Journal of Alloys and Compounds 688 (2016) 111e117
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Bismuth modiﬁed shielding properties of zinc boro-tellurite glasses M.I. Sayyed Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
a r t i c l e i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Article history: Received 21 May 2016 Accepted 15 July 2016 Available online 18 July 2016
In the present work, the gamma ray shielding properties of tellurium oxide based quaternary glasses in the system TeO2-B2O3-Bi2O3-ZnO have been investigated. By using WinXCom software, mass attenuation coefﬁcients (m/r), half value layers (HVL), effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (Ne) for total photon interaction in the energy range of 1 keVe100 GeV were calculated. The values of m/r and Zeff found increase with an increase in Bi2O3 content. The obtained results of the selected glass systems have been compared, in terms of m/r and HVL with commercial window glasses, some common shielding concretes, and other glass systems in order to test the validity of these glass systems with respect to the radiation shielding. The shielding effectiveness of the selected glasses is found comparable to that of common ones; which indicates that the tellurium glasses may be developed as gamma ray shielding materials. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Tellurite glasses Half value layer Shielding WinXCom program
1. Introduction Research interest on tellurite glasses has been encouraged by their various unique properties like low melting temperature , good chemical resistance , high dielectric constant , low crystallization ability , good transmission for infrared rays with a wide range of wavelengths [5,6], high thermal stability  and low phonon energy [8,9]. Tellurite glasses have potential applications in medical, civil, photonic and military areas such as in thermal imaging, production of ﬁber laser, optical ampliﬁer, optical data storage, infrared laser power delivery, windows of the laser radar, aerial reconnaissance and surveillance [10e15]. It is known that pure tellurium oxide (TeO2) does not have glass forming ability under normal quenching rates; thus it requires the presence of other components to form a glass. It is found that heavy metal oxides (HMO) or halogens increment the chemical stability and devitriﬁcation resistance [16e19]. Heavy metal oxides (HMO) such as Bi2O3 can be inserted into tellurite glasses. These glasses possess high refractive index, and exhibit large optical basicity, large optical susceptibility values and large polarizability [20,21]. At the present time, lead oxide glasses have been restricted in different industries due to it is hazardous to human, animal or environment . In this setting, bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) has been a convenient replacement of lead oxide in glass preparation because it has important properties like low melting
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temperature, non-toxicity, high refractive index, and wide transmission range. Hence, Bi2O3-containing glasses ﬁnd their use in mechanical and thermal sensors, reﬂecting windows, electronic devices and radiation-protection aims. Boric acid (B2O3) is one of the excellent glass formers and can form glass with high chemical durability, thermal stability, good rare-earth ion solubility and good transparency . Moreover, zinc oxide (ZnO) is interesting glass formers. It is known that glasses containing large quantity of ZnO have low melting temperature. Low melting glasses containing large amount of PbO, which have been the mainstay of electronic equipment design manufacture are currently unfavorable due to an environmental factors. This gives rise to the signiﬁcance of lowering temperature of glasses with high quantity of ZnO rather than PbO. A number of researches have been reported on structural [24e27], thermal [28,29], electrical [30e33], optical [34e37] and elastic [38,39] properties of tellurite-based glasses. Radiation shielding properties are considered important for the chosen of glasses for a speciﬁc application as it provides appropriate details on the ability of a glass to shield a photon of certain energy. In the literature there is no extensively work on radiation shielding properties of tellurite glasses. This encourages us to investigate the gamma ray interaction of the tellurite glasses in terms of the different parameters. Such work is important because it reﬂects the shielding effectiveness of tellurite-based glasses and their ability to reduce the intensity of ionizing radiation. The fundamental parameters which characterize the interaction
M.I. Sayyed / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 688 (2016) 111e117 Table 1 Chemical compositions and density of the investigated tellurite glasses. 60TeO2: xBi2O3: (30-x): B2O3: 10ZnO glasses. Sample
Weight fraction in percentage
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0 5 10 15 20
4.415 4.847 5.249 5.610 6.036
Te(0.479), Te(0.479), Te(0.479), Te(0.479), Te(0.479),
Mass attenuation coefficient (cm /g)
Zn(0.080) Zn(0.080), Zn(0.080), Zn(0.080), Zn(0.080),
Bi(0.045) Bi(0.089) Bi(0.135) Bi(0.179)
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
12 10 8
1 0.1 0.01 1E-3
Photon energy (MeV)
Fig. 3. Electron density of the selected glasses with photon energy for total photon interaction from 1 keV to 100 GeV.
