Effect of N + Cr ions implantation on corrosion and tribological properties in simulated seawater of carburized alloy steel

Effect of N + Cr ions implantation on corrosion and tribological properties in simulated seawater of carburized alloy steel

Surface & Coatings Technology 385 (2020) 125357 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Surface & Coatings Technology journal homepage: www.elsevi...

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Surface & Coatings Technology 385 (2020) 125357

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Surface & Coatings Technology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/surfcoat

Effect of N + Cr ions implantation on corrosion and tribological properties in simulated seawater of carburized alloy steel ⁎

T



Shengqiang Songa, Xiufang Cuia, , Guo Jina, , Meiling Donga,b, Lipeng Jianga, Chenfeng Yuana, Lei Shia a b

College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006, China

A R T I C LE I N FO

A B S T R A C T

Keywords: Ions implantation 18Cr2Ni4WA Electrochemical corrosion Seawater tribology

N + Cr ions were co-implanted into the carburized 18Cr2Ni4WA steel to improve hardness, wear and corrosion resistance. The microstructures of the samples were characterized by the glancing incidence X-ray diffractometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. In addition, the mechanical, corrosion and tribological properties were evaluated by nano-indenter instrument, electrochemical corrosion workstation and wear test, respectively. The results showed that after implanting N + Cr ions, a new nano-nitride phase was formed on the surface of carburized steel. Ions implantation process was accompanied by the radiation damage, which led to lattice distortion on the surface of the steel. These changes accordingly made the N + Cr ions implantation layer present high nano-hardness. Meanwhile, the N + Cr ions implantation layer could effectively prevent the synergistic effect of corrosion and friction in seawater environment, and significantly enhance the tribological property of the carburized steels in simulated seawater.

1. Introduction 18Cr2Ni4WA steel is a low alloy steel with excellent strength and toughness [1,2]. Therefore, it is widely used in the key components in the fields of marine ships, aerospace, mining, power generation and other fields. With the rapid development of modern industry, the environments in which these components serviced become extremely harsh, especially for those transmission parts of coastal or offshore aeroengine, such as aircraft flaps motion tube and ship transmission shaft [1,3–5]. The friction contact between these components is inevitable in seawater environment, which will cause the irreversibly damage to devices and machines due to the double-effects of corrosion and friction [6]. Therefore, the requirements for the wear and fatigue properties of components are increasing. Surface strengthening technologies focused on carburizing and shot peening have emerged to enhance the performance. As we all know, the increase of surface hardness after carburizing is usually at the expense of corrosion resistance, because the formation of carbides depletes the corrosion resistant elements (such as chromium, vanadium and molybdenum) on the top-layer of gear steel [3]. Thus, it is necessary to apply surface modification technology to improve the corrosion resistance of



carburized work piece surface. Ion implantation, as the advanced surface modification technology, has been drawing increasing attention in recent years owing to the significant strengthening effect [7–10]. Since the interface between the implant layer and the unaffected matrix is gradually transitional, the bond between the implant layer and the matrix is very close. Moreover, ion implantation could change the physical and chemical properties of the workpiece surface without affecting the workpiece size [11]. Therefore, ion implantation technology has been widely used to improve the tribological property and corrosion resistance of precision workpiece surface [10,12,13]. The effect of N ions implantation on the tribological property of AISI 304 steel has been investigated by Kumar et al. [9]. They proposed that as the concentration of N ions increases, the residual compressive stress on the surface layer gradually accumulated. Besides, a hard nitride phase with dispersed distribution was formed, thereby the friction coefficient reduced from 0.35 to 0.078 and wear rate reduced from 3.8 × 10−5 mm3/Nm to 2.4 × 10−7 mm3/Nm. Padhy et al. [10] reported that the electrochemical corrosion performance of AISI 304L in nitric acid medium was enhanced by N ions implantation treatment. This was mainly attributed to the combination of N ions with the passivation Cr elements on the surface of the samples,

Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (X. Cui), [email protected] (G. Jin).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.125357 Received 30 October 2019; Received in revised form 8 January 2020; Accepted 9 January 2020 Available online 11 January 2020 0257-8972/ © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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resulting in the improvement of the passivation film stability. In addition, their investigation revealed that during the electrochemical corrosion process, the N elements segregated at the oxide-metal interface to form a stable Cr interstitial nitride phase that can reduce the corrosion current density. Furthermore, they were found that with the increase of the N elements implanted, the corrosion resistance of samples increased. Numerous studies have confirmed that the hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the workpiece will be further improved by dual element implantation instead of single element implantation [14]. In the research reported by Jin et al. [8], the effects of single-element and dual-element implantation on the tribological properties of Cronidur 30 bearing steel were described. They believed that compared with single ion implantation, the surface hardness and wear life of the Ti + Cr dual ions implantation sample were increased 1.1 times and 5 times, respectively. Dong et al. [15] suggested that Ti + N implantation could remarkably increase the nano-hardness value and the electrochemical corrosion resistance by forming nanoceramic phase on the surface of 12Cr2Ni4A steel. It is well known that both N and Cr elements play the significant role in improving the wear and corrosion resistance of materials. Surface modification by single N or Cr ion implantation has been extensively and thoroughly studied [16]. However, there are few studies on surface protection of carburized layer by N + Cr dual-ions implantation and tribological property of ions co-implanted layer in simulated seawater environment. In this work, the effect of N + Cr ions implantation on structure, electrochemical corrosion and tribological behavior in simulated seawater of carburized 18Cr2Ni4WA steel were investigated. The modification mechanism of N + Cr ions implantation on carburized layer was further discussed.

Table 2 Chemical compositions of seawater. Compound

Concentration (g/L)

NaCl MgCl2 Na2SO4 CaCl2 KCl NaHCO3 KBr H3BO3 SrCl2 NaF

24.53 5.20 4.09 1.16 0.695 0.201 0.101 0.027 0.025 0.003

morphology of samples with co-implanted N + Cr ions was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEM-2010). 2.3. Property test Nano-mechanical property was carried out using nano-indenter system (Agilent G200) in the continuous stiffness mode and the surface approach velocity of indenter was 20 nm/s with strain rate of 0.05 s−1. Wear test in the simulated seawater was evaluated by the ball-disc friction and wear tester (HT-1000). According to the previous research [17], the wear test parameters were as follows: the test parameters for load, speed and time were 10 N, 280 rpm/min and 180 min, respectively. Commercial Si3N4 balls were selected as the grinding material. The simulated seawater was prepared according to the standard ASTMD 1141-98, and the compositions were listed in Table 2. The schematic diagram of wear experiment in simulated seawater was shown in Fig. 1. In order to ensure the reliability of wear test, parallel experiments were carried out to reduce experimental errors. The corrosion behavior of samples in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was measured by the electrochemical workstation (CHI660E). The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance

2. Experiment 2.1. Materials and preparation 18Cr2Ni4WA steels with the size of 14 mm × 14 mm × 14 mm were used as the substrate materials. The chemical compositions (wt%) of substrate were as follows: C: 0.15, Si: 0.25, S: 0.009, P: 0.017, Ni: 4.30, Cu: 0.07, Cr: 1.40, W: 1.05, and balance Fe. The surface of sample was mechanically polished to a level of 20 nm with 0.25 μm diamond polishing agent, and then ultrasonic cleaned in ethanol for 10 min. The metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) was used as the ion source to conduct N + Cr ions implantation, and the corresponding implanted parameters were shown in Table 1. 2.2. Surface characterization Microstructure of the samples was observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FEI Quanta 200). The phase composition was analyzed using the glancing incidence X-ray diffractometer (GIXRD, D-MAX-2500) with Cu Kα1 radiation. The parameters of GIXRD were as follows: the angle of 0.5°, the scanning speed of 3°/s, and the scanning range of 10°–90°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ESCALAB 210) was used to detect the surface state of N + Cr ions co-implanted samples by AlKa radiation, and the depth of implanted layers was measured by Ar+ ion gun etching. The surface Table 1 N + Cr ions co-implanted parameters. Parameters

Values

Vacuum degree (Pa) Sample temperature (°C) Accelerating voltage of N ion implanted (Kv) N ion implanted dose (ion·cm−2) Acceleration voltage of Cr ion implanted (Kv) Cr ion implanted dose (ion·cm−2)

