Volume 11, Part 3, August 1997
BOLETUS JUNQUILLEUS - SOME RECENT RECORDS FROM HAMPSHIRE GRAHAM MATTOCK 16 Gordon Avenue, Winchester, Hants. 8023 OQQ Boletus junquilleus Quel. is a distinctive medium
to large bolete immediately noticeable when young by its sulphur-yellow fruit body. The cap ages yellowish tawny-brown, becoming dark brown at the centre. The stipe, initially concolorous with the cap, disrupts into small brown scales on a yellow background at maturity. The pores are small and yellow. On contact all parts bruise blue, eventually black. On exposure to air the yellow flesh rapidly changes to deep blue. There can be no doubt that this bolete is very rare in Britain and Europe. Even so it is difficult to explain why it was overlooked until Dennis, Orton & Hora included it in the New Check List of British Agarics and Boleti, Part IB (1960). A similar rare bolete of rotting sawdust heaps, B. sulphureus Fr., had been recorded in British texts since early this century. A detailed description of B. junquilleus is given by Reid (1968) based on collections from Windsor Great Park, probably the most important and well studied site in Britain for boletes. This publication also clarifies the confusion over the naming of this Boletus. A fungus that was originally recorded from France and then from Britain was included in the New Check List as B. pseudosulphureus Kallenb.; this was based on a collection made in 1958 from Gannochy, Edzell, Angus. The Check List also includes an entry for B. junquilleus, synonymised with B. discolor (Quel.) Gilbert. The name B. discolor was originally used for a yellow bolete with red-orange pores, red flesh in the stem base and a red punctate stem, a member of the Luridi complex. B. junquilleus is now usually synonymised with B. pseudosulphureus (Reid, 1968) and B. discolor is considered as a separate species. Much of the confusion over the identification arises from the variation in the amount of red pigmentation found at the pore mouths, in the stem base and on the stem itself. It has been suggested that this is due to climatic conditions, the red coloration only showing as a result of low temperatures (Reid, 1968).
I made a careful study of a group of sulphuryellow capped boletes found in the New Forest in late October 1995 (Fig 1, A - C). The stems were yellow, spotting rust colour with age. The pores were yellow and although discolouring slightly when old showed no orange tints. These are features of B. junquilleus as described by Reid (1968) and of B. pseudosulphureus as described by Watling (1970). The cut yellow flesh blued immediately and in older specimens there was a bright 'eye' of red in the stem base. This red pigmentation is more a feature of B. discolor though Quelet never emphasised red flesh in the base of the stem in his original description. Another interesting feature of the present record is the habitat. There was a well established group of fruit bodies scattered over a small area in a Pinus sylvestris plantation. The soil was sandy and large quantities of Rhizopogon luteolus Fr., a characteristic sandy coniferous species, were interspersed amongst the boletes. Typical B. erythropus was also abundant throughout the plantation. All previous records of B. discolor, B. junquilleus and B. pseudosulphureus from Britain have been associated with Fagus, Quercus and Tilia.
Gorner (1982) gives details of the status of B. junquilleus in Germany, where it is very rare with only a few records. The evaluation of the German habitat data suggests that B. junquilleus is an acidophile species with mycorrhizal partners including Fagus and Quercus. A series of records from the Dubener heathland is of interest, since B. junquilleus fruited in successive years in a Fagus sylvatica forest with Pinus sylvestris stumps on sandy soil. A mycorrhizal relationship with Pinus could therefore be a possibility. The distribution of B. junquilleus in Britain is unclear due to insufficient data. The few records are from Windsor Great Park with Quercus and Tilia, and from Borrowdale in the Lake District, again under Quercus. It would seem to be rare though widespread in Hampshire, particularly in
Volume 11, Part 3, August 1997 the New Forest. Records include a collection from Ashurst in 1976 with Quercus, and in 1992 Prof. Hans Kreisel found and identified B. junquilleus there during the European Mycological Congress. Additional finds have been made at West Wood near Winchester in August 1991 and 1992, both records associated with Quercus . B . p seudosulphureus was identified by Roy Watling from a New Forest collection in 1993. B. junquilleus has been neglected in most general field guides on British fungi until recently. The Collins New Generation Guide (Buczacki, 1989) carries a description and illustration and the field guide by Courtecuisse & Duhem (1995) has an excellent illustration. As far as I know it has not been shown photographically in any British texts. It is hoped that the publication of these colour photographs will lead to more records and data on this obscure bolete. References Buczacki, S. (1989) Fungi of Britain and Europe. Collins New Generation Guide. Courtecuisse, R. & Duhern, B. (1995)
Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and Europe. Collins Field Guide. Dennis, R. W. G., Orton, P. D. & Hora, F. B. (1960) New Check List of British Agarics and Boleti Part lB. Supplement to Transactions
of the British Mycological Society 43. Gomer, H. (1982) Boletus 6th. Year, Vo1.2, 38 40. Reid, D. A. (1968) Coloured leones of Rare and Interesting Fungi, Part 3, I - 5. Watling, R. (1970) British Fungus Flora, Agarics and Boleti VoLl Boletaceae: Gomphidaceae: Paxillaceae.
and other Cryptogam
Bought and Sold New, out of print and antiquarian catalogue available Binders for the Mycologist £6-00 each inclusive P+P Fig 1 Boletus junquilleus, Pitts Wood Inclosure, the New Forest, 23 October 1995. A Young specimens showing yellow caps and intense discolouration when bruised. B Mature specimens showing intense bluing of the cut flesh and the red eye at the stem base. C Old specimens showing pores remaining yellow, except where bruised.
Pendleside Books, Fence, Nr. Burnley, BB12 9QA Telephone. 01282 615617