Bruce-Chwatt's essential malariology

Bruce-Chwatt's essential malariology

494 TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE 1Book Reviews 1 Bruce-Chwatt’s Essential Malariology, 3rd edition. H. M. G...

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494 TRANSACTIONS

OF THE ROYAL

SOCIETY OF TROPICAL

MEDICINE

AND HYGIENE

1Book Reviews 1 Bruce-Chwatt’s Essential Malariology, 3rd edition. H. M. Gilles & D. A. Warrell (editors). Sevenoaks: Edward Arnold, 1993. xix+34Opp. Price 550. ISBN 0-340-57190-X. The late Professor Leonard Bruce-Chwatt wrote the first 2 editions of this text as monographs; the first was published in 1980 and the second in 1985. Now, 2 senior figures in tropical medicine have taken over the revising of the book, and to assist in this venture have brought in the expertise of N. Francis (pathology and pathophysiology), K. Marsh (immunology), M. W. Service (entomology), and I’. F. Beales and the late E. Onori (control). The editors have retained the same basic headings for the 11 chapters-most of them unchanged-together with a ‘selected bibliography’ (1 l/2 pages), ‘selected references’ (18 pages), and 5 of the original 7 appendices. In the introduction, the senior editor records that BruceChwatt, during the course of his terminal illness, had invited him to collaborate with him on a third edition but that little had actually been achieved when he died; nevertheless, the general format of this edition had been agreed, i.e., they would merely ‘update and/or correct portions which m the light of new knowledge were erroneous or incomplete’; the target readership was to remain unchanged. Many readers, he continues, ‘will therefore recognise Leonard’s inimitable style in large portions of the book’. This is certainly so, but in a very uneven way because some sections of the text have in fact been completely re-written. The chapters devoted to history of the disease, ‘The malaria parasites’, and diagnostic tests (H. M. Gilles) are reproduced with hardly a word altered. The same applies to much of the chapters on entomology, epidemiology, and on control. On the other hand, the chapters on clinical aspects, treatment and prevention, and pathology and pathophysiology (D. A. Warrell) have been very extensively updated with many excellent new clinical photographs and electron micrographs added; similarly, that devoted to immunological aspects of malaria contains a great deal of new and original material. Advice on chemoprophylaxis is limited, and the reader will inevitably have to turn to recent up-dates in the medical press-so rapidly does the scenario change! The second edition contained 452 pages, but the page size was considerably smaller than that of the present edition. This therefore represents a slightly expanded up-date incorporating much new material relevant to clinical aspects, chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy, and pathology and pathophysiology of this crucially important tropical infection. Maybe the next revision should be more evenly carried out and thus far more radical. Of the smaller texts on malariology, this beautifully produced volume has no real challenger; in the more erudite range one has to look to much larger-usually 2 volume-tomes, e.g. Malaria: Principles and Practice of Malariology, edited by W. H. Wernsdorfer and I. McGregor (1988), with 1818 pages. G. C. Cook Hospital for Tropical Diseases St Pancras Wav London, NW1 OPE, UK [For details of publication and availability in the USA, please contact Little. Brown & Co., 34 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108-1493, USA.] of Parasitic Helminths. J. Des-mond In Vitro Cultivation Smyth. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1990. 276 pp. Price&151.50. ISBNO-8493-4586-3. The cultivation of parasitic hehninths in vitro has pro-gressed considerably over the past 25 years so that now a text book, devoted solely to their cultivation, has become possible: previously helminths had been included in books on the cultivation of all types of parasites. Chapter one is concerned with the advantages and problems of the cultivation of helminths in vitro. The next 3 chapters cover the basic problems and approaches to trematode culture, the Digenea with progenetic metacercariae (progenesis is defined as the advanced development of genitalia in the larval form) and the Digenea with non-progenetic metacercariae. Chapter 5 deals with the Cestoda and is followed by chapters on filarial nematodes, non-filarial nematodes and the Acanthocephala. Finally there are 2 most useful chapters on the cryopreservation of helminths and on the application of cultivation in vitro as a biological tool. Each chapter starts with a useful list of contents and concludes with an extensive reference list; many useful Tables are included throughout. The primary aims of this excellent book are to provide details of the cultivation of representative species of parasitic helminths of vertebrates, to discuss the general principles involved and to evaluate the success of available techniques. Thus the book is