2 × 10−3 100–120 80 2 × 1017 45 2 × 1017

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of wear experiment in simulated seawater: 1. grinding ball; 2. sample; 3. water inlet; 4. water outlet; 5. sample fixture. 2

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Fig. 2. GIXRD diffraction spectra of samples: (a) un-implanted specimens; (b) N + Cr ions co-implanted specimens.

also observed that the concentration of O and C elements on the surface of layer is the highest while the concentration sharply decreases when the depth exceeds approximately 10 nm, which is mainly attributed to the surface oxidation and carbon pollution in the air. TEM micrographs of the N + Cr ions co-implanted layer, the corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and EDS results are shown in Fig. 5. According to the previous research results [15], the surface microstructure of vacuum carburization layer is mainly composed of martensite and retained austenite. Obviously, there are a large number of small nanocrystalline grains exist on the surface of the carburized layer after N + Cr ions implanting. The SAED pattern in the inset of Fig. 5(a) shows that the N + Cr ions co-implanted layer consist of body-centered cubic (bcc) phase and face-centered cubic (fcc) phase. The corresponding EDS result is showed in Fig. 5(b), indicating that the surface of N + Cr ions co-implanted layer mainly contains Fe, C, N and Cr elements. The lattice spacing of the corresponding diffraction rings of the FCC phase is calculated by using the basic formula of electron diffraction Rd = Lλ. The result reveals that d(111) is 2.35 Å, which is close to the value of CrN (2.40 Å). Therefore, it is deduced that CrN nano-sized grains with polycrystalline microstructure form the N + Cr ion co-implanted layer.

spectroscopy (EIS) were performed after 30 min immersion in open circuit potential. The scanning speed of polarization curve was 1 mV/s and the scanning range was −1 VSCE–0.5 VSCE. The electrochemical polarization test results were fitted with the professional fitting software (CView.2) to obtain the values of Icorr and Ecorr. 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Micro characterization Fig. 2 shows the GIXRD diffraction patterns of samples with and without N + Cr ions co-implantation. From Fig. 2(a), the pattern presents three strong diffraction peaks identified as martensite (α′) at 2θ of 44.7°, 63.0°, and 82.3°, corresponding to the lattice plane of (110), (200) and (211), respectively [7,18]. It indicates that the carburized layer is mainly composed of α′ phase. Meanwhile, after co-implanting N + Cr ions, the full width of half maximum (FWHM) of the strong peak α′ (110) is broadened and the diffraction peaks of the α′ shift to the higher angles about 0.232° as displayed in Fig. 2(b). Furthermore, the small peaks of metal nitrides appeared at 44.06° is discovered in the N + Cr ions co-implanted sample. According to the Bragg equation, the right shift of the peak position means the decrease of the distance of crystal face, which is attributed to the dissolution of N atoms with small atomic radius into the layer, resulting in lattice distortion of α′ [15]. The broaden FWHM in peaks of α′ may be caused by the lattice expansion due to the supersaturated α′ phase or mixed metal nitrides [19,20]. However, it is difficult to distinguish the supersaturated α′ phase and metal nitride phase, because both of them are simple cubic structure [21]. Fig. 3 shows the XPS spectra of Cr2p and N1s of the sample with coimplantation. It can be seen from Fig. 3(a), there are two peaks located at the bonding energy of 586.2 eV and 576.5 eV. The strong peak near 586.2 eV is attributed to Cr2O3, while the peak at 576.5 eV indicates the formation of chromium nitride phase and Cr2O3 [10]. In the spectrum of N1s shown in Fig. 3(b), two peaks are detected. The peak near 396.8 eV represents metal nitrides such as FeXN and CrN, while the peak located at 403.1 eV belongs to nitrogen oxides [10]. The variation profile of the compositions along the depth of implanted layer was drawn according to the XPS results, as shown in Fig. 4. The implantation depth of the N elements is deeper owing to their smaller atomic radius. Taking N as the characteristic element, the thickness of ion implantation layer detected is about 200 nm. The atomic concentration of Cr and N elements reach the maximum values with ~15% and 30% at the depth of 18–20 nm, respectively. However, with the increase of depth, the concentration of Cr and N elements gradually decreases. It is

