Brine substitute liquids for soil freezing at very low temperatures

Brine substitute liquids for soil freezing at very low temperatures

71A 823188 STOPPTR~ WATER WITH CHEMICAL GROUT Jaques, W B Civ Emgng, %51, NI2, Dec 1981, P59-62 Discusses acrylamlde, urethane, polyacrylamide and ac...

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823188 STOPPTR~ WATER WITH CHEMICAL GROUT Jaques, W B Civ Emgng, %51, NI2, Dec 1981, P59-62 Discusses acrylamlde, urethane, polyacrylamide and acrylate g r o n t s a n d t h e i r use, mode Of action and toxicity.

82319~ E~G~RING-PHYSIOAL BASIS OF Tm4PERRmmE R~IME P~ION OF GROUND MASSIFS IN CONS~RUC%~ION Melnikov, P I; Makarov, V I; Plotnlkov, A A EDgDg Geol, V18, NI-~, Dee 1981, P165-17~ (Paper to 2ni International Symlx~slum on Ground Freezing, Trondheim, 2~-26 June 1980)

823189 EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL CONS(E/DATION IN DEVEIX)PMENT WOf~ (IN RUSSIAN) But~nko, I T UgOl Ukr, Ng, Sept 1980, Pl~-15

Discusses ground temperature re~ regulation used to strer~then f~ions. Diagrams are present~-d to show methods of ~ n g heat exchsu~e corditlons on the boundaries of a massif used as the base of a building. Peculiarities of these seasonally functioning hea~ exchange devices a~i systems are discussed. Lo~6T~.rm forecaats of grour~ t e m p e r a t u r e fields a r e seen as Imp(Etan%, and experimental data on migration l~hencme~a in freezing soils and methods of nmaerical modelling of cooled massifs are discussed.

Describes t h e u s e o f urea r e s i n to reinforce unstable roof strata in t h e ~ , ~ n o v a colliery, Russia.

823190 CONSOLIDATIONOF GROUNDWITH POLYURRI"z{ANEIN COAL MINES (IN GI~%MAN) Maur er, H Berg Huttemmam~sche Monatsh, V125~ NS, Aug 198o, ~0~-~09 Discusses the advantages ani disadvantages of polyurethan~ in~ection for use in roadways, faces and at T-Jurmtions. Equipment ard m e t h o d s u s e d are a l s o described.

823195 OPTIMIZATION OF THE F R ~ : PIPE ARRANGEMENt AI~ THE NECESSARY REFRIGERATION PLANT CAPACITY BY A FEM-COMMEER PROGRAM Jessbarger, H L; Makowskl, E Emgmg Oeol, VlS, NI-~, Dee 1981, P17~-188 (Paper to 2nd Internatlo~al Symposium on Ground Freezing, Tromlheim, 24-26 June 1980)

823191 GROUND CONSOLIDATION PROCEDURES (IN FRENCH) Dracon, C Publ Tech Charbon Fr, N~, I~80, P235-272

A finite element program for the analysis of heat conduction in soils Is presented. The program simulating the real boundary conditions was especially developed for the artificial ground freezing method. It is applicable for the ther-~1 design, optimlsing freeze pipe ~ and arraDg~nent, freeze temperature, and refrigeration capacity.

The injection of grou~Ing, to re-establish the cohesive properties of the grourd, is discussed ard typical applications are described and assessed.

Freezing 82315~ GR0t~D FREEZING 1980. SPECIAL ISSUE Frivik, P E (editor); J ~ " b u , N (editor); Saetersdal, R (editor) EI~Dg Geol, VI8, NI-~, Dec 1981, ~llP

823196 THerMAL DESIGN OF ARTIFICIAL SOIL FREEZIRG SYSPEMS Frivik, P E; Thcrhergsen, E E~6~ng Geol, VI8, NI-4, Dec 1981, P189-201 (Paper to 2~i International Symposium on Ground Freezing, Tromdheim~ 2~-26 June 1980)

Contains 3~ Papers selected from t h e 90 presented at the 2rd International Symposium on Grourd Freezing, Tror~heim, Norway, 2~-26 June 1980, in the following sections: (i) mechanical properties and processes, (2) thermal properties, processes and d e s i g n s , (3) frost action in soils, (~) d e s i g n a n d c a s e histories. The Papers a r e given separate entries in this issue.

Thermal design of artificial soll freezing systems is discussed, with emphasis on computer codes based on finite difference and finite element methods. Results from simulations usimg a 1-dimensional finite difference l~ogram, and a 2-dimensloral finite element code are presented The programs are used to display ~ In~lusnce uf various design perameters: refrigeration capacities, material properties and ~ n e t r l e s . The 2-D program is then compared with a simplified arelytlcal method. Fl~ally a 2-D finite element program, computing combined heat anl seepage flow, is applied to a labcTatory modal of a soil freezing s~stem, and agreement with measured values of temperature and water flow is ahown to he acceptable.

