Corn Stillage as a Feedstuff for Broilers and Turkeys1

Corn Stillage as a Feedstuff for Broilers and Turkeys1

01997Applied Poultry Science, Inc CORNSTILLAGE AS A FEEDSTUFF FOR BROILERS AND TURKEYS' J. H. HUNT,J. J. LYONS2, and J. M. VANDEPOPULIERE Depa-ent of...

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01997Applied Poultry Science, Inc

CORNSTILLAGE AS A FEEDSTUFF FOR BROILERS AND TURKEYS' J. H. HUNT,J. J. LYONS2, and J. M. VANDEPOPULIERE Depa-ent of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 Phone: (573)882-6754 FAX: (573)882-6827

Primary Audience: Nutritionists, Distilling Industry Personnel, Broiler and Turkev Producers. EauiDment Manufacturers

During the oil embargo and the subsequent oil shortage, use of ethanol as a mobile fuel received considerable attention. Increased ethanol usage would result in increased stillage production. Alcohol residue (stillage) contains 95 to 96% moisture and spoils quickly without a preservative. When energy was inexpensive, the residue was dried, producing distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or fractionated and dried, producing distillers' dried solubles (DDS) and distillers' dried grains (DDG). Increasing energy prices, however, led us to consider

Historically, livestock [l]were commonly "slopped" with stillage when only small amounts were available. In poultry feeding trials, stillage provided ad libitum or added to a complete mash diet yielded satisfactory results [l,21. Other researchers studied the vitamin content of DDG and DDGS [3,4,5]. Several investigators determined that distillers' byproducts could be incorporated in grower and layer diets [6,7, 8, 91. In layers receiving high levels (43.9%) of DDGS, however, egg production suffered [lo]. Caldwell et al. [ l l ] obtained similar results when feeding laying

1 Contribution from the Missouri AgriculturalExperiment Station Journal Series Number 12,477 2

To whom correspondence should be addressed

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undried stillage as a poultry feedstuff. This DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM could result in dehydration energy savings.

Research Report HUNTelal.

Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance [20] and GLM procedure of SAS [21]. EXPERIMENT 1 The object of this study was to compare the feeding value of DDGS and stillage. Half of a batch of stillage from a laboratory fermenter containing two bushels of ground corn was oven dried and ground in a hammer mill to produce DDGS. The resultant DDGS and stillage from the same fermentation batch were each incorporated into diets at 10 and 20% on a DMB (Table 1). One hundred dayold White Mountain x Plymouth Rock female broiler chicks were distributed among treatments by weight. Ten chicks were placed in each of 10 pens.

MATERIALS AND METHODSEXPERIMENTS 2A and 2B These experiments were conducted to deThe study included three chicken broiler feeding trials, two turkey poult feeding trials, and three stillage diet stabilizing trials. All diets were formulated io be isocaloric and isonitrogenous; methionine and lysine levels were held constant within each trial [16]. The National Research Council ingredient values were used in calculating nutritive value of the diets. Values for DDGS were used for the stillage when their dry matters were adjusted to be comparable. The control diets did not contain distillers' by-products. Because of the high moisture content (4575%) of the stillage diets and the acidity of the stillage (pH 4.1), the battery feeders were coated with epoxy paint and the wet diets were stored in plastic buckets. Propionic acid was added to the stillage diets at 2% of dietary DMB to help retard spoilage. The stillage diets were refrigerated at 4.5"C for the duration of each experiment. In the preservation experiments, propionic acid, Aflaban preservative [lq, or Shield preservative [18] was added at various levels. Fermenting ground corn [19] produced stillage for the study. All buds were housed in batteries, the broiler chicks for 4 wk and the turkey poults for 3 wk, receiving feed and water ad libitum. Weight gain and feed consumption were determined weekly. Fecal moisture and water consumption were measured during the last week of each trial.

