A. R. D., 1978/79. An experimental approach to the determinants of biological w a t e r q u a l i t y . Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 465-481. A bioassay technique was used to give an experimental index of water quality, by exposing the hydroid Campanularia flexuosa to water samples collected in the field. Contaminants (e.g., divalent metals and volatile hydrocarbons) responsible for a detected effect might be determined in conjunction with bioassays by selective removal of the contaminants from sea water. Institute for


Marine Environmental Research, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 2PB, U.K. (mjj) 80:1435 Thorhaug, Anitra, M. A. Roessler, S. D. Bach, Raymond Hixon, I. M. Brook and M. N. Josselyn, 1979. Biological effects of powerplant thermal effluents in Card Sound, Florida. Environ. Conserv., 6(2): 127-137. Three years of interdisciplinary studies concerning the effects of thermal effluents on the semi-tropical biotic communities of Card Sound are summarized. The investigations covered periods before, during and after the thermal discharges. Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Tamiami Campus, Miami, Fla. 33199, U.S.A. (rlo) 80:1436 Tucker, R. K., 1979. Effects of in-vivo exposure on ATPases in gill of the lobster, Homarus a m e r i c a n u s . Bull. environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 23(1/2): 33-35. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton, N.J. 08625, U.S.A. 80:1437 Vance, I., S. O. Stanley and C. M. Brown, 1979. A microscopical investigation of the bacterial degradation of wood pulp in a simulated marine environment. J. gen. Microbiol., 114(1)" 69-74. The breakdown of wood pulp effluent from a pulp and paper mill was studied in experimental tanks. Cellulolysis of secondary cell walls appeared due to bacterial activity, and a fibrillar material associated with bacteria was observed by electron microscopy. Bacteria in pulp cell lumena appeared inactive. Includes 5 micrographs. Division of Life Sciences, Polytechnic of Central London, 115 New Cavendish Street, London WlM 8JS, England. (mjj) 80:1438 van de Ven, W. S. M., J. H. Koeman and A. Svenson, 1979. Mercury and selenium in wild and experimental seals. Chemosphere, 8(8): 539555. The possible~involvement of selenium in the tissue distribution and breakdown of methylmercury in seals was investigated. A positive correlation between the concentrations of selenium and mercury was observed, although in-vitro studies with seal liver homogenates gave no insight into the role of selenium in the demethylation process.


E. Biological Oceanography


Koeman: Department of Toxicology, Agricultural University, De Dreijen 12, 6703 BC Wageningen, The Netherlands. (slr)

14. Cultures, rearing experiments and aquaculture

80:1439 Waldichuk, M., 1978/79. Review of the problems [of sublethal effects of marine pollutants]. Phil. Trans. R. Soc., (B)286(1015): 399-424.

80:1442 Mendelssohn, Roy, 1979. Determining the best trade-off between expected economic return and the risk of undesirable events when m a n a g i n g a randomly varying population. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can., 36(8): 939-947.

Insidious, subtle and oftentimes inducing no overt s y m p t o m s of distress, sublethal effects of pollutants can exact their toll on marine fish stocks causing declines and eventual disappearance, Types of sublethal effects, bioassays, controlled ecosystem experiments, extrapolation of real-world data from laboratory results, pollution control, establishing 'safe' concentrations of toxicants, and distinguishing fluctuations in fisheries caused by natural environmental factors from those caused by pollutants are all discussed in the context of maintaining healthy marine fish stocks. Ca. 90 references. Department of Fisheries and the Environment, Fisheries and Marine Service, Pacific Environment Institute, West Vancouver, B.C., V7V 1N6, Canada. (izs)

80:1440 White, D. H., K. A. King, C. A. Mitchell, E. F. Hill and T. G. Lamont, 1979. Parathion causes secondary poisoning in a laughing gull breeding colony. Bull. environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 23(1/2): 281-284. Parathion applied to cotton fields near Corpus Christi, Texas, in June 1978 was responsible for extensive mortality among adults and immature Larus atriciUa. This is probably the first recorded instance of an organophosphate insecticide killing due to insects carried to the young by adults. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Gulf Coast Field Station, P. O. Box 2506, Victoria, Tex. 77901, U.S.A. (smf) 80:1441 Zaroogian, G. E., 1979. Studies on the deputation of cadmium and copper by the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Bull. environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 23(1/2): 117-122. Tissue concentrations of Cd and Cu did not decrease with time in 'clean' water with decreasing temperatures. However, total Cd content did decrease as soft tissue weights decreased during the experimental period. Environmental Research Laboratory, South Ferry Road, Narragansett, R.I. 02882, U.S.A. (mjj)

Certain conditions imply the existence of policies that 'minimize risk' of undesirable events for stochastic harvesting models. For many problems, either such a policy will not exist, or else it is an 'extreme' policy that is equally undesirable. Techniques are given to systematically trade off decreases in the long-run expected return with decreases in the long-run risk. Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Honolulu, Hawaii 96812, U.S.A.