(1994)

88,

BOOK REVIEWS

concerned mainly with those species for which reasonably reliable and reproducible systems have been developed and makes no attempt to review all species that have been subjected to cultivation in vitro. Enterophilic parasites of insects have also been excluded since their life-cycles are more akin to those of free-living forms. IIt is essential, when attempting to grow parasites in vitro, to be familiar with the normal developmental developme morphology in vivo of all stages in the life-cycle. This is especially e important with trematodes and cestodes which have very comulex life-cvcles but nevertheless provide superb material for experiments in vitro. Consequently, full accounts are given of the life-cycles of all species considered, together with detailed accounts of their adult and larval stages: these are well illustrated, wherever possible, by line drawings, photomicrographs and graphs. This book should be read by all concerned with the development of new anthelmintics or those searching for antigens suitable for vaccination or diagnostic tests, as well as those interested in the biochemistry, biology and physiology of parasitic helminths. Angela E. R. Taylor London, UK

Toxocara and Toxocariasis: Clinical, Epidemiological and Molecular Perspectives. J. W Lewis & R. M. Maizels. London: The British Society for Parasitology and the Institute of Biology, 1993. v + 168 pp. Price &15. ISBN O-900490-30-6. Aspiring parasitologists should be familiar with Toxocara canis and T. catti, if only because they provide examiners with such a rich source of examination questions. Superficially, T. canis has a typically direct ascarid life-cycle, with bitches passing eggs that infect their pups to perpetuate the species. Closer study, however, reveals a more complicated picture, with transplacental and transmammary transmission to the pups of L2 larvae migrating in the bitch’s tissues. Moreover, there may be periods of arrested larval development within the dog, and equally important in other animals which, in nature, will eventually be eaten by dogs. Humans, too, may act as paratenic hosts. The subsequent zoonotic infection, in which the larvae do not mature, is termed visceral larval migrans (VLM). Diagnosis relies on nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms, backed up by serodiagnosis which was relatively insensitive until recent years. Three forms of toxocariasis are now recognized: covert VLM, true VLM and the ocular form (OLM). Diagnosis of OLM, which can impair vision but probably does not cause blindness, is dilficult and lengthy. If confused with a retinoblastoma, surgeons may remove an eye hurriedly and unnecessarily to protect the other one. Recent epidemiological surveys, both in temperate and semi-tropical countries, revealed high levels of T. canis seropositivity in human populations, almost 100% parasitological prevalences in dogs, and very widespread environmental distribution of eggs in soil samples. They have provided the anti-dog lobby with much valued proof that man’s best friend is actually a Trojan horse. However, foxes, an alternative definitive host for T. canis and cats infected with T. catti should share some blame. All of the above (and much more) can be gleaned from this volume of 17 papers read at a symposium specially convened in 1993 by the British Society for Parasitology. Recent studies on the epidemiology, diagnosis (including improved serodiagnosis using purified L2 excretory and secretory antigens), and symptomatology of toxocariasis are accompanied by papers on the improved treatment of dogs, the immunological responses of mice and humans (are they protective or does the parasite manipulate the immune system of paratenic hosts to allow prolonged survival of L2 larvae?), and crucial structural and function:1 studies of the larval teaument. Certainly a great deal of valuable information has been compressed in this slim volume which, though well illustrated and clearly printed, uses a very small type-face (9 pt Times?). Each paper contains numerous references. Perhaps inevitably, there is considerable repetition and a somewhat incestuous relationship within the various subject areas. It certainly is not a textbook, and the lack of an index makes it difficult to find and crosscheck facts and assertions. Nevertheless,, students of toxocariasis and of nematology in general-the parasite provides an excellent model for many basic studies-will find this a valuable source text. I suspect, though, that administrators and public health workers will find it heavy going, which is a pity as the subject is topical and frequently provokes heated and often misinformed debates among lay people and professionals alike. R. F. Sturrock London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London, WCIE 7HT, UK [Members of the British Society for Parasitology or the Institute of Biology may obtain this book at the discounted price