termine the maximum level of dietary stillage that would produce no significant reduction in performance. In Experiment 2A, 200 dayold straight run Hubbard x Hubbard broiler chicks were randomly assigned to diets containing 0, 8, 16, 24, or 32% stillage (DMB, Table 2). Ten chicks were placed in each pen. Experiment 2B was a subsequent replication of Experiment 2A. EXPERIMENTS 3A and 3B live trials were conducted to determine the effects of feeding graded levels (0,8,16,24, and 32% DMB) of stillage to turkeys (Table 3). ' b o hundred day-old straight-run large white turkey poults were randomly assigned to each diet in each trial. Ten poults were placed in each battery pen. EXPERIMENTS 4A, 4B, and 4C Storing and feeding stillage diets can pose unique problems. The extremely high moisture levels of the diets are conducive to microbial growth. These experiments focused on the effectiveness of various preservatives. Experiment 4A used propionic acid liquid (0, 1, 2, and 3% DM); Experiment 4B used 0, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% dry Aflaban (100% ascorbic acid); Experiment 4C used Shield liquid (propionic, acetic, benzoic, and propylp-hydroxy-benzoate) at 0, 1, 2, and 3% DM. These amounts of the preservatives were added to the 8 and 16% chicken broiler stillage

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hens diets containing high-moisture methane digester effluent (MDE). In 1989 Thorne et al. [12] designed an automated feeding system to deliver corn stillage and MDE to laying hens in cages. Feeding graded levels of DDGS, from 0 to 40%, to broiler chicks caused no difference in body weight gain at 7 wk of age [U].Fuller and Dale [ 141 fed 5% brewers' condensed solubles (BCS) to broilers and layers with satisfactory performance. In 1993 Tadtiyanant et aI. [15] evaluated graded levels of BCS and determined that feeding 30% does not adversely affect broiler growth, feed conversion, and organoleptic factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stillage could be utilized as an ingredient in chicken broiler and turkey diets.

311

JAPR CORN STILLAGE AS A FEEDSTUFF

312

TABLE 1. Chicken broiler starter diets with corn stillage and distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS)*

DIETS

INGREDIENT

1

2

3

4

5

LbS

BOn an equivalent 90% dry matter basis ‘Su lies per kg of diet: vitamin A, 8,818 IU; cholecalciferol, 3,306 ICU; vitamin E, 9.5 IU; vitamin Biz, 8.8 pg; ribogvin, 5.5 mg; niacin, 55 mg; D-pantothenic acid, 15.4 mg; rnenadionine, 0.7 mg;folic acid, 1.1 mg; yridoxine, 1.1mg; thiamine, 055 mg. Manufactured by Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals Division, Hoffmann-La ioche, Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110. DSupplies per kg of diet: Mn,122 mg; Zn, 45.4 mg; Fe, 40 mg; Cu, 4 mg; I, 2.4 m Manufactured b H.M. HubeI Corporation, Calcium Carbonate Division, 3150 Gardner Expressway, P.O. Box 4d5,Quincy, IL 623.h.

ECornstillage (wet) added in Diets2 and 3 to provide the 90% DM level approximately comparable to those in Diets 4 and 5. resuectivelv.

diets based on the DM of the diet (Table 2). Estimates of microbial activity were obtained by measuring C02 evolution [22,23]. For each of the preservation studies, nine 10-g samples of each diet x treatment combination were placed in 125-mL serum bottles, which were then stoppered with rubber septums and sealed with aluminum caps. Three samples of each treatment were then incubated at 30°C for 48,96, and 144 hr. Following incubation, two 0.5 cc samples of head-space gas from each bottle were injected into a Fisher 1200 Gas Partitioner [24]. The partitioner utilized two separation columns and helium as the carrier gas. A Varian printer plotted the gas peaks and a Spectra Physics Integrator, with the use of a standard, measured the area under the peaks and reported the percentage of CO2

present. We used the mean of the two injections per bottle for statistical analysis.

RESULTSAND DISCUSSION

,

BROILER CHICKEN FEEDING TRIALS Experiment I. Corn stillage used in this trial contained 14% dry matter (DM). Based on mean body weight and feed consumption, there were no significant differences among the treatments (Table 4). In all cases, broilers on diets containing wet or dry distillers’ by-products showed weight gain numerically superior to that of broilers receiving the control diet. It was apparent that fast-growing broiler chicks were able to consume the wet diets at the levels tested and grow at a rate comparable to that of those fed dry diets. The diets containing stillage yielded

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Atlie&were calculated to contain 23% protein and 3200 kcaVkg metabolizable energy.

Research Report 313

HUNT et al.