80:1443 Noriega-Curtis, Pedro, 1979. P r i m a r y productivity and related fish yield in intensely manured fishponds. Aquaculture, 17(4): 335344. Results of organic manuring experiments indicate that primary productivity is not sufficient to account for the high fish yields attained in manured systems. It is suggested that manuring may function both as a fertilizer and as a fish growth promoter through some as yet undefined pathway. Apdo. Postal 94-28, Mexico 10, D.F., Mexico. (izs)

80:1444 Prieur, D. and J. P. Carval, 1979. Bacteriological and physieo-chemical analysis in a bivalve hatchery: techniques and preliminary results. Aquaculture, 17(4): 359-374. It was concluded that food, through its contribution of nutrient salts and bacteria, had a major influence on larval culture. The physico-chemical characteristics of seawater were not modified by heat or filtration t r e a t m e n t s , nor b a c t e r i a eliminated. In effect the larvae were raised in an artificial environment subject to marked fluctuations which had mechanical and biological origins. Laboratoire de Zoologie, Aquaculture et Pollutions Marines, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 6, avenue le Gorgeu, 29283 Brest Cedex, France.



16. Miscellaneous 80:1445 Caldwell, M. M., 1979. Plant life and ultraviolet radiation: some perspective in the history of the Earth's UV climate. Bioscience, 29(9): 520-525. The early and recent history of the Earth's ultraviolet radiation climate as well as some prospects for the future are discussed in relation to effects of this radiation on the nucleic acids and photosynthetic systems of plant life. Department of Range Science and the Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, U.S.A.

80:1446 Herring, P. J., 1978/79. Marine ecology and natural products. Pure appl. Chem., 51(9): 1901-1911. Products involved in interactions between organisms are divided into those whose function is based either on their physical properties or on their chemical properties. The latter group is considered in detail and particular emphasis is given to the role of chemical communication in the marine environment. Includes 201 references. Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley, Surrey, GU8 5UB, U.K.

F. GENERAL 1. Applied oceanography 80:1447 Count, B. M., 1979. Exploiting wave power. IEEE Spectrum, 16(9): 42-49. The major projects (in particular those of Britain, Japan, the International Energy Agency), approaches (Salter cams, Cockerell rafts, Kaimei schemes, air buoys, rectifiers), and problems (transferring low power at high torque, energy transmission ashore, cost) are all briefly covered. Central Electricity Generating Board, Southampton, England. (fcs) 80:1448 Haren, Pierre and Chiang C. Mei, 1979. Wave power extraction by a train of rafts: hydrodynamic theory and optimum design. Appl. Ocean Res., 1(3): 147-157. Linear shallow water theory, verified by numerical methods for arbitrary wavelength, is used to test the efficiency, wave forces, raft movements, optimum design and cost effectiveness of raft trains which generate energy through wave-induced rotation about hinges. Two or three rafts are found to be adequate; this device is compared with Salter's cam. Parsons Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, U.S.A. (rio)

2. Navigation, mapping



80:1449 Volovov, V. I., V. V. Krasnoborod'ko, Yu. P. Lysanov and V. A. Sechkin, 1979. Acoustical determination of the course speed and lateral drift of a ship. Soy. Phys. Acoust. (a translation of Akust. Zh.), 25(2): 162-163. This acoustical technique for determining course speed and lateral drift of a vessel is based upon 'simultaneous measurement of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation coefficients of fluctuations of the envelopes of bottom-reflected sound signals.' Major advantage of the method lies in its ability to measure small ship speeds relative to the bottom. Acoustics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. (izs)

3. Interdisciplinary apparatus, methods, mathematical and statistical techniques 80:1450 Barnett, T. P. and K. Hasselmann, 1979. Techniques of linear production, with application to oceanic and atmospheric