Cenozoic extensional tectonics in western and central Anatolia, Turkey: Introduction

Cenozoic extensional tectonics in western and central Anatolia, Turkey: Introduction

    Cenozoic Extensional Tectonics in Western and Central Anatolia, Turkey: Introduction ˙Ibrahim C¸emen, Cahit Helvacı, E. Yalc¸ın Ersoy...

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    Cenozoic Extensional Tectonics in Western and Central Anatolia, Turkey: Introduction ˙Ibrahim C¸emen, Cahit Helvacı, E. Yalc¸ın Ersoy PII: DOI: Reference:

S0040-1951(14)00505-8 doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2014.09.004 TECTO 126434

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˙ Please cite this article as: C ¸ emen, Ibrahim, Helvacı, Cahit, Ersoy, E. Yal¸cın, Cenozoic Extensional Tectonics in Western and Central Anatolia, Turkey: Introduction, Tectonophysics (2014), doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2014.09.004

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Cenozoic Extensional Tectonics in Western and Central Anatolia, Turkey: Introduction

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İbrahim Çemen, Dept. of Geological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL. 35406 Cahit Helvacı, Dept. of Geological Engineering, Dokuz Eylül University, Buca-Izmir, Turkey E.Yalçın Ersoy, Dept. of Geological Engineering, Dokuz Eylül University, Buca-Izmir, Turkey

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It is our great pleasure to present this special issue of Tectonophysics on Cenozoic Extensional Tectonics in western and central Anatolia, Turkey (Fig. 1). The Cenozoic extension followed a series of

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continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene that led to the formation of the Vardarİzmir-Ankara-Erzincan and Tauride suture zones as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan belt in Turkey and surrounding regions (Fig. 1). This type of post-collisional large-scale extensional tectonic may be

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“normal” for parts of collisional mountain belts due to gravitational collapse of over-thickened crust, or, alternatively, extension may be driven by other tectonics forces such as lateral extrusion or subducting

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slab roll-back. Many extensional features in western Anatolia continue into the Aegean Sea where they

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are more difficult to study as the access to outcrops is limited to a few islands. However, extensional structures and the rock units affected by them (Fig. 1) are well exposed in western and central Anatolia,

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Turkey, providing a natural laboratory to study the dynamics and consequences of crustal extension. The effects of post-collisional Cenozoic extension dies out on the eastern part of central Anatolia to the east of the Ecemiş Fault Zone (Fig. 1). Investigating the processes of continental extensional tectonics involve inter-disciplinary research. Since the early 1990’s, our understanding of extensional tectonics have improved tremendously based on geological, geochemical and geophysical work such as classical geological field mapping, thin section analyses under regular petrographic, electron microprobe analysis, radiometric age determinations, and earthquake seismology. This Tectonophysics special volume is an outgrowth of the symposium “Cenozoic post-collisional extensional tectonics in western Turkey” that we organized in conjunction with the International Scientific Congress of the Aegean Region (IESCA-2012) held on 1-5 October, 2012 in Izmir, Turkey. The volume contains 7 papers that were originally presented during the symposium. In this introduction, we will first summarize the tectonics and geodynamic evolution of western and central Anatolia with emphasis on recent literature. We will then briefly summarize the 7 papers included in this special publication.

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Geodynamic overview of western and central Anatolia, Turkey Although major structural elements of the extensional tectonics in western Anatolia was well established in the late 1970s and 1980s (e.g., McKenzie, 1978; Le Pichon and Angelier, 1979; 1981;

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Şengör, 1979, Dewey & Şengör, 1979; Şengör and Yılmaz, 1981, Şengör et al., 1985; Meulenkamp et al., 1988; Spakman et al., 1988); modern extensional tectonic studies in the region was initiated in the

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1990s and continues today (e.g., Çemen, 1990; Taymaz and Price, 1992; Taymaz, 1993; Bozkurt and

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Park, 1994; Seyitoğlu and Scott, 1996; Seyitoğlu et al., 2000 and 2002; Çemen et al., 2006; Ersoy et al., 2010; Gessner 2001 and 2013). The presence of extensional tectonics in central Anatolia was recognized in late 1990s (Çemen et al., 1999; Dilek and Whitney 2001; Gautier, et al., 2002 and 2008;

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Yolsal-Çevikbilen et al. 2012).

The Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Anatolia and the Aegean regions has involved northward

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collision of the Arabian plate with the Eurosian plate, subduction of the African plate beneath the Aegean and Anatolian micro plates and westward extrusion of the Anatolian plate along the North and East Anatolian fault zones (Şengör and Yılmaz 1981; Robertson and Dixon, 1984; Şengör et al., 1985;

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Taymaz et al., 1990; 1991; Saunders et al. 1998; Aksu et al., 2005; Çemen et al, 2006). The convergent

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zones are characterized by deep earthquakes along the Hellenic and western segment of the Cyprus arcs (De Luccio and Pasyanos, 2007), volcanism (Pe-Piper and Piper, 2006; 2007; Dilek and Altunkaynak,

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2009; Ersoy and Helvacı,2007; Helvacı, et al., 2009; Ersoy et al., 2011; Ersoy and Palmer, 2013; Laurent et al., 2013), large-scale continental extension (Faccenna et al., 2003; Çemen et al., 2006), uplift (Schildgen et al., 2012a; 2012b; 2014), trench retreat, slab tear and slab detachment (Faccenna et al., 2006; Biryol et al., 2011). The extension and uplift in this region are related to the southwest retreating Hellenic trench and westward movement of the Anatolian micro plate (Çemen et al., 2006; Reilinger et al., 2010; Cosentino et al., 2012; Schildgen et al., 2014; Ersoy et al., this volume). Various hypotheses have been suggested to explain the initiation of slab-tearing and possible detachment of the subducting African slab from the surface plates. One possible explanation is that the retreating trench in the region might be the cause for the observed slab-tears between the Hellenic and Cyprus slabs. The arrival of continental crust at the trench might have caused differential retreat rates between the Cyprian and Aegean trenches and hence slab-tear in the subducting African lithosphere (Govers and Wortel, 2005; Wortel et al. 2009; Özbakır et al., 2013; Vanacore et al. 2013; Yolsal-Çevikbilen 2014). Other possible causes include subduction of spreading ridge segment, transform faults and weakness zones (Wortel and Spakman, 2000).

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Radiometric age dating suggest that Cenozoic extensional tectonics in the Aegean was initiated as early as in Eocene (~45 Ma) by slab-roll back processes which produced the Rhodope Metamorphic Core Complex in the northernmost Aegean (Dinter and Royden, 1993; Brun and Faccenna, 2008; Brun

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and Sokoutis, 2012). The Cenozoic extensional tectonics and related core complex formation migrated to the south with time, and during the late Oligocene to middle Miocene times, Kazdağ, Cycladic and

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Menderes Extensional Core Complexes were formed (Ersoy et al., this volume) (Fig. 1).

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In western Anatolia, the Menderes Metamorphic Core Complex was exhumed in three main stages: (1) latest Oligocene-Early Miocene detachment faulting along a north dipping simple-shear zone

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(Seyitoglu et al., 2004; Çemen et al., 2006), (2) Middle Miocene detachment faulting along the northdipping Gediz (Alaşehir) Detachment Fault (GDF; e.g., Emre, 1996; Seyitoğlu et al., 2002; and the south-dipping Büyük Menderes Detachment Fault (BMDF; e.g., Bozkurt, 2000; Çemen et al., 2006;

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Gürer et al., 2009), (3) Plio-Quaternary high-angle normal faulting, cutting the older structures throughout the western Anatolia (Yılmaz et al., 2000). These stages are continuous although the rate

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cause and amount of extension in each stage may be different. Each of these stages is responsible for

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deformation, basin formation, sedimentation and extensive volcanic activity in western Anatolia,