DIETS

INGREDIEW 1

2

3

4

BOnan equivalent 90% dvmatter basis

'Sup lies per kg of diet: vitamin A, 8,818 IU; cholecalciferol, 3,306 ICU; vitamin E, 9.5 IU; vitamin Biz, 8.8 pg; r i b o f h n , 5.5 mg; niacin, 55 mg; D-pantothenic acid, 15.4 mg; menadionine, 0.7 mg; folic acid, 1.1 mg; yridoxine, 1.1 mg; thiamine, 0.55 mg. Manufactured by Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals Division, Hoffmann-La {oche, Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110. DSuppliesper kg of diet: Mn, 122 mg; Zn, 45.4 mg; Fe, 40 mg; Cu, 4 mg; I, 2.4 m Manufactured b H M Huber Corporation, Calcium Carbonate Dksion, 3150 Gardner Expressway, P.O. Box 40&, Quincy, IL 6233;). . '

ECorn stillage (wet) added to provide the 90% DM level shown in the diets.

statistically better feed:gain ratios than the DDGS diets. All diets produced feces with comparable moisture content; water consumption, however, varied significantly. For each l % increase in dietary moisture, a corresponding decrease of 1.05% in water consumption (R2 = .%)occurred. This indicated that from 1to 4 wk of age the broiler chicken was capable of regulating its total water intake regardless of the source. Experiments 24 and 2B. Corn stillage for Experiments 2A and 2B contained 12.6 and 10.6% DM, respectively. Analysis of the combined data (Table 5) shows that the 8% stillage diet performed as well as the control diet, but that a sigmfkant reduction in growth and feed consumption occurred at higher levels. At dietary moisture levels of 58 to 71% DM, feed consumption decreased

by 6 to 16% and weight gain decreased by 11 to 14% compared to the control. This performance reduction may be due to a dilution of nutrient density. DDGS has been fed at levels up to 40% without the decreased performance associated with high levels of corn stillage in this study 1131. The chick reduced its drinking water intake on a 1:l basis (1% increase in dietary moisture results in a 1% decrease in water consumption, R2 = .96). This mechanism apparently becomes less efficient as the moisture level in the diet exceeds 56% and the excess moisture consumed is excreted, resulting in wetter feces produced for the 24 and 32% stillage diets. The feed:gain ratio data show that performances on all diets except the 16% level were satisfactory and comparable to that of the control.

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ADietswere calculated to contain 23% protein and 3200 kcal/kg metabolizable energy.

JAPR CORN STILLAGE AS A FEEDSTUFF

3 14

BOn an equivalent 90% dry matter basis ‘Sup lies per kg of diet: vitamin A, 8,818 IU; cholecalciferol, 3,306 ICU; vitamin E, 95 IU; vitamin Biz, 8.8pg; ribodvin, 5.5 mg; niacin, 55 mg; D-pantothenic acid, 15.4 mg; menadionine, 0.7 mg; folic acid, 1.1 mg; yridoxine, 1.1mg; thiamine, 0.55 mg. Manufactured by Roche Vitamins and Fine Chemicals Diwsion, Hoffmann-La ioche, Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110. DSupplies per kg of diet: Mn, 122 mg; Zn, 45.4 mg; Fe, 40 m& Cu, 4 mg; I, 2.4 m Manufactured b H M. Huber Corporation, Calcium Carbonate Division, 3150 Gardner Expressway, P.O. Box 4085, Quincy, IL 623JO. . ENaSe03 in a cerelose carrier, providing selenium at 0.2 ppm to the complete diet FCornstillage (wet) added to provide the 90% DM level shown in the diets.

Mortality, %

I

-

5

-

-

5

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ADietswere calculated to contain 28% protein and 2800 kcalikg metabolizable energy.

Research Report 315

HUNT et al. TABLE 5. Chicken broiler starter diets with amded levels of corn stillaseA (Experiments 2A and 28)

Means in a row with no common superscript differ significantly (P c .05).