The tellurite-based glasses were selected for the work and the density was obtained from Ref. .
2. Theoretical background When a beam of monochromatic radiations having an initial intensity I0 passes through a medium, the intensity of the beam will be attenuated according to exponential attenuation law (LambertBeer law) which can be expressed as :
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
Photon energy (MeV)
Fig. 1. Mass attenuation coefﬁcients m/r of the selected glasses with photon energy for total photon interaction from 1 keV to 100 GeV.
O(0.347), O(0.317), O(0.288), O(0.259), O(0.229),
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
B(0.093), B(0.078), B(0.062), B(0.047), B(0.031),
I ¼ I0 exp½ðm=rÞx
Photon energy (MeV) Fig. 2. Effective atomic numbers of the selected glasses with photon energy for total photon interaction from 1 keV to 100 GeV.
of gamma rays with shielding materials are the mass attenuation coefﬁcient (m/r), mean free bath (MFP), half value layer (HVL), effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Ne). The main objective of this article is to (a) investigate Zeff and Ne for 60 TeO2xBi2O3-(30-x)-B2O3-10ZnO glasses with x ¼ 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol% using WinXCom program in the energy region of 1 keVe100 GeV, (b) make comparison of this glass systems in terms of m/r and HVL with commercial window glasses [40,41], some common shielding concretes , and other glass systems [43,44], to examine the validity of this glass systems with respect to the radiation shielding.
where I0 and I represent the incident intensity and transmitted intensity respectively, x is sample mass thickness and m/r is the mass attenuation coefﬁcient (cm2/g). The mass attenuation coefﬁcient m/r is a measure of the probability of interactions of photon with matter . It is the basic tool used to derive other photon interaction parameters. The m/r, for any chemical compound or a mixture of element is given by Ref. .
where wi is the fractional weight of the ith constituent in the mixture and (m/r)i is the total mass attenuation coefﬁcient that have been obtained from WinXCom software [49,50]. This program is able to give partial cross sections, total cross sections and attenuation coefﬁcients for different interaction processes, like coherent and incoherent scattering, pair production and photoelectric absorption, for different elements, compounds and mixtures in the energy range of 1 keVe100 GeV. Effective atomic number (Zeff) is quantity that describes the
M.I. Sayyed / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 688 (2016) 111e117
Fig. 4. Total mass attenuation coefﬁcient of the selected glasses and different types of commercial window glasses.
Fig. 5. Half value layers of the selected glasses and different types of concretes.
properties of the composite materials (compounds or mixtures) in terms of equivalent elements, and it varies with energy. The
calculated values of m/r were used to calculate Zeff according to the following equation [43,46]:
M.I. Sayyed / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 688 (2016) 111e117
Fig. 6. Half value layers of the selected glasses and lead borate and nickel borate glasses.
value (I0), and can be calculated using the following expression :
m i fi Ai r
Aj j fj Zj
i m r
where fi is the fractional abundance of the element i relative to the number of atoms providing that S fi ¼ 1, Ai is the atomic weight, and Zi is the atomic number. The effective atomic number (Zeff) is related to another quantity called effective electron density (Ne) which describes the number of electrons per unit mass of the interacting materials and measured in electrons/g, which is calculated using the following equation :
n Zeff Zeff Ne ¼ NA P ¼ NA A i ni Ai
where A is the mean atomic mass and NA is Avogadro constant. The half-value layer (HVL) is deﬁned as the thickness of the material that reduces the photon beam intensity to 50% of its initial
where: m represents the linear attenuation coefﬁcient; which is equal multiplication of mass attenuation coefﬁcient value and density of the glass sample and measure in unit (cm1).
