Canola meal as a protein supplement for growing-finishing pigs

Canola meal as a protein supplement for growing-finishing pigs

Animal Feed Science and Technology, 18 (1987) 37-44 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam - Printed 37 in The Netherlands Canola Meal as a Pro...

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Animal Feed Science and Technology, 18 (1987) 37-44 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam - Printed

37 in The Netherlands

Canola Meal as a Protein Supplement for Growing-Finishing Pigs S.K. BAIDOO and F.X. AHERNE Department of Animal Science, Unioersity of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2P5 (Canada)

B.N. MITARU’

and R. BLAIR”

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0 WO (Canada) (Received

7 November

1986; accepted for publication

8 January

1987)

ABSTRACT Baidoo, S.K., Mitaru, B.N., Aheme, F.X. and Blair, R., 1987. Canola meal as a protein supplement for growing-finishing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol.. 18: 37-44. Four hundred crossbred pigs of an average initial weight of 20.3 kg were used in two experiments to determine the effect of canola meal (CM) as a protein supplement for growing (20-60 kg) and finishing (60-90 kg) pigs. Diets were based on barley and wheat and CM replaced 0,25,50, 75 and 100% of the protein supplied by soya-bean meal (SBM) on an isoenergetic and isonitrogenous basis. Average daily feed intake and feed-to-gain ratio of the growing pigs were not significantly (P> 0.05) affected by the level of CM in the diet. Rate of gain was significantly (PC 0.01) depressed when CM replaced z 75% of the SBM. Performance of pigs during the finishing phase was not affected (P> 0.05) by replacement of SBM by CM. It was concluded that growing pigs can be successfully fed diets containing a maximum of 9% CM, however, CM can be used as the sole protein supplement in the diets of finishing pigs.

INTRODUCTION

Two recent reviews of the literature concerning the evaluation of canola meal (CM) as a protein supplement for swine suggested that much of the research pertaining to this subject has involved growing-finishing pigs ( Aherne and Kennelly, 1982; Rundgren, 1983). However, the optimum level of use of CM in diets of growing pigs remains unresolved. The results of a series of ‘Present address: Department of Animal Production, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053, Kabete, Kenya. “Present address: Department of Animal Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A2, Canada.

0377-8401/87/$03.50

0 1987 Elsevier Science Publishers

B.V.

38 experiments indicated that when growing pigs are allowed feed ad libitum, the substitution of the major part of soya-bean meal (SBM) by CM significantly reduced feed intake and had a slightly negative effect on daily weight gain (McKinnon and Bowland, 1977; Aherne and Lewis, 1978; Bell and Shires, 1980; Thacker and Bowland, 1980). In other experiments in which performance was determined over the entire growing and finishing period ( 20-90 kg) (Castell, 1977; Bell et al., 1981; T h o m k e et al., 1983), it was not possible to separate the influence of CM on performance during either the growing or finishing period. Juhl et al. (1986) noted a significant reduction in feed-togain ratio when 15% CM was included in the diets of growing pigs and a significantly depressed weight gain for finishing pigs fed a diet with 17.5% CM. On the other hand, Narendran et al. (1981) reported that levels as high as 25% CM in the diet of growing pigs did not significantly reduce performance. Since the results of experiments on the use of CM in the diets of growing and finishing pigs have shown some variability, it was considered desirable that a further comprehensive study be undertaken to critically evaluate CM as a protein supplement for pigs during the growing and finishing periods. In order to improve the reliability of the evaluation, a collaborative study, involving large numbers of pigs, was conducted at the Universities of Alberta and Saskatchewan. MATERIALSAND METHODS Diets The composition of the growing and finishing diets is presented in Tables I and II. Vitamins and minerals were included according to the guidelines of the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council (NAS-NRC, 1979). The CM's used were commercial samples obtained from CSP Foods Ltd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and Alberta Food Products in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. The meals were similar in composition (Table III). In both experiments, CM was added at levels designed to replace 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the protein supplied by SBM on an isonitrogenous basis. All diets were made isoenergetic by the addition of stabilized fat. The same level of lysine was maintained in all diets by dietary supplementation with lysine - HC1. All diets were steam pelleted. Self feeders and nipple waterers were used to provide feed and water ad libitum. Barn temperature was maintained at 21-22 °C throughout the experimental periods. Animals A total of 400 crossbred ( Lacombe × Landrace X Yorkshire) pigs were used in two experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted at the University of Saskatchewan and Experiment 2 at the University of Alberta.