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Western Anatolia, Turkey is seismically active and has experienced many devastating earthquakes during historical times. Many of the ancient Greek/Roman city states, including Ephesus, Troy, Pergoman, and Hierapolis, were destroyed by large historical earthquakes (Çemen et al., 2012; Helvacı et al., 2012). During the second half of the 20th century, the region experienced two major large earthquake giving normal fault focal mechanism solutions (Yolsal-Çevikbilen et al., this volume). They are the 1969, M=6.9 Alasehir and the 1970, M=7.1 Gediz earthquakes. These earthquakes had caused substantial damage and loss of life in the region. Most of the large devastating earthquakes occurred along the North Anatolian Fault zone which controls the northward movement of the Anatolian plate and associated extension in the Aegean and Anatolia regions (Fig. 1). In 1999 alone, three large earthquakes occurred in these regions (August 17, 1999 İzmit Earthquake, near İstanbul, M=7.4; November 12, Düzce earthquake, M=7.2 in Turkey; and September 7, 1999 Athens, earthquake, M=6.1 in Greece). The earthquakes caused over 18,000 deaths and an economic damage estimated at about $25 billion (Çemen et al., 2000; Reilinger et al., 2000; and Papadopoulos et al., 2000).

Organization of the Articles The volume contains 7 papers organized in scale and method specific rather than geographic

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT specific. The first three papers discuss sedimentary basins and interpretation of basinal rocks within the framework of extensional tectonics of western and central Anatolia (Fig. 1). The fourth paper discusses the significance of the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone within broad tectonic frame work of the

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Aegean Region. upper plate extension of the subduction transform edge propagator fault linking Hellenic and Cyprus arc in Eastern Mediterranean (Fig. 1). The remaining three papers are based on

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seismological studies in the western and central Turkey and discuss active tectonics of the region.

Figure 1: Simplified geologic map of western and central Anatolia, Turkey and the Aegean region showing major structural features and rock units. Abbreviations: EFZ: Ecemiṣ Fault Zone; NAF: North Anatolian Fault Zone; VIAS: Vardar-İzmir-Ankara Suture Zone.

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT In the first chapter, Booth et al., (this volume) propose that the Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene Hekimhan Basin in Central Eastern Turkey, (Fig. 1) is formed as supra - ophiolite sedimentary/magmatic basin related to the later stages of closure of Neotethys. They suggest that the

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basin developed as part of the northern margin of the Tauride microcontinent during the collision and suturing of two the Inner Tauride Ocean and the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean. During the Late

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Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) emplacement of ophiolitic rocks resulted in non-marine clastic

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sedimentation and the basin started to form in response to regional crustal extension. As the extension continued during the Early Eocene deposition of shallow-marine carbonates coupled with localized basaltic volcanism. They considered several different tectonic models including extension related to the

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northward pull of a subducting oceanic slab, and back-arc extension related to northward subduction of Neotethys to the south.

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The second paper by Ersoy et al., (this volume) emphasizes the importance of İzmir- Balıkesir transform Zone (Fig. 1) in the tectonic evolution of the Aegean Extended Region under the light of the data obtained from tectono-stratigraphic study of the Neogene basins in western Turkey and recent

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paleomagnetic studies. They observed that the Neogene basins, located along the northern Menderes

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Extensional Metamorphic Core Complex were developed during the Miocene as supradetachment basins (Fig 1). They interpreted these basins as developed in response to exhumation of the core

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complex. The basins located to the west of the northern Menderes Extensional Metamorphic Core Complex, however, were developed as strike-slip basins and contain volcanic and sedimentary units which get younger in age from NE to SW with no remarkable unconformity. They propose that these basins were developed in response to southward clockwise rotational rollback of the Aegean subduction zone. The eastern margin of this rotational deformation is a large strike-slip zone referred as İzmirBalıkesir Transfer Zone.

The third chapter is the paper by Aksu et al., (this volume ) on the Late Miocene-Recent Evolution of the Finike Basin and its linkages with Beydağları complex and the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean (Fig. 1). Their interpretation of high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection profiles suggest that the Finike Basin evolved during the Pliocene-Quaternary as a result of subsidence associated with tectonic loading due to thrusting. In the areas surrounding the Finike Basin, transition from the Messinian to the Pliocene-Quaternary is marked by partitioning of stress into several discrete spatial domains. They suggest that a right-lateral strike-slip fault zone, Antalya Fault, developed along the western Antalya Basin which transected the Anaximander Mountains and separated the Anaxagoras Mountain from the Anaximander and Anaximenes Mountains. They propose the presence of two

