Carbon: Proceedings of the fifth conference

Carbon: Proceedings of the fifth conference

rnterndosd seriesof Monographs on phdear Energy, Division Iv, Isotopes and B8didossr The Use of Radimctive Isotojes for Checking Production Processes,...

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rnterndosd seriesof Monographs on phdear Energy, Division Iv, Isotopes and B8didossr The Use of Radimctive Isotojes for Checking Production Processes, B. I. VERKHO~~K~(Translated by H. S. H. MASSEY), Pergamon Press, 1963. 76 pp., 21s.

of the review by Wallace on the physics of space radiation. The paper by Marinelli and his colleagues on low-level y-ray scintillation spectrometry is concerned primarily with the application of this technique to the problem of whole-body counting. There is a comprehensive review by Kwan Hsu on neutron activation analysis. It would have been interesting to compare the results reported in this paper with those in a preceding paper by Cofinan on the chemical elements of blood in man, as determined by X-ray spectrochemical studies. There is, however, surprisingly little overlap in the data presented, and where activation analysis figures are presented for human blood the results are usually reported in terms of the dry weight, thus making comparison with other data extremely diflicult. This does suggest that although activation analysis must usually be carried out on dry samples, it would be of some value if those workers engaged in studies of this type could report their results in terms of wet tissue weight. The present volume maintains the high standard, both as regards content and production, which characterizes this publication. N. VEALL

IN CONTIWJT to the grandiose claims made in the introduction on behalf of Russian scientists and engineers, the contents of this book describe no novel techniques. From this point of view, with the possible exception of measurement of gas flow by ionization, the book was obsolescent at the time it was published (1959) and, after the four years required to publish the English translation, it is now obsolete. One reason for this is the inadequate coverage of various analytical techniques which were in the process of being developed at the time of writing and could have been included. The main use of the book is, therefore, as a general introduction to radioisotopes in industry for the use of students and industrialists unfamiliar with radioisotope applications. It is a handy volume suitable for reading on the train or plane. In tribute to the author (and the translator, I suspect) the text is lucid and the techniques wellexplained, if retaining some of the indigenous verbosity of Russian. J. R. RHODES

Casbon: Procmdhp of the Fifth cmference, Vol. I, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1962. 639 pp., E7. Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, Vol. 8, Edited by C. A. TOB~ASand J. H. LAWRENCE, Academic Press, New York and London, 1962. 457 pp., 107s. THISbook follows the pattern which has already been well established by previous volumes in this series, and consists of thirteen review papers. The main emphasis throughout is on ionizing radiation and some of its effects. The two exceptions are a paper by Calvin on the origin of life, which can be regarded of general interest; and a paper by Blanquet on the hypothalamus and the thyroid, which, though dealing with a somewhat specialized biological system, is also of general interest as it is concerned mainly with the principles of feed-back and biological control. The review by Arley and Eker on the mechanism of carcinogenesis deals with radiation as one of several carcinogenetic agents. There is also a paper by Brustad on the radiobiology of heavy ions, a subject which is also discussed in one of the sections 629

SOMETHINO of the importance of the element carbon in its various forms can be.judged from the 127 papers contributed to the conference held at the Pennsylvania State University. This was the fifth of a series of biannual international conferences, and on this occasion the papers, without discussions, are being published in two volumes. Volume 1 contains the first 70 papers to be submitted. These are grouped into five sections, (i) electronic properties, (ii) surface properties, adsorption and reactivity, (iii) irradiation, nuclear graphite and diffusion, (iv) carbonization, graphitization and structure and (v) mechanical and thermal properties, friction and wear, carbon technology. There is a wealth of up-to-date information on many aspects of chemistry and physics. The subjects treated are so diverse that most workers in these fields should find items of particular as well as general interest. This reviewer certainly did, in both volumes. Many papers relate to investigations undertaken



in connexion with reactor problems. This volume includes a five-part paper from Brookhaven National Laboratory on various aspects of their oxidation and heat transfer studies in graphite channels, a paper on large graphite columns in the experimental gascooled reactor and a contribution from the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority on stored energy and dimensional changes in reactor graphite. The book is certainly well produced and can be recommended. R.



Carbon: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference, Vol. II, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1963. 633 pp.,

heated rod form in which the difference in temperature between axis and surface is observed, and the other is a rectangular bar method due to Longmire, based on observing at the mid-section the temperatures at the centres and edges of the two faces. Such methods are particularly applicable to graphite, and this is the first use of Longmire’s method to come to the reviewer’s notice. This volume can also be recommended; indeed, the nature of the subdivision of the subject matter makes both volumes equally desirable for all who are concerned with understanding or exploiting the properties and uses of carbons and graphites. That they will also be found of interest and value to workers in many other fields can be testified by one interested in thermal conductivity and its measurement.


E7* THE remaining 57 papers contributed to the Fifth Carbon Conference are published in this second volume. The Foreword indicates this to be the last volume of the series, since an international journal entitled Carbon has just commenced publication and will serve as the medium for publications relating to future Carbon Conferences. The five sections into which the papers have been grouped are very similar to those of Vol. I. Papers from America and Great Britain again describe work associated with their respective forms of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The former summarizes the development and evolution of the graphite-matrix fuel compacts and the low-permeability graphite used. The fuel compacts consist of thorium and uranium dicarbide particles dispersed in a high-density graphite matrix. The latter deals with the lowpermeability graphite used by the OEEC in their Dragon Project. Another American paper treats the diffusion of cesium and barium fission products through such graphites of low helium permeability. The many property measurements and techniques included for the various carbon forms cover electrical resistivity, magnetoresistivity, magnetic susceptibility, thermal conductivity, Hall effect, thermoelectric force, spectral and total emissivity, specific heat, refractive and absorptive indexes, infra-red absorption, density, thermal expansion, mechanical strength internal friction, Young’s modulus, creep, tensile strength (up to 2750”(Z), compressibility, gas permeability and electron spin resonance. This last is a review paper with 93 references. Taking thermal conductivity as an example, one finds that two forms of the electrical heating method have been used and described by different authors for making measurements to high temperatures and for studying the changes due to heat treatment and irradiation. One is a modification of the electrically

Neutron Dosimetry, Proceedings Harwell 10-14 December 1962, 652 pp., 1963.

of a Symposium, Vol. I. HMSO,

THIS work, published in two volumes, is a report of the proceedings of a symposium on neutron dosimetry organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and held at Harwell, England, in December 1962. Since neutron radiation is invariably accompanied by y-radiation, and the quality factor or relative biological effectiveness of neutron radiation varies considerably with neutron energy, the assessment of neutron dose involves an accurate knowledge of the flux density, the energy spectrum, the absorbed dose, and the quality factor. The purpose of the symposium was to evaluate the present status of physical and chemical methods of neutron detection, and measurement of neutron flux density, energy spectrum and dose. Subjects of a more biological interest, such as RBE factors, were reserved for a later symposium on Biological Reactions of Neutron Irradiation. Most of the work on flux density and spectral measurement is reported in Vol. I, although one finds reports on the standardization of neutron flux density and on absolute measurements and intercomparisons of neutron source emission rate in Vol. II, which is predominantly devoted to the measurement of neutron dose. The proceedings as published consist of the full text of the papers, in the original language in which they were submitted, together with abstracts of those papers in English, French, Russian and Spanish, together with a record in English of the discussions held during the symposium. It is regrettable that translations from the originai languages are not provided, particularly since simultaneous translation