Life Sciences No . 5, pp . 209-z11, 1962 . Great Britain.
Pergamon Press Ltd.
EFFECT OF EYESTALK EXTRACT qV UDPG-GLYCOGEN TRANSGLUCQSYLASE IN CRAB MUSCLE D .H . Wang and B .T . Scheer Department of Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon (Received 19 February 1962 ; in revised form
GLYCOGEN transglucosylase (synthetase) activity, measured by the method of Leloir and Goldemberg l , has been found in all the tissues of crabs tested, except for the thoracic ganglion (Table 1) . activity .
Muscle tissue has, in general, the highest
Tissues were prepared by homogenizing in water in the cold .
genate was centrifuged at 3000 g for 10 min, and the supernatant was centrifuged at 1200 g for 10 min. for all enzyme assays .
The supernatant from the second centrifugation was used The enzyme is activated by glucose-6-phosphate, but not
to the extent reported for rat muscle enzyme by Leloir et a1 . 2
extend the list of organisms which contain this important enzyme system to include crustaceans ; R.R . Traut (personal communication) has also found the enzyme in lobster muscle .
The results also confirm the suggestion, based on physiologi-
cal evidence, that glycogen is synthesized in crustaceans by the glycogen synthetase pathway . 3 The activity of a mixture of eyestalk and leg muscle enzyme preparations should, in principle, be the sum of the activities of the two .
In general, the
total activity, and the specific activity per mg N, in such mixtures was only 50 per cent of the predicted value ; a typical experiment is reported in Table 2 . The eyestalk preparation therefore appears to contain a factor which inhibits the activity of the glycogen transglucosylase system .
The presence of a factor
in eyestalk extracts which causes an increase in blood reducing value,*
specifically in the fermentable sugar of the blood5 '6 has been known for some time .
Scheer and Scheer6 showed that eyestalk removal results in increased
tissue utilization of glucose in spiny lobsters, and Scheer~' g has shown that 209
UDPG~LYCOGEN TRANSGLUCOSYLASE IN CRAB MUSCLE
TABLE 1 Activity of UDPG-Glycogen Transglucosylase in different Tissues . Reaction Mixture for UDF Formation contains UDPG 0 .25
G-6-P 0 .5 umoles, EDTA 0 .25 Pmoles, Glycogen 0 .4 mg, Glycine Buffer pH 8 .5, 7.5 umoles, Total Volume 0 .05 ml
Specific activity moles UDP/mg N per hr
male reproductive tract
Hemigrapsus nu dus
TABLE 2 UDPG-Glycogen Transglucosylase Activities of Mixtures of Muscle and Eyestalk Preparations from Cancer magister .
in Table 1
Tissue preparation Eyestalk
Activity m~nnole UDP formed
pecific activity m~unole UDP/mg N
Eyestalk + muscle
Predicted activity of mixture
UDPG-GLYCOGEN TRANSGLUCOSYLASE IN CRAB MUSCLE
the same operation results in an increase in glycogen stores in several crustacean species .
The available infonnation therefore suggests that the point
of action of the diabetogenic factor of the crustacean eyestalk may be the glycogen transglucosylase system .
In this connection it is of interest that
epinephrine decreases transglucosylase activity in mammalian muscle, 9 and insulin increases the activity of this enzyme in the absence of glucose-6phosphate in the rat diaphragm . l0 Supported by Grant G-13107 from the National Science Foundation . Abbreviations :
EDTA = ethylene diamine tetraacgtic acid ; G-6-P = glucose-6-phosphate ; UDP = uridine diphosphate ; UDPG = uridine diphosphate glucose . References
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V .R . MEENAKSHI and B .T . SCHEER, Comp . Biochem . Phvsiol . ~, 30 (1961) .
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