Composition and Acceptability of Meat from Bobwhite Quail1

Composition and Acceptability of Meat from Bobwhite Quail1

ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS AND COCCIDIOSIS Sprince, H., and A. B. Kupferberg, 1947a. A simplified medium for the investigation of unknown factors in blood...

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ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS AND COCCIDIOSIS

Sprince, H., and A. B. Kupferberg, 1947a. A simplified medium for the investigation of unknown factors in blood serum essential for the sustained growth of Trichomonas vaginalis. J. Bacterid. 53: 435-439. Sprince, H., and A. B. Kupferberg, 1947b. The separation of human blood serum into two fractions, both essential for the sustained growth of Trichomonas vaginalis. J. Bacteriol. 53: 441-447. Wyss, W., F. Kradolfer and R. Meir, 1960. Lipophilic growth factors for trichomonas. Exp. Parasitol. 10: 66-71.

Composition and Acceptability of Meat from Bobwhite Quail1 L. E. DAWSON 2 , L. R. YORK 2 , N. AMON2, C. KULENKAMP 3 AND T. H. COLEMAN3 Departments of Food Science S* Human Nutrition and Poultry Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (Received for publication April 15, 1971)

B

OB WHITE quail are being reared in increasing numbers for production related research and by a limited number of commercial growers for specialty markets. Information concerning cooked meat yield and meat characteristics is very limited, and a search of the literature revealed no publications containing pertinent data in this field. Processing procedures and raw meat yields of Bobwhite quail 10-18 weeks of age were reported by Dawson et al. (1971). These same birds were further processed to determine the cooked meat yields, the protein, fat and moisture composition of the meat and its acceptability. 1 Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station No. 5452. 2 Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition. 3 Department of Poultry Science.

PROCEDURE

This study was planned and conducted as two separate parts. One group of birds was used to evaluate cooked meat yields and physical and chemical characteristics of the meat. The other group of birds was used to evaluate sensory characteristics and acceptability of the cooked product. All birds were battery-reared by the Poultry Science Department and sufficient birds were reared for evaluation after 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 weeks of age. Details of processing procedures and uncooked yields were reported by Dawson etal. (1971). One hundred ready-to-cook Bobwhite quail (50 males, 50 females) were utilized in the meat yield study. Ten males and 10 females in each of five age groups (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 weeks of age) were processed, frozen at — 18°C, and held at

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in fatty acid composition of cockerel testes due to age and fat deficiency. J. Nutr. 100: 156-160. Ross, E., and L. Adamson, 1961. Observations on the requirements of young chicks for dietary fat. J. Nutr. 74: 329-334. Sanders, M., 1957. Replacement of serum for in vitro cultivation of Trichomonas foetus. J. Protozool. 4: 118-119. Shorb, S. S., and P. G. Lund, 1959. Requirements of trichomonads of unidentified growth factors, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. J. Protozool. 6: 122-130.

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D A W S O N , Y O R K , A M O N , KTJLENKAMP AND COLEMAN

T h e breast portion (including bone) of each bird was separated from remaining carcass, the meat was separated from bone and each portion weighed. M e a t from remaining carcass was separated from bone and each portion weighed. Yields of breast (including bone), boneless breast meat, total meat and total bone were calculated. Cooked composite samples of light and dark meat plus skin were analyzed for moisture content b y drying 10 g. of finely ground samples for 24 hr. a t 101°C. F a t was ether extracted from the cooked, dried, composite samples using a Soxhlet apparatus for 24 hr. Protein analyses were determined for uncooked samples (light and dark meat) using a micro-Kjeldahl procedure (A.O.A.C, 1965). Sensory evaluations: All processed quail were packaged, frozen and held at — 18°C. until all five age groups were available for evaluation. Five birds from each age group were thawed a t 3°C. for each of four cooking and evaluation trials. Each carcass was cut into four quarters, two light meat and two dark meat. Each quarter was dipped in an egg wash (egg + m i l k + w a t e r ) , dipped in a seasoned flour mixture, and cooked in oil under pressure. T h e pieces were placed in oil for 1 min. at 127°C. in a pressure cooker for browning, then cooked 4 min. at 6.8 kg. pressure. The cooked pieces were

