Effect of Brooding Paper on the Performance of Bobwhite Quail1

Effect of Brooding Paper on the Performance of Bobwhite Quail1

Effect of Brooding Paper on the Performance of Bobwhite Quail 1 M. D. OUART, H. R. WILSON, and V. P. DUGAN Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences...

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Effect of Brooding Paper on the Performance of Bobwhite Quail 1 M. D. OUART, H. R. WILSON, and V. P. DUGAN Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Poultry Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (Received for publication June 16, 1986) ABSTRACT Three experiments were conducted to determine the response of bobwhite quail chicks when reared in pens with and without brooding paper. Half the chicks in each experiment was brooded Days 1 to 7 on brooding paper, which covered the litter within a brooder ring. The other half was brooded on either new or reused litter without paper. Results of all three experiments showed a consistent trend of higher 1-week body weights and lower cumulative 1 to 3 week mortality when birds were reared in pens without paper. Overall, no net performance advantages were found for rearing quail with brooding paper at the termination of the 3-week trials. (Key words: bobwhite quail, brooding paper, body weight, mortality, feed conversion 1987 Poultry Science 6 6 : 4 3 9 - 4 4 1

INTRODUCTION

Because of the relative scarcity and high cost of litter material, most broiler growers and some gamebird producers have conserved litter by reusing it for multiple broods. Jones and Hagler (1983) and McCartney (1971) reported no differences in performance between broilers grown on new or reused litter. However, reports from broiler growers (Price, 1982) indicated that reused litter has caused deleterious effects on mortality rate, body weight, feed conversion, and condemnations. A brooding paper (a rough textured) recycled paper litter covering, tested in that study reportedly was responsible for improvements (statistically nonsignificant) in broiler performance and condemnations. Although there are several reports regarding the use of brooding paper for chickens, no data were found dealing with its use for bobwhite quail. Quail chicks may have high mortality when exposed to sandy floors during early brooding (Wilson etal., 1975a). Because of this and the possibility of improvements in perform-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series Number 7359. 2 Supplied per liter of drinking water: 2,642 IU vitamin A; 793 ICU vitamin D 3 ; 3.31 IU vitamin E; .008 mg vitamin B 12 ; .66 mg thiamine hydrogen chloride (HCl); 1.32 mg riboflavin; 3.41 mg d-pantothenic acid; .66 mg pyridoxineHC1; 13.21 mg niacin; 12.39 mg choline bitartrate; .26 mg folic acid; 2.11 mg menadione sodium bisulfite complex; 13.21 mg ascorbic acid.

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ance, a series of experiments was designed to determine the performance of bobwhite quail chicks when reared with and without brooding paper on new and reused pine shavings litter. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Three experiments were conducted using chicks from 1 day to 3 weeks of age hatched from the University of Florida strain of bobwhite quail. Brooding pens were 2.44 x 3.05 m and were equipped with one infrared heat lamp. Chicks were placed in a brooder ring, 2 m diameter and .5 m high until 7 days of age, at which time rings were removed. All pen floors were concrete covered with 5.0 to 7.5 cm of pine shavings litter. A quail starter diet calculated to contain 27.3% crude protein and 3066 kcal metabolizable energy/kg was provided ad libitum throughout the experiments. During Week 1 feed was provided initially on two plastic feeder flats. From Days 4 to 10 feeding was gradually changed to three tube type feeders per pen. Water, supplied ad libitum, contained a soluble vitamin-electrolyte mixture2 until Day 14. Three quail chick founts were provided initially and gradually replaced on Days 6 to 8 with three 3.8-L founts and one automatic belltype waterer in each pen. All chicks were beak trimmed by the touch-burn method (Wilson et al., 1975b) before placement. Body weights and feed consumptions were determined weekly and summarized into 1 week and cumulative 1 to 3 week means for analysis. Feed consumption was adjusted for mortality which was recorded daily.

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QUART ET AL.

TABLE 1. Feed consumption, feed conversion, body weight, and mortality of bobwbite quail brooded •with and without brooding paper (Experiment 1) Feed consumption Treatments

Without paper New litter Reused litter With paper1 New litter Reused litter 1

Week 1

Weeks 1-3

Feed conversion Week 1

Weeks 1-3

Body weight Week 1

Week 3

Mortality Week 1

Weeks 1-3

— (g/bird per day) —

— (g feed/g gain) —

4.64 4.78

5.31 5.30

2.54 2.64

2.03 2.05

18.84 18.79

60.95 60.41

2.6 3.3

4.5 5.8

5.05 4.94

5.56 5.27

2.80 2.78

2.18 2.08

18.65 18.49

59.68 59.22

3.9 3.7

5.9 5.6

(™)

(g>

Brooding paper covered litter in brooder rings during Days 1 to 7.

