3. Clifton-Hadley RS, Wilesmith JW, Stuart FA. Mycobacterium bovis in the European badger. Epidemiol Infect 1993; 111: 9-19. 4. Gallagher J, Muirhead RH, Burn KJ. Tuberculosis in wild badgers in Gloucestershire: pathology. Vet Record 1976; 98: 9-14. 5. Gallagher J, Nelson J. Causes of ill health and natural death in badgers in Gloucestershire. Vet Record 1979; 105: 546-55 1. 6. Hayden T. The Badger. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1994; pp. 108-122. 7. Cheeseman CL, Wilesmith JW, Stuart FA, Mallison PJ. Dynamics of tuberculosis in a naturally infected badger population. Mammal Review 1988; 18: 61-72. 8. Cheeseman CL, Wilesmith JW, Stuart FA. Tuberculosis: the disease and its epidemiology in the badger, Epidemiol Infect 1989; 103; 113-125.-9. Molan A. Wilesmith JW. TB in badgers. Vet Microbial 1994; 40:‘179-191. 10. Francis J. Tuberculosis in Animals and Man. London: Cassel, 1958. 11. Hancox M. Badgers and bovine TB. An Wey 1994; 3: 253-251. 12. Hancox M. Senility and ill health in the badger. Small Carniv Conserv 1993; 9: 21. 13. Hancox M. Cattle lung lesions. An Welf 1995a; 4: 174-175. 14. Hancox M. Book Review of Hayden T, The Badger. An Wel 19953; (in press).
to the Editor
bronchoscopes and their cleaning. The editorial dealt mainly with microbiological aspects of equipment contamination but referred briefly to the possibility of residual tissue acting as a reservoir for microorganisms. Tissue fragments adherent to biopsy forceps or channels may also ‘contaminate’ subsequent biopsy specimens and cause confusion to the histopathologist. Such fragments will appear in biopsy specimens from time to time if the thorough manual cleaning procedures recommended by Harvey and Yates are not adhered to. Although these tissue contaminants have typical tinctorial characteristics (intense eosinophilia on H & E preparations) due to chemical, heat and drying artefact, some cellular, particularly nuclear, detail may be preserved by the glutaraldehyde. To the unwary histologist, such material may be interpreted as ‘endogenous’ foreign material or even (atypical) squamous epithelium. The dangers of transferring even a few ‘degenerate’ malignant cells from one patient’s specimen to another’s are obvious. K. M. KERR Department of Pathology University of Aberdeen, U.K.
Dear Editor Do your clean or contaminate
I read with interest the editorial by Harvey and Yates (1) on contamination problems related to
Reference 1. Harvey J, Yates M. Do you clean or contaminate bronchoscope? Respir Med 1996; 90: 63-67.