evaluated in inoculated and un-inoculated soybean varieties (TGx and PAN) under ﬁeld conditions to understand the adaptation of the varieties under different rainfall conditions. Further, the growth and nodulation of both inoculated and un-inoculated varieties were evaluated. In South Africa, there is currently no published information on growth, nodulation and water-use efﬁciency of the promiscuous (TGx) and PAN soybean genotypes. However, Rhizobium inoculation has been shown to increase nodulation, plant growth and yield. This study assessed the performance of selected soybean genotypes with regard to nodulation, root and shoot dry matter yield under ﬁeld conditions, with periodic drought or variable rainfall and no irrigation. Gas exchange parameters were also measured on the 27 soybean genotypes grown at a high rainfall area, Mbombela and a lower rainfall area, Marapyane in the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. The results showed that genotypes varied in growth, nodulation and WUEi at both experimental sites. Also, the plants at Marapyane exhibited greater water-use efﬁciency than those planted at Mbombela. Genotypes TGx1987-11F, TGx1988-9F, PAN 1729, TGx1989-70F combined high water-use efﬁciency and high plant biomass at the Marapyane experimental site. Genotypes TGx 19088F, TGx 1830-20E, TGx 1440-1E, TGx 1835-10E, and TGx 1448-2E had high plant growth at Mbombela experimental site. Inoculation increased plant growth at Mbombela experimental site but at Marapyane, the un-inoculated genotypes had a higher plant growth. This suggests differences in population, compatibility and efﬁciency of indigenous rhizobia at both sites.
The assessment of chemical and mechanical control of Acacia decurrens Willd. and Lantana camara L. and their effect on biodiversity M. Mbedzi, M.H. Ligavha-Mbelengwa Department of Botany, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa Declining biodiversity is one of the most dramatic and irreversible aspects of anthropogenic global change and biological invasions are believed to be the second largest cause of current biodiversity loss after habitat destruction. The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the two types of weed control methods and their impact on native plant species. Seventy quadrats of 2 m2 were constructed in each site and the invader species cut 5 cm from the ground, 35 of these quadrats were treated with a chemical (glyphosate) and the other 35 were only cut. The results showed that the removal of the invader species using chemical control was a success only in the Acacia decurrens site and not on the Lantana camara, while the use of mechanical control favoured the regeneration of the plants in large numbers, though in few cases it was a success. The regeneration of L. camara was very high after the control. The results of this study have shown that the removal of invader species does not always promote the establishment of native species and that the eradication seasons should be closely observed.
doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2015.03.082 doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2015.03.084 Documentation of alien invasive plants used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS related symptoms by traditional healers of Vhembe district municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa S.G. Mbambala, M.P. Tshisikhawe, N.A. Masevhe Department of Botany, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
Comparative antimicrobial potential of different extracts and fractions of Morella serrata (Lam.) Killick (Myricaceae) N. Mbhele, A.O.T. Ashafa Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Phuthaditjhaba 9866, South Africa
The use of alien invasive medicinal plants plays an important role in the lives of rural communities, with regard to food security, ornamental purposes as well as primary healthcare. The study presents the results of a survey of alien invasive plants used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS related symptoms. Twenty one traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Parameters recorded during the interviews were local plant names, symptoms treated, plant parts used, life form and availability. Ethnobotanical information obtained from traditional healers, has revealed the use of 38 alien invasive plant species belonging to 24 different families being used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS related symptoms. The largest proportion of medicinal plants belonged to the family Asteraceae with 16%. Roots were the most frequently used parts constituting 35% followed by leaves with 34%. Symptoms treated showed that the wounds have the largest proportion contributing 35% followed by gonorrhea with 20%. Six alien invasive medicinal plants found to be commonly used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS related symptoms were Solanum mauritianum Scop., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarach L., Eucalyptus paniculata Sm., Argemone ochroleuca Sweet., and Agave sisalana Perrine. From the study, medicinal alien invasive plant species play a vital role in the traditional primary healthcare. It is recommended that the traditional healers and community members should be educated about sustainable harvesting of the alien invasive medicinal plants.
The present study was aimed at investigating the antimicrobial potential of the plant Morella serrata. M. serrata (Lam.) Killick (Myricaceae) is a South African traditional medicinal plant used in the treatment of chest-related diseases, painful menstruation, and to enhance men's sexual performance hence called Monna motsho. In this study, the leaf, root, root bark, and stem bark extracts of the plant as well as their fractions were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, as well as non-ﬁlamentous fungal strains using the 96-well microplate method. The extracts showed inhibition against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, as well as fungal strains. However, better antimicrobial activities were observed in the leaf, root, root bark ethanol extracts, and stem bark acetone extract at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.19 to 12.00 mg/mL. The ethanol leaf extract fraction showed the best antimicrobial activity inhibiting both bacterial and fungal strains at MIC ranging from 0.19 to 3.13 mg/mL. Based on these results, the plant may be used to treat various infectious diseases particularly those associated with bacteria and fungi. The study also showed that other parts of the plant such as the leaf can be used to treat ailments as its extracts exhibited good antimicrobial activity against human pathogens thus changing the perception that only the root is effective when treating ailments.