3. Results and discussion The chemical composition of the glass samples and densities used in this investigation are given in Table 1. The variations of m/r, Zeff and Ne with incident photon energy for the selected glasses in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV are shown in Figs. 1e3 respectively. Fig. 4(aec) shows the comparison of tellurite glasses with commercial window glasses in terms of m/r. In addition, the results of tellurite glasses have been compared in terms of HVL values with several common radiation shielding concretes, leadnickel borate glasses, and heavy metal oxides (Figs. 5e7).
M.I. Sayyed / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 688 (2016) 111e117
Fig. 7. Half value layers of the selected glasses and heavy metal oxides.
3.1. The mass attenuation coefﬁcients
3.2. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities
The variation of mass attenuation coefﬁcients (m/r) with incident photon energy in the range from 1 KeV to 100 GeV for the selected glasses is shown in Fig. 1. Obviously, from Fig. 1 the values of m/r, for all glass samples, decrease exponentially with the increase of the photon energy. It is observed that the values of m/r of the selected glass systems are very large (~6 103 cm2/g) in the low energy region (E < 80 keV) and decrease quickly with increasing the energy. Also, in this energy region,, discontinuities in values of m/r were observed at different energies due to K-, L- and M-absorption edge of Zn, Te and Bi as shown in Table 2. In the intermediate energy region (80 KeV < E < 10 MeV), m/r values decrease at a slower rate, while for E > 10 MeV m/r values become nearly constant with further increase of energy. These observed variations in m/r values can be easily explained by adopting the three well-know photon scattering in matter. The photoelectric effect and pair production processes appearing at lower and higher energy regions on the other hand within the intermediate energy region the Compton scattering process is the dominate one. It is observed that m/r values increase with increment in Bi2O3 content in tellurite glasses. In such case one can conclude (which is clearly shown in Fig. 1) that the m/r values for glass sample with 20 mol% Bi2O3 are the largest among the tellurite glasses, hence, this sample is a superior gamma ray shielding glasses.
The variation of Zeff and Ne with photon energy for the tellurite glasses has been shown in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively, for total interaction process. The atomic numbers and atomic masses of the elements were taken from IUPAC . Clearly, the value of Zeff for all glass samples increases with the increment of the incident photon energy and sudden jumps occur at 9.66 KeV, 31.18 KeV and 90.53 KeV (Fig. 3). These sudden jumps can be explained on the basis of k edge absorption of Zn, Te and Bi respectively. The values of the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), in the energy range 6e20 keV, are nearly independent of the photon energy, for the glass samples. Thereafter, from 70 keV to 600 keV, a quick decrease in the effective atomic number (Zeff) occurs with increasing the incident photon energy for all the glass samples; this can be explained based on the dependence of cross-section of photoelectric process which varies inversely with the photon energy as E3.5. With further increase of photon energy in the range 0.6e3.0 MeV, the value of Zeff becomes nearly independent of photon energy, for all the glass samples. This may be due to dominance of Compton scattering process. As the photon energy increases above 3.0 MeV, the value of Zeff slowly increases and becomes nearly constant above 50.0 MeV. This can be explained on the basis of dominance of pair production in this higher energy region. As shown in Fig. 3, the variation of electron density (Ne) with photon energy, in the range 1 KeV to 100 GeV, has demonstrated the same behavior of Zeff.