served warm to a 20 member taste panel randomly selected from available students, secretaries and faculty. Each panel member received a similar quarter of a bird from each of the five age groups each evaluation time. Cooked quail quarters were evaluated for color, odor, flavor, texture, juiciness and overall quality based on a 9-point hedonic scale. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Cooked meat yields: Cooked carcass and drip yields (Fig. 1) were quite uniform for both sexes and all age groups. Volatile losses during cooking (calculated) appeared slightly more variable, especially among age groups. T h e cooked carcass yields, based on ready-to-cook weights, varied from 74 to 8 1 % . These were more variable b u t comparable to the 7 6 - 7 7 % yields reported by Dawson et al. (1957) % 100

90 80

m

&%

70 60 50 40 Cooked

Carcass

30 20 10 MF 10

MF MF M F 12 14 16 Age - weeks

MF 18

M - Male F - Female FIG. 1. Yields of cooked carcass, drip and volatile losses, based on ready-to-cook weights, for Bobwhite quail, 10-18 weeks of age.

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— 18°C. until prepared for analyses. Each group of birds was thawed at 3 ° C , and each bird was placed in a previously weighed petri dish, reweighed and covered loosely with aluminum foil. All birds were then placed in a pre-heated oven at 163°C. and heated for 35 min. (10-14 weeks of age) and 40 min. (16-18 weeks of age). T h e cooked weights, drip weights, and volatile losses were measured or calculated.

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QUAIL MEAT

Loss during Separation

MF 12

MF 14

MF 16

MF 18

Age - weeks M -Male F - Female

FIG. 2. Yields of cooked meat and bone, based on cooked carcass weights, for Bobwhite quail, 10-18 weeks of age.

from 6 week-old chickens cooked for 15 min. per 100 g. and were higher than the 72% yields reported by Pecot and Watt (1956) for roasted whole chickens. Total cooked meat yields averaged 80% (Fig. 2). Nearly one-half of this was breast meat. This is considerably higher than the 62-66% cooked meat yield reported by Dawson et al. (1957) from 6 week-old chickens.

The breasts of these cooked quail consisted of over 90% meat (Table 1). Meat composition: Protein was determined for raw meat samples (with skin) and reported on a wet weight basis. Table 2 shows the protein values of meat from male and female quail from 10-18 weeks of age. Bird variations were not determined, since only composite samples were

TABLE 1.—Cooked meat yields for Bobwhite quail 10-18 weeks of age Cooked meat as percent of cooked Age carcass of birds Male Female 10 12 14 16 18

77.8 79.1 80.7 81.4 81.6

77.2 78.6 79.7 80.1 80.8

Cooked boneless breast meat as percent of cooked carcass1

Cooked boneless breast meat as percent of cooked breast

Cooked boneless breast meat as percent total boneless meat

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

36.7 37.5 38.9 39.5 39.6

35.7 36.0 38.5 38.8 38.9

92.0 92.9 93.4 93.1 93.8

92.0 92.0 92.1 92.8 93.9

47.2 47.4 48.2 48.5 48.6

46.3 45.9 48.3 48.4 48.2

1 Analysis of variance indicated that differences between males and females within each age group were not significant. When combining data from all age groups, percentages from males were higher than from females (P<.01) and percentages increased with age of quail (P<.01).

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DAWSON, YORK, AMON, KULENKAMP AND COLEMAN

TABLE 2.—Protein content on wet weight basis of uncooked meat {with skin) from Bobwhite quail, 10-18 weeks of age1 .