39 TABLE I Composition of growing pig d i e t s Item

-

100% SBM

75% SBM 25% CM

50% SBM 50% CM

25% SBM 75% CM

-100% CM

Ingredients (%) W h e a t (IFN 4-05-268) Barley (IFN 4-00-549) Soya-bean meal (IFN 5-04-612) Canola meal (IFN 5-03-871 ) Blended fat (IFN 6-08-127) Dicalcium phosphate (IFN 6-26-137) Calcium carbonate (IFN 6-01-069) Iodized salt (IFN 6-04-151) Vitamins and minerals a L-lysine (HCI)

40.0 43.0 13.2 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 -

40.0 41.2 10.0 4.6 0.5 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 0.01

40.0 39.0 7.1 9.1 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 0.02

40.0 37.0 4.2 13.2 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 0.03

40.0 33.2 19.6 1.8 1.2

Chemical analysis b Dry matter (%) Crude protein ( % ) Digestible energy (MJ kg -1) (calculated) Crude fiber ( % ) Lysine (%)

87.8 16.1 13.1 4.3 0.73

88.2 16.0 13.2 4.5 0.74

88.1 16.2 13.1 4.9 0.74

89.5 16.0 13.4 5.3 0.75

87.7 16.0 13.6 5.7 0.77

0.5 1.0 0.04

"Vitamin-mineral premix provided the following per kg of diet: 120 mg zinc, 12 mg manganese, 150 mg iron, 12 mg copper, 5000 IU vitamin A, 500 IU vitamin D3, 22 IU vitamin E, 12 mg riboflavin, 45 mg niacin, 25 mg calcium pantothenate, 30/Lg vitamin B12, 500 mg choline chloride. bDetermined values reported on an as-fed basis.

Experiment I One hundred and sixty crossbred pigs with a mean intial weight of 20 kg were divided into 20 comparable groups of eight pigs (four females and four castrated males) on the basis of sex and initial weight. The pigs were housed in pens with totally slotted concrete floors. Four groups were allotted at random to each of the five dietary treatments for the growing period (Table I). Feed consumption per pen and individual weights were recorded weekly. Each group was taken off test when the mean weight of the pigs reached 60 kg.

Experiment 2 Two hundred and forty crossbred pigs with a mean initial weight of 20.7 kg were divided, on the basis of initial weight, into 60 comparable groups of four ( two females and two castrated males). The groups were allotted randomly to the five dietary treatments shown in Table I. The pigs were housed in pens with concrete floors, with straw used as bedding. At the end of the growing period, one-half of the groups were discontinued and the remainder were assigned to finisher diets (Table II). The groups were maintained in the same pens and fed the finisher diet until termination of the trial at 90 kg body weight.

40 TABLE II Composition of finishing pig diets Item

100% SBM -

75% SBM 50% SBM 25% SBM - 100% 25% CM 50% CM 75% CM CM

Ingredients (%) Wheat (IFN 4-05-268) Barley (IFN 4-00-549 ) Soya-bean meal (IFN 5-04-612) Canola meal (IFN 5-03-871 ) Stabilized fat (IFN 6-08-127) Dicalcium phosphate (IFN 6-26-137) Calcium carbonate (IFN 6-01-069) Iodized salt (IFN 6-04-151 ) Vitamins and minerals~ L-lysine (HC1)