3.2. Electrochemical corrosion performance Fig. 6(a) shows the electrochemical corrosion results of N + Cr ions co-implanted and un-implanted samples in 3.5% NaCl solution. The fitting values of corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current density (Icorr) according to the potential polarization are listed in the inset of Fig. 6(a). It can be seen that the Ecorr value of the un-implanted layer and the N + Cr ions co-implanted layer are −0.88 V and −0.35 V, respectively. The Icorr value of the un-implanted layer (3.41 × 10−5 A/ cm2) is 5.76 times higher than that of the N + Cr ions co-implanted layer (5.92 × 10−6 A/cm2). According to electrochemical theory, smaller Icorr and higher Ecorr indicates the better corrosion resistance [22]. In addition, the Icorr value is the main evaluation criterion when the difference value of Ecorr is less than 40 mV. The difference of corrosion potential between co-implanted and un-implanted samples is 530 mV, which reveals that the N + Cr ion co-implanted layer has better corrosion resistance than that of un-implanted layer. Fig. 6(b) shows the EIS of N + Cr ion co-implanted and un-implanted samples in 3.5% NaCl solution. It can be observed that the EIS curve of N + Cr ion co-implanted samples has larger radius, i.e. higher impedance value. The radius of the EIS curve is inversely proportional to the corrosion susceptibility of the material. The larger the radius, the better the corrosion resistance [23]. Therefore it can be concluded that the 3

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Fig. 3. XPS spectra of N + Cr ions co-implanted sample: (a) Cr2p; (b) N1s.

implanted and un-implanted samples under 2 mN load. It reveals that the maximum indentation depth of the N + Cr ions co-implanted sample (56 nm) is smaller than that of the un-implanted sample (74 nm). The residual indentation depth decreases from 55 to 34 nm after co-implanting N + Cr ions, and the elastic recovery increases from 25.6% to 40.7%. This indicates that the plastic deformation resistance of materials is improved. Based on the load-displacement curve, the average nano-hardness of N + Cr ions co-implanted sample is 21.2 GPa, which is about 40.3% higher than that of un-implanted samples (15.1 GPa). Combing the analysis of GIXRD, XPS and TEM, the new nano scale phases of CrN and FexN were formed in the N + Cr ions coimplanted layer. Considering the difference of chemical state, element concentration and thickness of implanted layer, the change of nanohardness along depth is measured in the range of 0–1600 nm and the results are shown in Fig. 7(b). The results illustrate that the curve of the un-implanted sample is completely lower than that of the N + Cr ions co-implanted sample. The maximum hardness of the N + Cr ions coimplanted sample is 32.2 GPa, which is due to the formation of new phase on the surface of the sample [15]. Subsequently, the nanohardness decreases with the increase of depth, because the element concentration decreases in along the depth [26]. And the final hardness of the implanted sample is stable at 11.94 GPa, which is still 2.39 GPa higher than that of the un-implanted sample (9.55 GPa). This phenomenon is related to the lattice distortion of the sample due to radiation damage during ion implantation [27].

Fig. 4. Elements distribution along depth of N + Cr ions implanted sample.

corrosion resistance of carburized samples in 3.5% NaCl solution can be improved by N + Cr ion co-implantation. This is consistent with the result obtained from polarization curve. In theory, the lattice distortion caused by ions implantation may reduce the corrosion resistance of materials to a certain extent, however, the results of our study are apparently not agreed with it. Thus, it can be inferred that the corrosion resistance of the ion implanted layer is related to the type of ions. Previous studies have shown that the surface pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance of materials can be improved by N ion implantation [10,24]. Moreover, the vital reason for the improvement of electrochemical corrosion performance of N + Cr ions co-implanted layer is the addition of Cr element which easily induce the formation of passivation film on the surface of layer, such as Cr2O3 and Cr(OH)3. In addition, XPS result shows that the ratio of Cr/Fe increases in the range of 0–20 nm near the surface after N + Cr ions co-implanting. Relevant studies indicate that the increase of the Cr/Fe ratio has the great significance to the enhancement of corrosion resistance [25]. Based on above, the improvement of corrosion performance of N + Cr ions co-implanted samples mainly thanks to the addition of Cr element and the formation of nitride phases [12].