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT additional strike-slip fault zones in Pliocene-Quaternary which relayed stress between the Antalya Fault zone to the east and the Pliny-Strabo Fault zone to the west (Fig. 1 ) The fourth paper by Hall et al., (this volume) discusses the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone as the

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upper plate extension of the subduction transform edge propagator fault linking Hellenic and Cyprus arc in Eastern Mediterranean (Fig. 1). They suggest their interpretation of seismic reflection profiles

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indicate that the northern Rhodes Basin include a large crustal-scale fold-thrust belt, overprinted by

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numerous faults with small extensional stratigraphic separations. The fold-thrust belt formed during the Miocene. They propose that the northern part of the Rhodes Basin was above the depositional base of marine evaporite environment during the Messinian and therefore did not receive evaporities, but

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subsided very rapidly after Messinian during the Pliocene-Quaternary. Based on their interpretation of two seismic reflection profiles parallel to the present-day coastline, they suggest that Pliocene-

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Quaternary zone of high-angle extensional faults link with the similarly trending and dipping strike-slip faults onland, thus providing the continuity between the Pliny-Strabo Trench to the southwest in the Aegean Sea and the Burdur-Fethiye Fault zone to the northeast onland in Turkey (Fig. 1).

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The remaining three chapters of the volume are devoted to seismological studies in the western and

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central Turkey. In Chapter 5, Yolsal et al., (this volume) discuss the earthquake mechanisms in the Gulfs of Gökova, Sığacık, Kuşadası, and the Simav Region in western Turkey (Fig. 1) and their

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neotectonics, seismotectonics and geodynamic implications. They studied source mechanisms and rupture histories of several moderate earthquakes that occurred in these areas in recent years with using teleseismic body-waveform inversions of long-period P-and SH-,and broadband P-waveforms. Their inversion study show the presence of E-W striking normal faulting with small amount of left-lateral strike-slip components in the Gulf of Gökova, and NE-SW oriented right-lateral strike-slip faulting in the Gulf of Sığacık and dominantly normal faulting mechanisms with strike-slip components in the Simav graben. Their work suggest dominantly normal faulting mechanisms associated with the E-W oriented horst-graben structures in western Turkey (Fig. 1). However, there are also strike-slip faulting mechanism related to NE-SW striking strike-slip faults, especially in the Gulf of Sığacık and Karaburun Peninsula. They suggest the main active tectonic deformation is the N-S extensional tectonics in the Gulfs of Gökova, Sığacık, Kuşadası, and Simav Graben (Fig. 1) although there are NESW oriented strike-slip fault mechanism that also play important role in the neotectonics of western Anatolia, Turkey. In Chapter 6, Çubuk et al., (this volume) interpret source parameters of the 2005-2008 BalaSırapınar in Central Turkey (Fig. 1) earthquakes in terms of their implications for the internal deformation of the Anatolian plate. They analyzed complete broad-band waveforms recorded at near-

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT field distance to the Bala-Afşar-Sırapınar (Central Anatolia) region in the period of 2005 to 2008 with earthquakes of July 30, 2005 (Mw=5.2); December 20, 2007 (Mw=5.7) and December 26, 2007 (Mw=5.6). They determined the presence of a NW-SE directed right-lateral strike-slip and NE-SW

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directed left-lateral strike-slip fault system which indicates a conjugate fault pattern geometry. They also determined the presence some earthquakes that have E-W directed normal faulting components.

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They calculated that seismogenic depth of these earthquakes is about 8-10 km in the upper crust. The

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result of their study is fairly consistent with the geometry of neotectonic faults in the region. In the last chapter of the volume Gök and Polat (this volume) examines the The IzmirNET data of the Izmir (Smyrna) area (Fig. 1) and interpret the data for seismic risk and fault kinematics. They

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reported the data from a local network called IzmirNET composed of 16 seismic stations installed in in 2008. The IzmirNet recorded more than 900 small seismic events located within less than 1.0 km

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horizontal error (RMS ≤ 0.15). They reported that seismic events show a cluster around the Inner Bay (e.g.; along E-W striking İzmir Fault) and detected some dense clusters near the city of Menemen to the North, and in the outer bay of İzmir Gulf along NW-SE direction. Their kinematic analysis of active

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faults in the area suggest pure normal or dominant normal faulting with minor strike-slip components.