40.0 48.6 7.0 0.5 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 -

40.0 47.0 5.3 2.8 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 0.01

40.0 45.1 4.0 5.5 1.5 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 0.02

40.0 44.1 2.0 8.0 2.0 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 0.03

40.0 41.0 12.0 3.0 1.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 0.04

Chemical analysisb Dry matter (%) Crude protein ( % ) Digestible energy (MJ kg- 1) {calculated) Crude fiber ( % ) Lysine (%)

85.7 14.2 13.2 4.3 0.67

86.4 14.1 13.4 4.5 0.65

86 14.2 13.35 4.7 0.67

86.8 14.2 13.34 4.8 0.66

86.4 14.1 13.34 4.9 0.66

aVitamin-mineral premix provided the following per kg of diet: 120 mg zinc, 12 mg manganese, 150 mg iron, 12 mg copper, 5000 vitamin A, 500 IU vitamin D3, 22 IU vitamin E, 12 mg riboflavin, 45 mg niacin, 25 mg calcium pantothenate, 30 #g vitamin B~e, 500 mg choline chloride. bDetermined values reported on an as-fed basis.

T A B L E III Gross energy c o n t e n t a n d chemical composition of commercial CM and S B M (dry m a t t e r basis) Item

CM a

CM b

SBM c

Gross energy ( M J kg -1) Crude protein ( To) E t h e r extract ( % ) Crude fiber (To) Ash ( To) Lysine ( % ) Threonine ( % ) Methionine ( % ) Total glucosinolatesd (/zmol g - i oil-free meal)

19.1 36.8 2.7 12.9 7.5 2.4 1.8 0.7

19.2 37.6 2.8 12.7 7.7 2.6 1.9 0.7

17.2 46.3 2.1 4.2 5.7 3.1 1.9 0.6

10.1

9.8

aAlberta commerical CM. bSaskatchewan commercial CM. CCommercial SBM. dExpressed as/~moles 3-butenyl isothiocyanate g - 1 oil-free meal.

-

41

Chemical and statistical analyses The CM and the experimental diets were analyzed for moisture, energy, crude fiber, ash, ether extract and crude protein by the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1980). Amino acids analyses were carried out using a Beckman 121 amino acid analyzer following hydrolysis for 24 h with 6 N HC1. Glucosinolates in CM were determined by the method of Wetter and Youngs (1976). Analysis of variance was carried out according to the procedures described by Steel and Torrie (1980). Where appropriate, treatment means were tested for significance (P<0.05) using Student-Newman-Keuls ( S N K ) multiple range test when preceded by a significant F-test. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The composition and chemical analysis of the protein supplements used in the diets of growing-finishing pigs is given in Table III. The lysine content in SBM was higher than the lysine content in CM, however, CM contained more methionine than SBM. This observation agrees with the results of Sauer and Thacker (1986). CM had a higher fiber and ash content than SBM. The total glucosinolate levels of CM from both stations were similar (10.1 vs 9.8 ~mol g-1 oil-free meal), similar to the values reported by Goh et al. (1982).

Experiment I There were no significant ( P < 0.05 ) differences in average daily feed intake (ADF) or feed-to-gain ratio (F/G) of pigs receiving the SBM- or CM-supplemented diets (Table IV). However, replacement of >~75% SBM by CM resulted in marked depression ( P < 0.01 ) of average daily gain (ADG).

Experiment 2 During the growing phase from 20 to 60 kg liveweight, replacement of >~75% of SBM by CM resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in ADG (Table V). No significant ( P > 0.05) differences were noted for ADF and F/G during the growing phase. Results of the finishing period ( 60-90 kg liveweight), shown in Table V, indicated that there were no significant ( P > 0.05) differences in ADF, ADG and F/G between pigs fed the SBM- and the CM-supplemented diets. However, results of the overall period ( 20-90 kg liveweight) of the growing-finishing pigs, indicated that only weight gain was depressed (P < 0.01) when CM replaced >/75% of the SBM. The present experiments indicate that feed intake and F/Gs were not affected by the level of CM in the diet, however, weight gain was significantly reduced