3.4. Tribological behavior in simulated seawater Fig. 8 shows the variation of friction coefficients and weight loss of N + Cr ions co-implanted and un-implanted samples in simulated seawater. Fig. 8(a) indicates that the friction coefficient of the un-implanted sample increases firstly and then decreases, finally maintains at about 0.325 with increasing of the time. Compared with un-implanted sample, the friction coefficient curve of N + Cr ions co-implanted sample remains between 0.249 and 0.259 with slight fluctuation. Fig. 8(b) shows that the wear loss of un-implanted and N + Cr ions coimplanted samples are 11.7 mg and 3.5 mg, respectively. After N + Cr ions co-implanting, the wear loss of the carburized sample decreases by 70%. Obviously, the tribological properties of carburized 18Cr2Ni4WA steel have been significantly improved after N + Cr ions co-implanting. In order to further reveal the wear mechanism of the samples in seawater environment, the worn morphologies are observed as shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 9(a) shows that the wear track of the un-implanted sample is covered by cracked and peeled corrosion film. From Fig. 9(b), due to

3.3. Nano-mechanical property Fig. 7(a) presents the load-displacement curves of N + Cr ions co4

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Fig. 5. TEM micrograph and EDS analysis of N + Cr ions co-implanted layer: (a) TEM micrograph; (b) EDS analysis.

in the spalling area. Fig. 9(d) displays the worn morphology of the N + Cr ions co-implanted sample. It indicates that there are only parallel grooves and delamination in N + Cr ions co-implanted sample. Compared with N + Cr ions co-implanted sample, the phenomenon of grooves and delamination of un-implanted sample is more serious.

the existence of contact stress during wear testing, the warping and peeling films are observed on the worn surface. In order to observe the wear behavior of un-implanted samples, the enlarged image of the peeling area is presented in Fig. 9(c). It can be seen that the fresh surface expose and there are lots of parallel grooves and delamination

Fig. 6. Corrosion properties of N + Cr ion co-implanted and un-implanted samples in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution (a) polarization curve; (b) EIS Nyquist. 5

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Fig. 7. Nanomechanical properties of N + Cr ions co-implanted and un-implanted samples: (a) load-displacement curve; (b) variation of nano-hardness along depth.

seawater immersion corrosion. The corrosion film is formed and then peeled off on the worn surface of un-implanted sample at the interaction between wear and corrosion double-effect keeping continuous occurrence of “damage-repair” [5]. During the wear process in seawater, a large number of micro-cracks appears in the corrosion film, and then expands until arises locally rupture under the effect of continuous contact stress. The fresh surface of peeling expose to seawater and then is corroded. In addition, the shear-force induced from wear process facilitates micro-plastic deformation on the metal surface, which makes corrosion easier occur. The porous surfaces corroded by seawater immersion are more likely to increase the friction coefficient, showing a significant increase in weight loss of un-implanted samples. Therefore, the wear and corrosion double-effects are the main reason for the wear loss of un-implanted sample in seawater [28]. However, there are no obvious corrosion pits appear on the surface of N + Cr ions co-implanted samples due to its better corrosion resistance. Thus, the wear mechanism of N + Cr ions co-implanted sample in in seawater is dominated by abrasive wear. There are three reasons to explain the improvement of tribological properties of N + Cr ions co-implanted sample in seawater. Firstly, the high stress concentration on the surface of N + Cr ions co-implanted sample due to the precipitation of new phases during ion implantation, resulting in the increase of residual compressive stress. Secondly, the nitrides formed by N + Cr ions co-implanted sample possess dense microstructure and high hardness, which increase the wear resistance and reduce friction as well as hinder the micro-plastic deformation by pinning the dislocation during wear process [9,29]. Thirdly, the nano-

