Parasitology Today, vol.
IO, no. 8, I994
scene of a crime. Malariological MVRPCR is intended to identi+ t? folciparum isolates unambiguously in patient blood samples in order to investigate the population structure and transmission of individual parasite genotypes. The potential of MVR-PCR polymorphism in the CS gene for the differentiation of parasites at a local level is illustrated in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. The extent of variation in a sample of /? fulciparum isolates collected worldwide is shown in Fig. 2. Of I6 isolates, I4 have different MVR-PCR codes (it should be noted that 3D7 and CVDI are both clones derived from the NF54 isolate). The variation present in two neighbouring Sudanese villages is shown in Fig. 2. In 23 patient isolates, 2 I MVR-PCR codes are detectable. Dar-a I has two bands at the same position, indicating that this isolate contains more than one gqnotype. There is apparently as much variation present at the local level as there is in the global sample. Given that both village data sets were collected over short periods within the brief Eastern Sudanese transmission season (late August - midOctober), there is no indication that expanded clones dominate the population. This is in agreement with other pub-
lished studies from The Gambia8 and Sudan9JO. Two of the 1992 Darawish isolates (Data 5 and Dara 7) were derived from sisters, living in the same hut, who became ill on the same day, and these isolates were identical. Our interpretation (confirmed with additional polymorphic markers) is that they were infected by the same parasite, perhaps acquired from the same mosquito during interrupted feeding. We are currently extending these trial studies to monitor the temporal and geographic spread of MVR-PCR marked parasite genotypes through each malaria patient within Darawish village during the I993 tt-ansmission season. It may thus become possible to estimate the basic reproductive rate of infection (Ro), the number of secondary cases generated by a primary case, for each parasite lineage being transmitted in the village’ I.
of Copenhagen. DEA is a Senior Biomedical Research Fellow of the Wellcome Trust. The work was also supported by a Grant from the WHO/UNDP/Worid Bank Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases.
Acknowledgements We thank Riad Bayoumi, David Walliker, Hamza Babiker and Lisa Ranford Cartwright for their help and advice in this work The Sudanese field work would be impossible without the aid of Gewit-ia Satti of the University of Khartoum and Thor Theander, tar-s Hviid and lbrahim El Hassan of the Univer-
Amot Co//y Roper and A/i A. Sultan are at the Institute of Cell,Animal and Population Biology, Division of Biology Edinburgh University, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK EH9 3/T. A/i A. Sultan is on leave from the Department of Biochemisq, Faculty of Medicine, Univenity of Khartoum. PO Box 102. Khartoum, Sudan.
Bruce-Chwatt’s Eissential Malariology: 3rd edn
tion of the three stages, it is mentioned that most patients with falcipatum malaria do not present with this pattern. Malarial anaemia is covered briefly in five chapters, with some overlap, but nowhere is there a discussion of the management of malarial anaemia except for blood transfusions. Malaria in pregnancy is too briefly dealt with. The authors find that chloroquine prophylaxis is a reasonable antenatal strategy in Africa. Since studies have shown prophylactic doses of chloroquine to be ineffective in many areas, and that compliance with weekly intake is often low, this subject deserves more discussion. The chapter on treatment of malaria may be the best available up-to-date account of the subject, except that artemisinin and its derivatives are dealt with somewhat briefly. An ovetview of relative prices will be useful for many managers. The chapter on the anophelines is clear and practical. It might be questioned whether or not the establishment of sampling stations to monitor control programmes is always essential. Too often, one comes across rooms
filled with entomological data which are never interpreted, much less used. The definitions of several epidemiological terms are out of tune with modem epidemiology. No account is given of the manner in which malaria surveillance is currently carried out, or how it ought to be done. The malariometric survey maintains a too-prominent status. Yet, this time-honoured method of rapid assessment has a place which should be described. The account of transmission dynamics is clear, but the limitations of modelling based on vectorial capacity in malaria control programmes should have been better discussed. The classification into stable and unstable malaria is well presented but, as in many other texts, the implications for vector control are exaggerated. The chapter on rationale and technique of malaria control deals mainly with measures directed against the vector or human-vector contact. It is packed with practical details - information that is found in few other texts. While exaggerated coverage is given to space spraying, and especially aerial spraying, impregnation of bednets and
edited by Herbert M. Gilles and David A. Warrell, Edward Arnold, 1993. f50.00 (xix + 340 pages) /SBN 0 340 57190 x In the third edition of Bruce-Chwatt’s Essential Maloriology, different chapten have been revised by prominent authorities, all of them British, except for Erminio Onori, whose death (like that of Leonard Bruce-Chwai?) occurred while the book was in preparation. In general, homogeneity and equilibrium have been retained, but the co-ordination could have been better. In the parasitological and clinical chapters, the newer diagnostic methods are succinctly covered; it is concluded that classical thick-film exa.mination remains unsurpassed for most purposes, although there is now hope that we will soon have a simple useful tool for the peripheral heaith services. The coverage of severe malaria is masterful, but the account of uncomIplicated malaria is confusing. After a vivid descrip-
