ESVP and ECVP Proceedings 2016
CEREBRAL PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS DUE TO CLADOSPORIUM SPP. IN A LION (PANTHERA LEO) P.R.D. Rocha *, V. Dutra z, F.H. Maruyama z, S.D. Garcia z, R.P. Duarte y, E.Z. de Azevedo y, L. Nazakato z and G.F. Machadoy *Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Paulista University, ySao Paulo State University and zFederal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil Introduction: Cladosporium spp. are saprophytic fungi, have a worldwide distribution and are among the most common air-borne fungi. A case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a female lion (Panthera leo) due to Cladosporium spp. is described. Materials and Methods: An adult female lion died and was subjected to necropsy examination. Brain, spinal cord and lungs were collected for histopathological analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin wax-embedded brain tissue and submitted for PCR using panfungal primers. Subsequently, sequencing of the amplicon was performed in both directions. Results: Grossly, in the brain, a dark-grey abscess measuring 1.8 2.0 cm was compressing the adjacent occipital, parietal and frontal cortex. Microscopically, the brain abscess was non-encapsulated and composed mainly of neutrophils and macrophages. Multiple, brown, septate, 4e6 mm in length, fungal hyphae were observed within the areas of malacia and inflammation. In the adjacent areas, gliosis, lymphocytic perivascular cuffing and infiltration of neutrophils were observed. An w300 bp product was amplified by PCR. Analysis of the amplicon in BLAST showed a 100% similarity with other Cladosporium spp. sequences. Conclusions: Histopathological lesions and sequencing results are consistent with cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladosporium spp., and this is the first report of this disease in a wild cat. Therefore, cerebral phaeohyphomycosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of neurological disease in wild cats.
J. Comp. Path. 2017, Vol. 156, 54e141
USEFULNESS OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND PCR FOR BRAIN SAMPLING IN RABBITS WITH ENCEPHALITOZOONOSIS P.R.D. Rocha *, E. Ferroglio y, M.A. Lallo *, T. Bassan *,y, A. Dogliero y, S. Zanet y and M.T. Capucchioy *Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Paulista University, Brazil and y Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, Italy Introduction: Brain lesions caused by different infectious agents may vary, thus correct sampling of brain tissue for the correct diagnosis of encephalitis is fundamental. Encephalitozoonosis is a disease caused by the fungus Encephalitozoon cuniculi and most commonly affects the brain, kidneys, liver and lungs of mammals. So far there is a lack of a precise protocol for correct brain sampling and post-mortem diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis. We aimed to describe a sampling protocol for the aetiological diagnosis of meningoencephalitis in rabbits suspected of having encephalitozoonosis. Materials and Methods: Eighteen rabbits, clinically suspected of encephalitozoonosis, were humanely destroyed. Brain slices at the level of the brainstem (cerebellum and pons) and diencephalon (thalamus, occipital cortex and hippocampus) were sampled during necropsy examination and frozen at e80 C. PCR was performed from frozen tissues. In addition, HE-stained slides were obtained from transverse sections of formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded brain tissue sections for mapping brain lesions. Results: Multifocal granulomatous meningoencephalitis was observed in all cases, mostly in the occipital cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. Fungal spores were not observed in HE-stained sections. PCR was positive for E. cuniculi in 10 (55.55%) cases at the level of the thalamus/ hippocampus and in seven cases (38.88%) from the brainstem. Conclusions: Multifocal granulomatous meningoencephalitis due to E. cuniculi is a rare but dangerous condition in man and animals. We recommend that transverse sections at the level of the hippocampus should be performed for the correct PCR diagnosis of encephalitis caused by E. cuniculi.