According to our previous research [17], the wear track depth of the dual ion implantation layer is about 0.2 μm. However, the wear track depth is deeper due to the severe worn in seawater, resulting in the damage of N + Cr ions co-implantation layer. Whereas the deeper area under the surface of the material can be reinforced by the ion co-implantation from Fig. 7(b). Hence, the N + Cr ions co-implanted sample still shows excellent tribological performance in the later stage of the seawater environment test. In a word, it is proved that N + Cr ions coimplantation could improve the tribological properties of samples in simulated seawater. The seawater immersion corrosion in the area outside the surface wear mark of the sample was detected, as shown in Fig.10, the damage mechanism of the sample during the test is further revealed. Fig. 10(a) shows the corrosion morphology of un-implanted sample. It can be seen that there are lots of small pits on the surface of the untreated sample after immersion corrosion test. The enlarge image of the pitting (Fig. 10(b)) shows that the edge of pitting is surrounded by numerous holes and cracks. Nevertheless, there is no corrosion pit in Fig. 10(c) that is similar to shown in Fig. 10(a), and the micro pores on the surface can be attributed to scratch during sample preparation. In conclusion, seawater immersion corrosion occurs in the un-implanted sample, while there are no obvious corrosion signs of the N + Cr ions co-implanted sample. Therefore, the N + Cr ions co-implanted sample possesses better corrosion property than that of un-implanted sample. Combining wear with electrochemical corrosion experiments, the two main failure mechanisms are dominant in the un-implanted sample after wear testing in seawater, containing friction and wear and

Fig. 8. Friction coefficient curve and wear weight loss of un-implanted and N + Cr ions co-implanted samples. 6

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Fig. 9. Morphology of wear marks in seawater environment (a–c) un-implanted samples; (d) N + Cr ions co-implanted samples.

microstructure, hardness and tribological behavior of carburized layer in seawater. Due to the formation of hard phase and radiation damage after N + Cr ions co-implanting, the nano-hardness of the material can be effectively improved. The surface nano-hardness of the N + Cr ions co-implanted layer is 1.45 times that of the unimplanted sample. (2). The N + Cr ions co-implantation can increase Cr element concentration on the surface of carburized layer and induce the formation of nano-nitrides to increase the corrosion resistance in seawater. Especially, the formation of Cr2O3 and Cr(OH)3 during corrosion in seawater also are beneficial to the improvement of corrosion resistance.

nitrides (CrN) and Cr2O3 remarkably improves the corrosion resistance of carburized layer to avoid the simultaneous increase of corrosion damage and surface roughness. 4. Conclusions In this work, the effect of N + Cr ions co-implantation on corrosion and tribological properties of carburized 18Cr2Ni4WA alloy steel in simulated seawater was studied. The main results are summarized as follows: (1). The N + Cr ions co-implantation can significantly improve the

Fig. 10. Corrosion morphology of samples in seawater immersion: (a–b) un-implanted sample; (c) N + Cr ions co-implanted sample. 7

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(3). The improvement of mechanical properties (nano-hardness, microplastic deformation resistance) by co-implanting N + Cr ions can effectively improve the tribological properties of carburized layer. Meanwhile, the N + Cr ions co-implantation can effectively prevent the double-effect of corrosion and friction in seawater to improve the tribological properties in seawater.

[6] [7]

[8]

CRediT authorship contribution statement

[9]

Shengqiang Song: Methodology, Investigation, Writing - original draft. Xiufang Cui: Resources, Writing - review & editing, Supervision. Guo Jin: Resources, Writing - review & editing, Supervision. Meiling Dong: Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing. Lipeng Jiang: Writing - review & editing. Chenfeng Yuan: Writing - review & editing. Lei Shi: Writing - review & editing.

[10]

[11]

[12]

Declaration of competing interest [13]

The author solemnly promises that the paper is an original paper. All or part of the text has never been published in any other publication in any form. There is no question of repeated submission, there is no plagiarism, plagiarism, no violation of laws and regulations, and Content that infringes upon the rights of others. Once it is found that the above issues are involved in the above issues, the editorial department has the right to reject the manuscript in order to maintain scientific ethics and normal publishing order, and has the right to make real names of the paper and related authors in the field of education and scientific research as well as within the scope of brother journals. The notice criticized and has the right to notify the relevant units to impose serious administrative penalties on the main author.

[14]

[15]

[16] [17]

[18]

[19]

Acknowledgement [20]

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51975137, 51775127), Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 61328303), Marine Low Speed Engine Project-Phase I (No. CDGC01-KT0302), Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (No. E2018020) , National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China, Field of Foundation (No. 61409230611) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (HEUCF).

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