Comparative statistical analysis of ex vivo permeation and antifungal activity studies of Terbinafine hydrochloride chitosan gels

Comparative statistical analysis of ex vivo permeation and antifungal activity studies of Terbinafine hydrochloride chitosan gels

e u r o p e a n j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s c i e n c e s 3 2 S ( 2 0 0 7 ) S22–S50 P-21 Comparative statistical analysis of ex v...

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e u r o p e a n j o u r n a l o f p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s c i e n c e s 3 2 S ( 2 0 0 7 ) S22–S50

P-21 Comparative statistical analysis of ex vivo permeation and antifungal activity studies of Terbinafine hydrochloride chitosan gels I. Ozcan a , B. Aksu a , O. Abaci b , H. Boyacioglu c , A. Haliki b , S. Senel d , O. Ozer a , T. Guneri a

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P-22 Advertising of medicinal products to the general public, opinions and attitudes of customers and pharmacists T.-M. Tammaru, I. Aulik, D. Volmer Institute of Pharmacy, University of Tartu, Estonia E-mail address: [email protected] (T.-M. Tammaru).

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Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 35100 Izmir, Turkey b Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Basic & Industrial Microbiology Section, 35100 Izmir, Turkey c Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistic, 35100 Izmir, Turkey d Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 06100 Ankara, Turkey E-mail address: [email protected] (I. Ozcan). Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the statistical analysis of ex vivo permeation and antifungal activity studies of Ter-HCl gel formulations prepared with different types of chitosan. Method: The gel formulations containing %1 Ter-HCl were prepared with different molecular weights of chitosan (gel-PR, gel-Ch1, gel-Ch2, gel-Ch3) and the commercial formulation was used for comparison. The ex vivo release of Ter-HCl through excised rat skin was studied for 8 h using Franz diffusion cells. In vitro antifungal inhibitory activity of the formulations was conducted using agar-cup method. The data obtained in this study was subjected to statistical analysis by repeated measures ANOVA, following Tukey multiple comparisons test. p-Value of less than 0.05 was considered as evidence of a significant difference. The differences in the release rate at the end of 8 h were also investigated by regression analysis. Result: As it was obtained from ANOVA results, main effects of each type of chitosan formulations on time was found statistically significant (p < 0.05). Thus, the differences between commercial formulation and chitosan formulations prepared were found statistically significant. Although the effect of gelPR on the release time was found an important factor affecting the release rate of active substance, it was found that the other types of chitosan interactions were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The results of variance analysis clearly showed that, microorganism type and diameter of zone were the important variables which affected the antifungal activity of Ter-HCl. The interactions between these variables were found statistically significant (p < 0.05). According to the regression analysis results, the differences in the release rate was best fit to the cubic model (p < 0.05, r2 = 0.999). Conclusion: The application of ANOVA and regression analysis were found useful for Ter-HCl formulations to optimise most accurate formulating parameters. doi:10.1016/j.ejps.2007.05.065

Objective: Pilot study to investigate and compare the behaviour and perceptions of the customers and pharmacists on drug advertisements in mass media in order to give reliable assessment to the informatory role of the drug commercials. Method: For the data collection two different questionnaires—for the pharmacists (23 questions) and for the customers (21 questions) were designed. On the beginning of 2006, 100 questionnaires were mailed to randomly selected pharmacists in the cities and rural areas. Seventy-six of those were received as filled. For the customers’ data, snowball method in the Internet was used. In addition, written questionnaires were used to receive information of those not actively using Internet. One hundred and forty eight questionnaires from customers were received. Data analysis by SPSS v. 11.0. Results: The attitude towards advertising medicines in massmedia was neutral for both—customers and pharmacists. Sixty six percent of pharmacists and 75% of customers found that drug advertising helped to increase the awareness concerning drugs and their consumption among lay people. Forty four percent of all respondents found that there are too many drug commercials in Estonia. According to the pharmacists, the most efficient media to promote medicines was press (63%), customers preferred TV and radio (53%). The customers described following details making drug advertisement easy to remember: frequent presentation and grotesque or humorous story of the commercial. Thirty seven percent of the customers mentioned influence of drug advertisement to the purchase of medicines. Regardless of that, the consumer’s final purchase decision is strongly influenced by the recommendations of the healthcare personnel and the former experience with the drug. Ninety five percent of consumers reported that they would ask for more information about the advertised drug in pharmacy, mainly about the side effects (62%) and indications (52%). Advertising of medicines did not contribute to rational consumption of medicines in the opinion of 50% of pharmacists and 84% of customers. Promoting the drug sales using commercials was perceived to give the impression of drugs as common goods by 51% of the pharmacists and 41% of the customers. Conclusion: The pilot study demonstrated drug advertisement as popular source of information about medicines for lay people. On the other hand, drug commercials were described as promoters of irrational use of medicines. Despite on knowledge received from drug advertisement, patients requested additional information from healthcare professionals. doi:10.1016/j.ejps.2007.05.066