42 TABLE IV Experiment 1. Mean performance of growingpigs fed diets supplemented with SBM and CM from 20 to 60 kg liveweight Item Level of CM in diet Number of pigs Initial wt. (kg) Final wt. (kg) Mean daily feed (kg) Mean daily gain (kg) Feed/gain ratio

100% SBM

75% SBM

50% SBM

25% SBM

- 100%

-

25% CM

50% CM

75% CM

CM

0 32 20.2 61.3 2.17 0.78a 2.78

4.6 32 20.4 62.4 2.13 0.77a 2.78

9.1 32 20.1 62.4 2.08 0.76a 2.70

13.2 32 20.5 62.6 2.00 0.73b 2.70

19.6 32 20.5 61.7 2.01 0.71c 2.70

SEa

0.18 0.33 0.12 0.006 0.09

aStandard error of the mean. Means in the same row followedby different letters differ significantly (P < 0.01). when CM was included at a level of >/13% of the diet. These results corroborate the earlier results of Aherne and Lewis (1978), Kennelly et al. (1978) and J u b l et al. (1986), b u t are in contrast to those of T h o m k e et al. (1983) who observed no effect of C M at a level of 14% in the diet of growing-finishing pigs. The data reported in this paper suggest t h a t 75% or complete replacement of S B M by CM in the diets of growing pigs will significantly reduce growth rate. Differences in protein quality of the meal could not possibly explain the reasons for the differences in growth rate of the growing pigs fed the CM or S B M diets. Aherne and Lewis (1978) found no effect of lysine supplementation, b u t Bell (1975) obtained a response from supplementary methionine. There is the possibility that the reduced growth rate observed when CM replaces >t 75% of S B M in growing pig diets could be due to the presence of glucosinolate and other unpalatable substances (Chubb, 1982) a n d / o r the high fiber content of the CM-supplemented diets ( K e n n e l l y et al., 1978). Our results agree with those of M c K i n n o n and Bowland (1977) and Aherne and Lewis (1978) that CM can be used as the sole protein supplement in the diets of finishing pigs. In conclusion, there is an indication in this paper t h a t CM can be included at a maximum level of 9% in b a r l e y - w h e a t - S B M - b a s e d diets to growing pigs and could be used as the sole protein supplement for finishing pigs. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Financial support for this study, provided by the Canola Council of Canada and the assistance of staff of the University of Alberta Swine Unit, E d m o n t o n and Prairie Swine Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon are gratefully acknowledged.

43 TABLE V Experiment 2. Mean performance of growing-finishingpigs fed dietssupplemented with S B M and C M Item

100% SBM 75% SBM 50% SBM 25% SBM - 100% 25% CM 50% CM 75% CM CM

SE a

-

Growing period Level of CM in diet (%) Number of pigs Initial wt. (kg) Final wt. (kg) Mean daily feed (kg) Mean daily gain (kg) Feed/gain ratio

0 48 20.8 61.5 1.86 0.78a 2.40

4.6 48 20.8 61.4 1.83 0.74a 2.58

9.1 48 20.8 61.1 1.80 0.74a 2.47

13.2 48 20.7 60.5 1.79 0.71b 2.51

19.6 48 20.8 60.4 1.79 0.69b 2.61

0.16 0.71 0.08 0.008 0.05

Finishing period Level of CM in diet (%) Number of pigs Initial wt. (kg) Final wt. (kg) Mean daily feed (kg) Mean daily gain (kg) Feed/gain ratio

0 24 61.9 92.4 2.73 0.90 3.03

2.8 24 61.6 91.6 2.72 0.91 2.99

5.5 24 61.3 91.5 2.72 0.88 3.09

8.0 24 60.8 91.1 2.69 0.85 3.16

12.0 24 60.8 90.6 2.69 0.83 3.24

0.31 0.36 0.06 0.008 0.14

Overall period Number of pigs Mean daily feed (kg) Mean daily gain (kg) Feed/gain ratio