TURKEY POULT FEEDING TRIALS Experiments 3A and 3B. Stillage used in Experiments 3A and 3B contained 11.10% and 9.68% DM, respectively. The combined data from both experiments demonstrated that the turkey poult can utilize diets containing up to 16% stillage (DMB) without si&icant loss in performance (Table 6). Higher stillage levels resulted in reduced weight gain and feed consumption. The turkey poult can regulate its water balance regardless of source. However, there appears to be a species difference when compared to the broiler chick. Whereas the broiler chick reduced water consumption on a 1:l basis, the poult reduced water consumption only 0.5% for every 1%increase of moisture in the diet. The feces moisture reflected this

species difference in water regulation. Turkey droppings on stillage diets were significantly wetter than on the control diet. EFFICACY OF VARIOUS PRESERVATIVES IN A CORN STILLAGE DIET Experiments 4A, 4B, and 4C. Increasing levels of the respective preservative brought about greater inhibition of CO2 evolution.The control diet containing the highest moisture level evolved less C02 than the drier control diet. Thisindicates that at acertain level, water itself has an inhibitory effect on microbial activity. A dilution effect was noted with the liquid preservatives that was not apparent with the dry preservative. In Experiment 4A there was an overall three-way interaction of diet x treatment x

TABLE 6. Turkey poult starter diets with graded levels of corn stillageA (Experiments 3Aand 38)

CORN SIILLAGE. % (DMB)

BControl diet equals 100% water consumption, other treatments shown as a percentage of control. a+

Means in a rowwith no common superscript differ significantly (P< .05).

1

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BControl diet equals 100% water consumption, other treatments shown as a percentage of control. a+

JAPR CORN STILLAGE AS A FEEDSTUFF

3 16

time. The diet x treatment combinationswere sigolficantly different (Table 7) at a given incubation time, and the rates of C 0 2 evolution also varied across time. All diet x treatment combinations were significantly different for each given incubation time. For each treatment, C 0 2 evolution increased at a similar rate across time (Table 8). The results of Experiment 4C (Table 9) were very similar to those of Experiment 4A.

DRY MATIER

2 a-h

INCUBATION TIME (Hr)

PROPIONIC ACID (DMB)

28.58

3

46

96

144

10.5se

21.51'

23.43g

I

Means in a column with no common superscript differ significantly (P < .OS).

TABLE 8.Conevolution of Aflaban-treated dietsA(Experiment 48)

1

42.30

0

43.sa

45.78a

46.58a

1

43.34

0.04

36.Nb

40.69b

42.9Sb

1

42.77

0.06

31.74d

35.12'

38.53'

I I I

2

I

2

1

2 2

I I I 1

42.60 28.93 27.74 29.02 28.31

I I I 1

0.08 0

0.04

0.06 0.08

I I I 1

29.54' 35.99' 28.29' [email protected] 22.56h

I 1 1 1

31.83d 25.90' 30.&le 26.26' 24.13g

I 1 1 1

33.76e 36.70d 32.50' 28.54g 25.55h

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DIET

There was a three-way interaction of diet x treatment X time. There were significant differences between the diet x treatment combinations at a given time; across time, there were [email protected] differences in the rate of C 0 2 evolution. The liquid preservatives (propionic acid and Shield) at the two highest treatment levels suppressed C 0 2 evolution for a longer period of time than did the dry preservative (Aflaban).

Research Report 317

HUNT ef ai.

DIET

INCUBATION TIME (Hr)

SHIELD (DMB)

DRY MATI’ER

46

96

144

a-h

Means in a column with no common superscript differ significantly (P < .OS).

CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS 1. Broilers and turkeys readily consumed diets with corn stillage. 2. Broilers and turkeys can efficiently utilize diets with 8 and 16% stillage (DMB), respectively. 3. Propionic acid and Shield were effective in preserving high-moisture stillage diets. However, further research is called for at the production level since field conditionswould exert more pressure on the preservative. This study indicates that at least 42% DM is advisable. 4. The poultry industry could effectively utilize high-moisture stillage as an ingredient, resulting in a potential dehydration energy savings. ~~~~~

REFERENCES AND NOTES 1. Insko, W.M., Jr., G.D. Buckner, J.H. Martin, and A. Harms, 1937. Distillery slop in chicken rations. Kentucky Agr. Exp.Sta. Circular No. 461-8. 2. Buckner, G.D., W.M. Insko, Jr., J.H. Martin, and k Harms, 1938.The influence of distillery slo on the production of chicken fat. Poultry Sci. 17369-34. 3. AUman, RT. and H.D. Branion, 1938.A prelimi-

nary investigation of the value of corn distillers’ dried grains in chick rations. Scientific Agric. 18:70&707.