Percent protein


'

Female

10 12 14 16 18

20.9 19.6 20.4 20.6 20.0

19.5 18.8 20.3 20.1 20.2

Average

20.3

19.8

1 Dark and light meat plus skin, average values from duplicate analyses.

analyzed. No significant differences in the protein content were found between male and female samples, or between groups of birds of different ages. These results are very similar to those reported by Watt and Merrill (1963) for fryer flesh only (19.3%) or roaster flesh only (21.1%). Moisture and fat (ether extract) values were determined on cooked meat samples after the yield data were obtained. These samples included all meat and skin, and results were calculated on a moist meat basis (Table 3). Fat percentages for meat from male and female birds were very similar and did not differ significantly due to age of the quail. These values were slightly higher than the 11.9% reported by Watt and Merrill (1963) for flesh and skin of broilers (fried) and lower than for TABLE 3.—Moisture and fat content of cooked 1

Bobwhite quail 10-18 weeks of age Male

Age (weeks)

Female

Moisture

Fat

Moisture

%

%

%

%

10 12 14 16 18

64.6 65.6 64.2 64.4 64.7

12.7 13.0 13.6 13.6 13.6

65.6 67.1 64.4 64.7 64.4

13.2 12.7 13.6 13.6 13.5

Average

64.7

13.3

65.2

13.3

Product acceptability: The deep-fat cooked quail quarters, both dark and light meat, were well accepted by the taste panel, since most of the scores averaged between "good" and "very good", or between 7 and 8 on a 9 point hedonic scale.

Fat

1 Dark and light meat plus skin, average values from duplicate analyses.

TABLE 4.—Proximate composition of raw and cooked meat plus skin from adult Bobwhite quail1

Raw Cooked

Moisture

Fat

Protein

74.1 61.9

3.0 5.5

22.1 32.7

1 Average values from duplicate analyses, exact age and sex not recorded.

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Mate

similar meat from roasters (roasted), 14.7%. Moisture of the cooked meat and skin averaged 64.7% for males and 65.2% for females, all ages combined (Table 3). These values are influenced much by the degree of cooking. Moisture was higher than the 53.5% for fryers (flesh and skin-fried) or the 57.0% for roasters (flesh and skin-roasted) reported by Watt and Merrill (1963). In addition to the evaluations of 10-18 week-old birds, the moisture, fat and protein percentages were determined for adult quail. A cooking time of 1 hr. 20 min. at 163°C. was required to allow easy separation of meat from bone. Major muscles and attached skin from five birds were combined for the analyses. Raw meat values (Table 4) were comparable to values from other classes of young poultry. Moisture and fat values of cooked meat were lower than from the quail 10-18 weeks of age. The longer cooking time resulted in greater moisture losses and the omission of skin from wings and backs influenced the lower fat percentages. The protein values of 22% for uncooked meat and 33% for cooked meat are similar to that of other poultry meats.

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QUAIL M E A T Score 8.0,

Very

Good

7.6 7.2

|1

. Good _

'J

i

I

6.4 6.0 5.6

til

Ml

1

Color

v •J

1

I

I

>.'

•36

(••:

Odor

Flavor Evaluation

Texture

Juiciness

Criteria

1a Over oil Quality

r > I I Light Meat - male b/Rfl Dark I

Meat-male

J Light Meat - female

R%8g1 Dark

Meat-female

FIG. 3. Sensory evaluation scores (hedonic score of nine) for deep-fat-fried quartered Bobwhite quail, 18 weeks of age.

Fig. 3 shows the average panel score for each factor when evaluating meat from 18 week-old quail (similar results were obtained from an evaluation of birds in other age groups). All scores were relatively high (acceptable); however, some differences are apparent. Scores for 1

TABLE 5.- -Flavor and juiciness scores of Bobwhite

quail, 10-18 weeks of age Flavor

Age (weeks)

Sex

10

& 9

12

& 9

14

:'