823193 GROUND ~ Z I N G : THERMAL FROP~T~IES, MOD~I.TNG OF PROCESSES AND ~ DESIGN. STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT FrSvlk, P E E~ Geol, VI8, NI-~, Dec 19~I, PI15-133 (Paper to 2nd Internatlor~l Symposium on Ground Freezing, Trordheim, 24-26 June 1980) The p a p e r g i v e s an introduction t o current problems in the thermal d e s i g n o f artificial soil freezing systems, and is divided into 3 parts. The first psrt discusses thermal properties such as thermal coniuctlvlty and heat capacity. The second part examines mthematical modelling of processes important in artificial soil freezing: the rafrigeration process, including heat transfer from soil to plant, the cooling, freezing and subsequent thawing of soil, ard seepage flow. The third part discusses requir~nents and llmitations in thermal design. 45 refs.

823197

BRINE ~JBSTITUTE LIQUIDS FOR SOIL FREEZIRG VERY L0W TEMPERATURES De Pcreellinls, P; RoJo a J L Ending Geol, VI8, NI-~, Dec 1981, P203-210 ( P a p e r t o 2rid International S ~ P g s i ~ on Ground Freezimg, TroBihelmj 2~-26 June 1960) A mixture of terpenes (a by'Im~xlumt of distllllmg citrus fruit skins) has been suggested as an alternative to brine as a fl~ezlng fluid, s l ~ e brine is difficult to work with at temperature,, below -30 deg C. This paper describes the

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t h e r m a l and h ~ t r a u l i c l ~ o p e r t i e s o f t h i s p r o duct as functions of the temperature concerned, a r ~ c c ~ a r e s them t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f ~ r i n e s o f Calcium chloride. Field ~ e s t s , cc~pari~ the brine and terpene, were carried out t o check t h e o r e t i c a l statements made.

823198 E ~ G I ~ I R 3

QUALITY ASSURANCE FO~ CONSTRUCTION

S~uster, J A GeOl, ViS, NI-~, Dec 1981, P333-350 to 2zz:l. International S3~posium on Ground Freezing, Tro~dheim, 2~26 June 1980) P r e s e n t s d i s c u s s i o n s and recemmemdatione fc~ various c o n s t r u c t i o n operations and the related quality asslwamce n e c e s s a r y for az~ grou~i

freezi~ project. S~bJects covered include: site l~eparation, s~sm~face installation at' pipes, •i n s t a l l a t i o n o f refrigeration plant and coolant distribution ~stem, Imstrt~e~tatlon required, and excavation and simsltaneous protection of e x p o s e d f r o z e n soils. Concl~cleswlth recc~mendatlons fc~ applied research topics to be u r ~ taken. A discussion of t h e p a l e r is included as an al~l~d IX. 823199 ARTIFICIAL FREET~RG AND C0(~Ih~3 OF SOILS AT CONSTRUCTION SITES Sodovsk~, A V; Durman, Y A E ~ 0 g Geol, V18, NI-4, Dec 1981, P327-331 (Paper to 2nd Inter~atloml Symposium on Groumd Freezlmg, Tromdheim, 2[~-26 J u n e 1980) Presents a shc~'t survey of Soviet experience in the field of artificial freezing of soils, mostly used in mining and subway construction, illustrated with examples in t h e USER. A special field of cold al~xlication at the construction site is the cooling of soils which already have a negative temperature. 823200 E N G I ~ I ~ PRACTICE IN ARTIFICIAL GROUND F ~ Z I N G . STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT Jones, J S Engng Geol, VIS, NI-4, Dec 1981, P313-326 (Paper to 2rod International S~mp?sium on Groumd Freezing, Tror~heim, 24-26 June 1980)

Reviews the use of artificial ground freezing in tunnel and large diameter cofferdam construction. The design methcclology far a freezing system is then briefly examined: site expleration, laboratory testings thermal design, groumd movement considerations, amd structvral Ar~lyses. Lastly, current construction practices fc~ instrumentation systems and insulation techniques are discussed, together with the ,use of concrete adjacent to frozen soll walls. 63 refs.

823201 GROUND FREEZING - THE APPLICATION OF THE MIXED METHOD (~RINE-LIQUID N I ~ E ~ ) Gallavresi, F Engng Geol, V18, N1-4, Dec 1981, P361-375 (Paper to 2nd International Symposium on Ground Freezing, Tromdheim, 24-26 June 1980) The paper deals with different ground freezing techr~ques, ie open, closed and mixed systems. The main criteria of choice are defined, and experiments with the mixed system are outlined. In particular, the work carried out in Naples in 1979 is described where the mixed treatment was used to excavate below the water table for a sewer trunk line of 3.~0m diameter in the city centre and beneath existing buildings.

823202 NEW CONCEP~ FOR SIRKING ~

SHAFTS INTO GREAT D~A'~S Hegemann, J E ~ n g Geol, V18, NI-~, Dec 1981 , P385-393 ~Paper to 2rid International Symposium on Ground Freezimg, Trondheim, 24-26 June 1980)

Discusses studies undertaken in the sinking of the Voerde S~aft, Wals1~n Colliery, Germany. The location meant si~king the shaft 600m through soft and water-bearing strata, so freeze shafts were to be sur~. The lining had to be constructed as an absolutely watertight tube, and the associated investigations ard measurements are discussed.