Cardiovascular and cerebral changes during rest, work load and sleep

Cardiovascular and cerebral changes during rest, work load and sleep

Abstracts 7th IOP Scientific Meeting /International Neurological Clinic, Medical LJniversiQ, Sofia, Bulgaria Sixteen parkinsonian patients with fluctu...

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Abstracts 7th IOP Scientific Meeting /International Neurological Clinic, Medical LJniversiQ, Sofia, Bulgaria Sixteen parkinsonian patients with fluctuations in motor performance after long-term L-DOPA treatment were investigated. They were treated for 6 months with Madopar HBS instead of standard Madopar. Neurological symptoms and fluctuations in motor performance were assessed before and after treatment using an 0-5-point scale. A significant improvement in rigidity, bradykinesia and tremor was found after treatment. A considerable improvement in fluctuations of motor performance (end of dose, nocturnal and early morning akinesia), muscle cramps, and involuntary movements was found. The single-dose duration was found to be longer than that with standard Madopar, so-only three intakes daily were enough. In conclusion, Madopar HBS is a useful treatment, particularly for patients with fluctuations in motor performance after long-term L-dopa therapy. Approaches to verbal, visual and musical ity by EEG coherence analysis

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H. Petsche, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Research Department Physiology and Anatomy of the Cortex, Vienna, Austria The aim of this study was to demonstrate that cerebral processes accompanying creative thinking are hidden in the spontaneous EEG and may be detected by means of coherence analysis. This method, based on spectral analysis, yields statements on the degree of electrical coupling of brain regions. Since the structure of the cortex suggests that its main purpose is the achievement of a maximum possible convergence and divergence of signals, this kind of approach seems to be more promising for studying mental events than mapping of power what actually proved to take place. For the study of creative processes, EEGs were recorded from three different groups of adults while performing creative tasks for l-5 min: (1) constructing a short story out of 10 optional words (18 females, 20 males); (2) mentally creating a picture (38 females); and (3) composing music (7 males). The EEG records from 19 electrodes with respect to averaged ear recordings were taken before, during and after each task; spectral analysis was performed off-line. The EEG spectrum was divided into six frequency bands between 1.5 and 32 Hz. For each of these bands coherence was estimated between all 19 electrodes resulting in a total of 171 values. Significant changes of coherence by any task were computed with respect to the merged EEG at rest. The resulting increases and decreases were entered into topographic maps of the brain. The same was done for significant changes of power. Single and group studies were performed. The results were compared with other

Journal of Psychophysiology 18 (1994) 87-I.59

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mental tasks of the same modalities (listening to music, to speech, contemplating and memorising pictures). For each of these tasks significant characteristic patterns of coherence changes with regard to the EEG at rest were found. In spite of the great individuality of any creative process, each modality presented a particular pattern. One major finding in all creative tasks was an enhancement of coherence increases between far distant regions. Since it can be excluded that these patterns could reflect hierarchically highest events of processing in the cortex, they are thought to be due to changes of the differential attention raised by each of these mental tasks and averaged over several minutes. Cardiovascular and cerebral changes during rest, work load and sleep Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Medical G. Pfurtscheller, Informatics and Neuroinformatics and Department of Medical Informatics, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria EEG, heart rate, respiration and blood flow were recorded under different conditions with the goal of obtaining insight into interactions between the cerebral and cardiovascular systems. In detail, data of the following studies are reported: (i) EEG and heart rate recording in train drivers during a 4-h railway journey; (ii) recording of EEG, heart rate, respiration and beat-to-beat blood pressure in bus drivers before, during and after mental load; (iii) analysis of the coupling between heart rate and respiration in REM and non-REM sleep in infants; (iv) non-invasive beat-to-beat on-line analysis of blood flow, stroke volume and total peripheral resistance during orthostatic manoeuvre. Methods of cardiovascular and respiratory data processing are introduced, different examples will be shown, and it will be demonstrated that it is nowadays possible to monitor non-invasive and on-line not only heart rate and blood pressure, but beat-to-beat stroke volume, ejection time, cardiac output and total peripheral resistance. This technique allows the most comprehensive investigation of the cardiovascular system during mental and physical load. Electrophysiological correlate of “idling” cortical areas G. Pfurtscheller, Department of Medical Dlformatics, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Brockmanngasse 41, A-8010 Graz. Austria An “idling” cortical area is defined as a neural structure not receiving or processing sensory input and not preparing for motor output. Such an “idling” area is characterised by synchronised EEG activity with the alpha and lower beta