24 2.19 0.85a 2.59

24 2.09 0.81a 2.58

24 2.08 0.78ab 2.65

24 2.05 0.76b 2.72

24 2.02 0.73b 2.84

0.11 0.009 0.14

aStandard error of the mean. Means in the same row followed by different letters differ significantly ( P < 0.01). REFERENCES Aherne, F.X. and Kennelly, J.J., 1982. Oilseed meals for livestock feeding. In: W. Haresign (Editor), Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Studies in Agricultural and Food Sciences. Butterworths, London. Aherne, F.X. and Lewis, A.J., 1978. The nutritive value of Tower rapeseed meal for swine. Anita. Feed Sci. Technol., 3: 235-242. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1980. Official Methods of Analysis (13th Edn.). AOAC, Washington, DC. Bell, J.M., 1975. Nutritional value of low glucosinolate rapeseed meal for swine. Can. J. Anita. Sci., 55: 61-70. Bell, J.M. and Shires, A., 1980. Effects of rapeseed dockage content on the feeding value of rapeseed meal for swine. Can. J. Anita. Sci., 60: 953-960. Bell, J.M., Anderson, D.M. and Shires, A., 1981. Evaluation of Candle rapeseed meal as a protein supplement for swine. Can. J. Anita. Sci., 61: 453-461. Castell, A.G., 1977. Effects of cultivar on the utilization of ground rapeseed in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Can. J. Anita. Sci., 57: 111-120.

44 Chubb, L.G., 1982. Anti-nutritive fractions in animal feedstuffs. In: W. Haresign (Editor), Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Butterworths, London. Goh, Y.K., Shires, A., Robblee, A.R. and Clandinin, D.R., 1982. Effect of ammoniation of rapeseed meal on the sinapine content of the meal. Br. Poult. Sci., 23: 121-128. Juhl, M.R., Radecki, S.V., Mu, P.K., Hogberg, M.G. and Miller, E.R., 1986. Inclusion of canola meal in corn-soybean meal diets of swine. Abstracts. Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. Midwestern Section. March 24-26, Des Moines, IA. Kennelly, J.J., Aherne, F.X. and Lewis, A.J., 1978. The effects of levels of isolation, or varietal differences in high fiber hull fraction of cow glucosinolate rapeseed mills on rat and pig performance. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 58: 743-752. McKinnon, P.J. and Bowland, J.P., 1977. Comparison of low glucosinolate and low erucic acid rapeseed meal ( C.V. Tower), commercial rapeseed meal and soybean meal as sources of protein for starting, growing and finishing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 57: 663-678. Narendran, R., Bowman, G.H., Leeson, S. and Prettier, W., 1981. Effect of different levels of Tower rapeseed meal in corn-soybean meal based diets on growing-finishing pig performance. Can. J. Anita. Sci., 61: 213-216. National Research Council, 1979. No. 2. Nutrient requirements of swine. 8th revised edn. N A S - N R C , Washington, DC. Rundgren, M., 1983. Low glucosinolate rapesded products for pigs. A review. Anita. Feed Sci. Technol., 9: 239-262. Sauer, W.C. and Thacker, P.A., 1986. Apparent and ilealand fecaldigestibilityof amino acids in barley-based diets supplemented with soyabean meal or canola meal for growing pigs. Anita. Feed Sci. Technol., 14: 183-192. Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H., 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 2nd edn., McGraw-Hill, N e w York. Thacker, P.A. and Bowland, J.P., 1980. Influence of graded levelsof proprionic acid on performance and carcass traitsof swine fed canola meal. Can. J. Anim. Sci.,60: 971-978. Thomke, S., Elwinger, K., Rundgren, M. and Ahlstrom, B., 1983. Rapeseed meal of Swedish Iowglucosinolate type fed to broilerchickens, laying hens and growing-finishing pigs. Acta Agric. Scand., 33: 75-96. Wetter, L.R. and Youngs, C,E., 1976. A thiourea-uv assay for total glucosinolate content in rapeseed meals. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 4: 162-164.