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Their stress analysis suggest that the study area is under extensional stress regime in a N-S direction with 60 degrees plunge for 1, and closer to horizontals for 2 and 3. These results are in agreement

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with the geometry and kinematics of the other active fault zones in western Turkey. This special issue is an attempt in compilation of papers on recent research conducted in western and central Anatolia, Turkey. We hope that the seven papers included in this volume will provide a better understanding of continental extensional tectonics in the two regions. We look forward to how our knowledge of continental extensional processes will continue to improve with interdisciplinary studies in the Aegean region and elsewhere in the world such as the Basins and Ranges of Western North America in the years to come.

Acknowledgement We thank very much to Prof. Rob Govers, Ms. Surya Nedunchezhiyan, and Mr. Yanping Hou for their efforts on behalf of this volume which would not be realized without their relentless pursuit for perfection and constant push on our guest editor duties. We would like to take this opportunity to thank our colleagues who shared their geological knowledge freely with us over the years. We learned a lot from these interactions. Last but not the least, we would like thank to our families who supported us throughout the completion of this volume.

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Ersoy, E.Y., Helvacı, C., Sözbilir, H., 2010. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the NE-SW-trending superimposed Selendi basin: implications for Late Cenozoic crustal extension in western Anatolia, Turkey. Tectonophysics 488, 210–232.

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Ersoy, Y. and Helvacı, C., 2007, Stratigraphy and geochemical features of the Early Miocene bimodal (ultrapotassic and calc-alkaline) volcanic activity within the NE-trending Selendi Basin, western Anatolia, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences (Turkish J. Earth Sci.), vol. 16, 2; p.117-139. Ersoy, Y.E., Helvacı, C., Palmer, M.R., 2011, Stratigraphic, structural and geochemical features of the NE-SW trending Neogene volcano-sedimentary basins in western Anatolia: Implications for associations of supra-detachment and transtensional strike-slip basin formation in extensional tectonic setting, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 41, Issue: 2, p. 159-183. Faccenna, C., Bellier, O., Martinod, J., Piromallo, C., Regard, V., 2006. Slab detachment beneath eastern Anatolia: a possible cause for the formation of the North Anatolian fault. Earth planet. Sci. Lett. 242, pp.85–97. Faccenna, C., Jolivet, L., Piromallo, C., Morelli, A., 2003. Subduction and the depth of convection in the Mediterranean mantle. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (B2), 2099. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JB001690. Gautier, P., Bozkurt, E. Hallot, E., and Dirik, K., 2002. Dating the exhumation of a metamorphic dome: Geological evidence for pre-Eocene unroofing of the Niğde Massif (Central Anatolia, Turkey), Geol. Mag., 139, 559 – 576. Gautier, P., Bozkurt, E. Bosse, V., Hallot, E., and Dirik, K. 2008); Coeval extensional shearing and lateral underflow during Late Cretaceous core complex development in the Niğde Massif, Central Anatolia, Turkey; TECTONICS, VOL. 27, p.1-27, TC1003, doi:10.1029/2006TC002089.

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Gessner, K., Ring, U., Johnson, C., Hetzel, R., Passchier, C.W., and Güngör, T., 2001. An active bivergent rolling-hinge detachment system: Central Menderes metamorphic core complex in western Turkey: Geology, v. 29, p. 611–614, doi: 10.1130/00917613(2001)029<0611:AABRHD>2.0.CO;2.

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Gessner, K., Gallardo, L.A., Markwitz, V., Ring, U., Thomson, S.N., 2013. What caused the denudation of the Menderes Massif: Review of crustal evolution, lithosphere structure, and dynamic topography in southwest Turkey. Gondwana Research 24, 243–274.

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Helvacı, C., Ersoy, Y., Sözbilir, H., Erkül, F., Sümer, Ö. and Uzel, B., 2009, Geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Miocene volcanic rocks from the Karaburun Peninsula: Implications for amphibole-bearing lithospheric mantle source, Western Anatolia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 185, 181–202.

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