References I Macedo, A.M. et al. (1992) Mol. &o&em. Parasitol. 53, 63-70 2 Lander, E.S.(I 989) Nature 339,50I-505 3 Jeffreys.A.J. et al. (1991) Nature 354, 204-209 4 Amot. D.E.. Roper, C. and Bayoumi, RA.L. (I 993) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.6 I, I S-24 5 Jeffreys, A.J. et al. (1988) Nature 332, 278-28 I 6 Galinski, M.R. et al. (I 987) Cell 48, 3 I I-3 I9 7 Amot, D.E., Stewart, M.J: and Barnwell, J.W. C1990) Mol. Biochem.Parasitol. 43. I47- I50 8 conwiy, DJ and McBride, J.S. i I99 I) Parasitology I 03, 7- I 6 9 Babiker, H.A. et al. ( I99 I ) Trans. R Sot. Trap. Med. Hyg. 85,572-577 IO Bayoumi, R.A. et al. (I 993) Trans.R Sot Trap. Med. Hyg 87,454-458 I I Gupta, 5. et al. ( 1994) Science 263,96 I-963
Parasitology Today, vol.IO,no.8, I994
similar methods are dealt with far too briefly. The Global Malaria Control Sttategy promoted by the World Health Organization (which considers disease management to be one of the basic elements in malaria control) is well presented within the chapter, but disease management is not considered in a practical control programme perspective, and little attention is given to the challenges to ensuring early adequate treatment in peripheral rural areas, or in areas dominated by commercial pressures. The controversies in contemporary malaria control could have been better
by Harforci Williams and Arlene jones, Tay/or & Francis, 1994. f95.00 (xv + 593 pages) ISBN 0 85066 425 X
Parasitic Worms of Fish is a major academic work of interest to all those either engaged in the study of parasites or concerned with the biodivet%ty of our planet The authors are to be congratulated and thanked for writing this volume which is a monument to curiosity-driven research. The book is a most timely and stimulating summary of much new information which has been acquired about fish worms and their hosts. With due regard to the foundations laid by earlier r-esearchers, the book draws on ideas and approaches developed more recently by Arme, Bauer, Brooks, Chubb, Euzet_ Gibson, Halvonen, Keam, Kennedy, Llewellyn, Moravec, Rhode and Valtonen and their colleagues and students. In their Introduction, the authors (both of whom have spent a significant period of their careen working to support the publication of Helminthological Abstracts) explain that about 10000 publications on fish worms have appeared during the past 20 years. From their extensive knowledge of this literature, Williams and Jones have selected over 3500 fully referenced sources of information to guide the reader on aspects of the taxonomy, morphology, development, ecology, evolution, transmission, biogeography and host-parasite relationships of fish worms. The book is worth having, if only to serve as a comprehensive guide to the world’s diverse literature on fish worms. A most pleasing and useful feature of the book is the inclusion of lists of general references. For example, pp 439-443 list 469 books and reviews dealing with the general biochemistry and physiology of fish worms.
highlighted: What is the future role of impregnated bednets and similar techniques in savanna malaria? Do we know sufficiently well what the long-term benefits will be of a relative reduction of transmission in areas where it is initially intense? It would appear that the text could have been more useful if the link between epidemiological types (prototypes) and control approaches had been given more attention. At a time when tropical disease control is the object of much empty rhetoric, it is a relief to meet a text which is strong in technical detail and based
Parasitic Worms of Fish, however, is much more than an annotated guide to the literature. lt is the authors’ account and interpretation of many facts, theories and controvenies relating to six aspects of host-parasite relationships between all kinds of fish and helminths from the phyla Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Nowadays, books intended for researchers often take the form of compilations of review chapters submitted by experts on particular topics. Useful as such books are, the style and quality of the different contributions tends to vary, whereas in Parasitic Worms of Fish there is an obvious consistency of style reflecting the authors’ own interests and opinions. The six chapters deal with: (I) the variety of fish worms; (2) life cycles; (3) ecology; (4) host-parasite relationships; (5) host-parasite interactions; (6) fish worms and humans. Some of these chapters seem to be books in their own right. Chapter 2 on the life cycles of fish worms consists of 102 pages and is the most interesting and detailed account of the topic that I have come across. Overall, there are 593 pages, some 355 main illustrations and numerous informative tables. When invited to review Parasitic Worms of Fish, I declared that I could
on field experience. Although the book retains too much that is outdated, there is no better overview today for the young physician or biologist who wishes to engage in malaria control or research. We badly need a handbook on malaria control. So far, this book comes closer to the requirements for this than any other. Allan Schapira Malaria Unit Division of Control of Tropical Diseases World Health Organization CH- I2 I I Geneva 27 Switzerland
not be seen as an impartial reviewer, having already examined the entire manuscript of the volume and agreed to write the Foreword. Nevertheless, my views were still sought and I am glad to confirm that, in my opinion, this book is an outstanding contribution to knowledge. Inevitably, I have a few criticisms. I should have liked the publishers to have used a larger font size although that would have increased the book’s size and, no doubt, the price. There are also a few typographical errors which have slipped through the proof-reading net, but points like these should not be allowed to detract from a volume which deserves to become a milestone in the study not only of fish worms but also of general parasitology. Parasitic Worms of fish is worth every penny of its price. I recommend the book unreservedly as an essential volume for the libraries of all universities, natural history museums and parasitology institutes and I urge all serious parasitologists to acquire copies for themselves. D.W.T. Crompton Department of Zoology University of Glasgow Glasgow UK Gl28QQ
PcrrasitologyTodc~ywelcomes Books The Editor, Parasitology Today, Elsevier Trends Journals, 68 Hills Road, Cambridge, UK CB2 I LA.
The 8th International Congress of Parasitology ICOPA VIII will be held in Izmir, Turkey, 18-3 I October 1994. For further details contact: Secretariat, ICOPA VIII, PK 8 I 35042, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.