Experiment 1. Chicks were assigned to one of four treatments with 190 chicks per pen in three replicate pens. Treatments were new litter without brooding paper; reused litter without brooding paper; new litter with brooding paper; reused litter with brooding paper. Reused litter had been used for one previous 5-week brood. Brooding paper consisted of commercially available chick box fillers which were overlapped 7.5 cm and taped together with plastic tape on the bottom surface to fabricate a panel to cover the litter within the brooder ring. Brooding paper was taken up when all birds were caught for body weight measurements at 7 days of age. Any feed on the brooding paper on Day 7 was dumped onto the litter near the center of the pen. Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, 255 chicks were assigned per pen, six replicates for each of two treatments: new litter without brooding paper; new litter with brooding paper. Brooding paper consisted of two, 1 m-wide spans of Litter Guard™ paper3 overlapped 15 cm and taped together with plastic tape on the bottom surface to fabricate a panel to cover the litter within the brooder ring. Brooding paper was taken up after 7 days as in Experiment 1. Procedures used in Experiment 3 were identical to those used in Experiment 2 except that 160 chicks were assigned to each pen. Data from all experiments were analyzed using analysis of variance or t tests (Snedecor and Cochran, 1967). When appropriate, significant differences among treatments were estab-

3 Litter Guard is a product of Papillon Agricultural Products, Inc., Box 1161, Easton, MD 21601.

lished using Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In Experiment 1, there were no significant differences among litter type or brooding paper treatments for feed consumption, feed conversion, body weight, or mortality (Table 1). Excessive feed wastage from feeder lids during Week 1 prompted the use of less feed per lid in subsequent experiments. Feed was placed in a thicker layer near the center of each lid for subsequent trials to prevent wastage. In Experiment 2, Week 1 feed consumption (Table 2) was significantly (P<.05) less for quail reared with brooding paper as compared to birds reared in pens without paper. Although not significant, a similar relationship between treatments was seen in feed consumption values for Weeks 1 to 3. Differences between treatments for other variables were nonsignificant. Mortality in Experiment 2 over both treatments for Weeks 1 to 3 was unexpectedly high. This could have been caused by birds having difficulty finding the heat source after removal of the brooder ring. Even though use of 255 birds/ pen was higher in this trial than in other trials, previous work at this station (Wilson etal. 1978) indicated density should not have been a factor in mortality levels. Results for Week 1 feed consumption in Experiment 3 were consistent with those in Experiment 2 as chicks brooded on paper consumed significantly less (1.13 g) feed when compared with birds in pens without brooding paper. Feed wastage was again evident in this experiment. Feed conversion was significantly better during

BROODING PAPER AND PERFORMANCE OF QUAIL

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TABLE 2. Feed consumption, feed conversion, body weight, and mortality of bobwhite quail brooded with and without brooding paper (Experiments 2 and 3) Feed consumption (all new litter)

Week 1

Weeks 1-3

Feed conversion Week 1

— (g/bird per day) — Experiment 2 Without paper With paper 1 Experiment 3 Without paper With paper 1

Weeks 1-3

Body• weight Week 1

(g feed/g gain)

Week 3

Mortality Week 1

<£>

Weeks 1-3

(%;

3.20 a 2.69 b

4.75 4.66

2.26 2.00

2.02 1.94

16.70 16.12

56.33 57.25

6.0 5.4

5.52 a 4.39 b

6.12 6.04

3.32 a 2.83 b

2.52 2.56

17.26 a 16.62 b

56.51 54.58

3.3 6.9

19.2 20.2 4.3b 9.9^

ab ' Means within a column and experiment with different superscripts differ significantly (P<.05). 1

Brooding paper covered litter in brooder rings during Days 1 to 7.

Week 1 for birds on brooding paper. Week 1 body weights were significantly higher and mortality for Weeks 1 to 3 was significantly lower (P<.05) for birds reared without brooding paper vs. quail reared on paper. Observations recorded during all trials consistently indicated that birds reared with paper had cleaner feeders and waterers, appeared to have more difficulty finding the heat source (perhaps because the light pattern of brooder lamps did not show up on paper as compared with litter materials), and were more nervous during Week 1 (perhaps because of stimulation by the noise of birds running on the paper). Results of all experiments showed a consistent trend of higher Week 1 body weights and lower cumulative mortality for Weeks 1 to 3 in quail reared without brooding paper. These differences were statistically significant in Experiment 3. With the exception of mortality in Experiment 3, no performance trend observed at Week 1 was statistically significant in cumulative 3-week data at end of trials. Overall, under our conditions, no net performance advantages

were found for brooding bobwhite quail on brooding paper.

REFERENCES Duncan, D. B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1—4-2. Jones, F. T., and W. M. Hagler, 1983. Observations on new and reused litter for growing broilers. Poultry Sci. 62:175-179. McCartney, M. G., 1971. Effect of type of housing and litter on production of broilers. Poultry Sci. 50:12001202. Price. D. J., 1982. Brooding paper relationship to broiler performance. Poult. Dig. 43:22, 24. Snedecor, G. W., and W. G. Cochran, 1967. Analysis of variance. Pages 273-275 in: Statistical Methods. 6th ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IA. Wilson, H. R., C. R. Douglas, R. H. Harms, and G. T. Edds, 1975a. Reduction of aflatoxin effects on quail. Poultry Sci. 54:923-925. Wilson, H. R., M. G. Miller, and C. R. Douglas, 1975b. Debeaking method for bobwhite quail. Poultry Sci. 54:1616-1619. Wilson, H. R., C. R. Douglas, W. G. Nesbeth, and E. R. Miller, 1978. Floor space forbrooding bobwhite quail. Poultry Sci. 57:1499-1502.