Table 2 Photon energies (in KeV) of absorption edges for elements. Element
Zn Te Bi
30 52 83
e e 2.580
e e 2.688
e e 3.177
e e 3.696
e 1.006 3.999
1.020 4.340 13.420
1.043 4.612 15.710
1.194 4.939 16.390
9.659 31.180 90.530
M.I. Sayyed / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 688 (2016) 111e117
Fig. 4 shows the mass attenuation coefﬁcient (m/r) of tellurite glass systems in the present work compared with various types of commercial window glasses [40,41]. From Fig. 4, it can be observed that all the glass systems in this investigation exhibited with slightly higher values of mass attenuation coefﬁcient against the commercial window glasses except in the intermediate energy region where Compton scattering is pre-dominance. The half value layer (HVL) is one of the most suitable quantities describing the radiation attenuation. For a better radiation shielding material, lower HVL values are required. In order to test for practical usage, the selected tellurite glasses have been compared in terms of HVL with common shielding concretes (ordinary, hematite-serpentine, ilmenite-limonite, basalt-magnetite, ilmenite, steel-scrap, steel-magnetite), borate and nickel borate glasses  and heavy metal oxides  and the results are shown in Figs. 5e7 respectively. From Figs. 5 and 6 it can be observed that all selected glasses have lower values of HVL than the standard shielding concretes in the energy range 20 KeV to 100 GeV, than Na2B4O7 and 90Na2B4O710NiO glasses in the energy range 30 KeV to 100 GeV. From 40 KeV to 100 GeV all tellurite glasses have lower values of HVL than 90Na2B4O7-2PbO-8NiO, 90Na2B4O7-4PbO-6NiO and 90Na2B4O76PbO-4NiO glasses. Also, all selected glasses have lower values of HVL than 90Na2B4O7-6PbO-4NiO and 90Na2B4O7-10PbO glasses from 80 KeV to 100 GeV. from 300 KeV to 100 GeV 70PbO-30SiO2 has lower value of HVL than S1 and S2, from 200 KeV to 40 MeV 70PbO-30SiO2 has higher values of HVL than S3 and beyond 40 MeV S3 has slightly higher values of HVL than 70PbO-30SiO2, whereas from 200 KeV up to 100 GeV 70PbO-30SiO2 has lower value of HVL than S4 and S5 (see Fig. 7). Also, from Fig. 7 it can be seen that the HVL of S1 e S3 are higher than 70Bi2O3-30SiO2 from 500 KeV to 100 GeV, except from 600 KeV to 7 MeV where S3 has lower values of HVL than 70Bi2O330SiO2 in this interval. S4 has lower values of HVL than 70Bi2O330SiO2 from 300 KeV to 20 MeV, after 20 MeV the values of HVL of S4 becomes higher than 70Bi2O3-30SiO2, while the values of HVL for S5 is lower than 70Bi2O3-30SiO2 from 200 KeV to 100 GeV. All samples S2-S5 have lower values of HVL than 70Bi2O330B2O3 ranging from 200 KeV up to 40 MeV, and thereafter the values of HVL for 70Bi2O3-30B2O3 become higher than S4 and S5. The HVL of 10 ZnO-30 Bi2O3-60 B2O3 are higher than all samples from 200 KeV to 100 GeV, except for S1 and beyond 30 MeV where it seems to has the same values of HVL with 10 ZnO-30 Bi2O3-60 B2O3. Finally, all samples S1-S6 have lower values of HVL than 70 BaO-30SiO2 from 150 KeV to 100 GeV. In the light of these results, one can conclude that tellurite glasses have shielding properties that is comparable or better than commercial window glass, some standard concretes and glass systems. This reﬂects the advantage of using tellurite glasses in radiation shielding. 4. Conclusion Mass attenuation coefﬁcients (m/r), half value layers (HVL), effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (Ne) for 60TeO2-xBi2O3-(30-x)-B2O3-10ZnO, where x ¼ 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol.%, have been investigated for total photon interaction in the energy range of 1 keVe100 GeV by using WinXCom program. The values of m/r and Zeff were found to increase with increasing gamma energy and Bi2O3 concentration. The obtained results of the selected glass systems have been compared, in terms of m/r and HVL with commercial window glasses, some common shielding concretes, and other glass systems in order to test the validity of these glass systems with respect to the radiation shielding. The
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