9 16

f

18

9 c? 9

Juiciness

Light

Dark

Light

Dark

7.2 7.0 7.4 6.7 7.4 7.3 7.5 7.0 7.2 7.7

7.6 7.2 6.3 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.3 7.4 7.5 6.9

6.7 7.5 6.6 6.6 7.2 7.1 7.5 7.3 7.4 7.5

5.9 7.6 7.4 5.7 7.3 6.7 7.4 7.3 7.4 7.3

1 Hedonic score of 9, all values of 7 or above rated "good" or better.

light meat from males were highest in every factor, and for dark meat from males were lowest in all factors except color. Reasons for these differences are not known, since similar sized quail were used, and pieces from both sexes were cooked at the same time. Flavor and juiciness scores for meat from male a n d female birds 10-18 weeks of age are reported in Table 5. Average scores were mostly good to very good, indicating t h a t Bobwhite quail prepared b y this method were quite acceptable. SUMMARY

Battery-reared male and female Bobwhite quail were processed at 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 weeks of age. M e a t yields were determined for oven cooked birds, and proximate analyses for composition of meat from raw and cooked samples. Deepfat-fried quarters of quail were evaluated

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I

6.8

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DAWSON, YORK, AMON, KULENKAMP AND COLEMAN REFERENCES Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 1965. Official Methods of Analysis, 10th Ed. Assoc. Off. Agr. Chemists, Washington, D.C. Dawson, L. E., L. R. York, N. Amon, C. Kulenkamp and T. H. Coleman, 1971. Processing and yield characteristics of Bobwhite quail. Poultry Sci. 50: 1346-1349. Dawson, L. E., J. A. Davidson, M. A. Frang and S. Walters, 1957. Relationship between meattype score and percentage of edible meat in "miniature" Cornish-cross broilers. Poultry Sci. 36: 15-18. Pecot, R. K., and B. K. Watt, 1956. Food yields summarized by different stages of preparation. U.S.D.A. Handbook 102, Washington, D.C. Watt, B. K., and A. L. Merrill, 1963. Composition of Foods. U.S.D.A. Handbook No. 8, Washington, D.C.

Centrifuged Liquid Whole Egg 1. E F F E C T S OF PASTEURIZATION ON T H E COMPOSITION P E R F O R M A N C E OF T H E SUPERNATANT FRACTION 1

AND

S. T. MCCREADY 2 , M. E. NORRIS 3 , M. SEBRING 4 AND O. J. COTTERILL Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Missouri—Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65201 (Received for publication April 16, 1971)

INTRODUCTION

P

ASTEURIZATION causes some damage to the functional performance of liquid whole egg. Hanson et al. (1947) reported smaller sponge cake volumes from liquid whole egg pasteurized 60.0 to 71.0°C. for 0.1 to 10.6 minutes than from unheated controls. Wilkin and Winter 1

Contribution from the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station. Journal Series Number 7015. 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Poultry Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601 3 Bakery Applications, Glidden-Durkee, 16651 Sprague Road, Strongsville, Ohio 44136. 4 Dairy, Poultry and Oils, Armour and Co., I l l E. Wacker, Chicago, 111. 60601.

(1947), and Norris (1965) have also observed similar results. In contrast, Miller and Winter (1950) pasteurized whole egg at 60.0 to 63.4°C. for 4 minutes and found that cake volumes differed only slightly from unheated controls. Heller et al. (1962) reported homogenized liquid whole egg pasteurized at 64.4°C. for 2.5 minutes was generally accepted by the baking industry. Kline (1964), utilized pasteurization temperatures of 60.0 to 61.0°C. for 3.5 minutes, reported that sponge cakes were unaffected in texture or volume. Sugihara et al. (1966) reported that quality of sponge cakes was not significantly damaged until temperatures were in excess of 63.4°C. for 3.5 minutes.

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for acceptability by a taste panel of 20 persons. Total cooking yields varied from 74 to 81%. Values were similar for males and females and remained fairly constant for birds 10-18 weeks of age. Boneless cooked meat yields were very high (80% of cooked carcass weight) with 48% coming from breast muscles. Composite raw meat samples contained 20% protein and composite cooked meat plus skin contained 13% crude fat and 65% moisture. Protein, fat and moisture did not vary significantly among age groups or between sexes. Deep-fat-fried quail were found to be acceptable by the taste panel.