4.D’Ercole. AD.. W.B. Esselen. Jr.. and C.R FeUers. 1939. The nutritional value of distiilers’ by-products: Poultry Sci. 18:89-95. 5. Shea, K.G., C.R Fellers, and RT. Parkhurst, 1941. Corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles in poultry rations. I. Chick rations. Poultry Sci. 20527-535.

6. Dickens, F.L., RT. Parkhurst, and C.R. Fellers, 1941.Corn distillers’ dried ains with solubles in poultry rations. 11. Laying rations. Kultry SCi. 20:536-542. 7.Sloan, H.J., 1941.The use of distillers’ by-products in poultry rations. Poultry Sci. 20:8>96. 8. Matterson, L.D., J.T. Lustohowicz, and E.P. Singsen, 1966.Corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles

in rations for high-producing hens. Poultry Sci. 45:147151.

9.Harms,R.H.,RS.Moreno,andB.LDamron,1969. Evaluation of distillers’ dried grains with solubles in diets of laying hens. Poultry Sci. 481652-1655.

10.Vandepopuliere, J.M., J.J. Lyons, and RJ. Lipsey, 1978.A monogastnc-polygastric system designed to use high levels of distillers’ feeds to roduce human food. Pages 58-60 in: Proc. Distillers’ z e d Research Council Conf., Louisville, KY. 11. Caldwell, J.M., J.J. Lyons, a n d J.M. Vandepopnliere, 1986. Methane digester effluent as a feedstuff for layers. Poultry Sci. 65:147-152. 12. Thorne, D.H., J.M. Vandepopuliere, and J.J. Lyons, 1989. Automated high-moisture diet feeding system for laying hens. Poultry Sci. 68:1114-1117. 13.Waldroup, P.W., J . k Owen, B.E Ramsey, and D.L Whelchel, 1981.The use of high levels of distillers’ ins plus solubles in broiler diets. Poultry Sci. 14.Fuller, H . L and N.M. Dale, 1983.Feeding value of brewers’ condensed solubles for broilers and laying hens. Poultry Sci. 62914-916.

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*See Table 2 for Diets 1 and 2.

JAPR CORN STILLAGE AS A FEEDSTUFF

318 15. T a d t i y a n a n t , C., I.J. Lyons, a n d J.M. Vandepopuliere, 1993.Brewers’ condensed solubles used as a feedstuff in broiler diets. Poultry Sci. n.1897-1905.

20. Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran, 1967. Statistical Methods. 6th Edition. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.

16. The Brill Corporation, 1987. Brill A Software, Feed Formulation. Version 4.01. Parkway, Suite 214, Norcross, GA 30092.

Business Corners

21. Goodnight, J.H., 1979. GLM procedure reference. Pages 245-263 in: SAS User’s Guide. J.T. Helmig and K.A. Council, eds. SAS Institute, Inc., Raleigh, NC.

17. Afiaban isa trademark of Monsanto for a chemical composition for use as a preservative in animal feed. Monsanto, 2381 Centerline Industrial Park, St. Louis, MO 63146-3323.

22. Paster, N., 1979. A commercial scale study of the efficiency of proprionic acid and calcium ro ionate as fungistats in poultry feed. Poultry Sci. 58:5!2-!76.

18. Shield is a trademark of Kemin industries, Inc., for a preservative for raw crops, namely ha , grain, and silage. Kemin Industries, 2100 Maury &., Box 70, Des Moines, IA 50301. 19. Biocon’s Simple “4”Step Procedure, 1981. Biocon (U.S., Inc.), 2345 Palumbo Drive, Lexington, KY 40509.

23. Dixon, RC. and P.B. Hamilton, 1981. Evaluation of some organic acids as mold inhibitors by measuring C02 roduction from feed and ingredients. Poultry Sci. M):21f72-2188. 24. Fisher Model 1200 Instruction Manual, Cat. #11128 and 11-128-1. Instrument Division, Fisher Scientific Co., 711 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15219. Downloaded from http://japr.oxfordjournals.org/ at Kainan University on March 15, 2015