Effect of Time of Day of Insemination and the Position of the Egg in the Oviduct on the Fertility of Turkeys

Effect of Time of Day of Insemination and the Position of the Egg in the Oviduct on the Fertility of Turkeys

458 B. A. GEORGE, D. J. FAGERBERG, C. L. QUARLES AND J. M. FENTON lesions in the liver. Doxycycline had the least amount of lesions overall in the t...

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458

B. A. GEORGE, D. J. FAGERBERG, C. L. QUARLES AND J. M. FENTON

lesions in the liver. Doxycycline had the least amount of lesions overall in the three sites, but significantly less than the other two drugs only relative to liver lesions during trial one where it was significantly better than chlortetracycline.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT We gratefully acknowledge the support of Dr. Thomas Migaki and Pfizer, Inc. REFERENCES Snedecor, G. W., and W. G. Cochran. 1967. Statistical Methods. Sixth Ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

V.

L.

CHRISTENSEN AND N .

P.

JOHNSTON

Department of Animal Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (Received for publication June 2, 1976)

ABSTRACT Turkeys were inseminated at six different times of the day (1:00 p.m., 3:00 p.m., 5:00 p.m., 6:00 p.m., 9:00 p.m., and 12:00 a.m.) to determine the effect of time of day of insemination and the stage of egg formation on fertility. Significantly (P < .01) lower fertility resulted from insemination at 1:00 p.m. than from inseminations threrafter. Significantly higher fertility resulted from 9:00 p.m. and 12:00 a.m. insemination than from preceding times. Highest fertility resulted when inseminations were performed 8 to 18 hours prior to oviposition whereas lowest fertility resulted from hens inseminated both in the last seven hours of shell deposition and during the approximate time of ovulation. POULTRY SCIENCE 56: 458-462,

INTRODUCTION

I

T has been well established that the time of day of insemination does affect the fertility of chickens (Parker, 1945; Bornstein et. al., 1960; Parker and Arscott, 1965; and Johnston and Parker, 1970). All of the above observed that morning inseminations yielded significantly lower fertility than afternoon inseminations. Johnston and Parker (1970) further observed that inseminations at midnight yielded significantly higher fertility than those in the morning. The above noted differences in fertility between times of day have been attributed to the presence of a hardshelled egg in the uterus at the time of insemination. Johnston and Parker (1970) further defined the impairment to the last four hours of shell development and also observed the events surrounding ovulation as a possible deterent on fertility.

1977

Turkey research has been less conclusive as to the effect of insemination on fertility. Parker and Barton (1946) and Harper (1949) saw no fertility differences between mid morning and mid afternoon inseminations. Christensen and Johnston (1975), however, observed that fertility following 1 p.m. inseminations was significantly lower than that from 8 a.m., 10 a.m., 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. inseminations. The drop in fertility at 1 p.m. was of great interest to the authors as were the successive significant increases in fertility at 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. Therefore, a second experiment was devised to observe if 1 p.m. would again appear as time of depressed fertility and if inseminations beyond 6 p.m. would yield increasingly higher fertility. It had also been observed earlier (Christensen and Johnston, 1975) that if inseminations were to take place during the last 10 hours that the egg was

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Effect of Time of Day of Insemination and the Position of the Egg in the Oviduct on the Fertility of Turkeys

459

FERTILITY OF TURKEYS

TABLE 1.—Experimental ration Ingredients Soybean meal (48 1/2% protein) Corn Dicalcium phosphate Calcium carbonate Vitamin premix' Mineral premix 1 Salt Choline chloride

Hens

Toms

%

%

32.641 59.934 2.073 4.8 .130 .034 .382 .0025

— .130 .034 .382 .0025 21.5 3012.0 .593 .626

' The trace mineral and vitamin mix contributed per kilogram of ration the following amounts vitamin A, 7128 I.U.; vitamin D, 1979.208 I.C.U. niacin, 41.58 mg.; d-pantothenic acid, 10.69 mg. vitamin B 12 , 0.0119 mg.; vitamin E, 7.128 I.U. riboflavin, 7.128 mg.; menadione sodium bisulfite, 4.752 mg.; folic acid, 0.594 mg; thiamine, 1.188 mg.; pyridoxine hydrochloride, 1.188 mg.; BHT, 47.52 mg.; choline chloride, 1.278 mg.; manganese, 5.4781 mg. zinc, 5.2654 mg; iron, 1.8266 mg.; copper, 0.2285 mg.; iodine, 0.114 mg.; cobalt, 0.0457 mg. forming in the oviduct or during the approximate time of ovulation that fertility was materially depressed over that from inseminations during approximately the first half of uterine development. Therefore, the second experiment was so devised to gain more complete data as to the effect of egg position in the oviduct at the time of insemination on ensuing fertility. PROCEDURE Sixty Medium White Orlopp breeder hens were placed in an environmentally controlled house in individual cages. They were divided into six groups of ten each according to the time of day of insemination (1 p.m., 3 p.m., 5 p.m., 6 p.m., 9p.m., and midnight). Twelve toms were placed in the same house in another

RESULTS Table 2 shows the weekly average fertilities from each time of day of insemination. A definite effect of time of day of insemination was observed. Fertility rose steadily throughout the afternoon and evening. As reported by Christensen and Johnston (1975) fertility increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. over that observed at 1 p.m. Fertility reached a maximum at midnight with an average of 97.3 percent throughout the

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Calculated Analysis Crude protein (%) 21.0 Metabolizable Energy (kcal./kg.) 2847.0 Calcium (%) 2.22 Phosphorus (%) .611

32.641 64.734 2.073

room on the floor. They were color coded by pairs. The hens were inseminated weekly with 0.025 ml. of undiluted pooled semen from one of the pairs of toms. The toms were rotated weekly so that all hens received semen from all toms three times during the eighteen week trial. The hens and toms were fed a breeder ration ad libitum (Table 1). Water was also available free choice. Both sexes were exposed to 14 hours of artificial light daily with the light period beginning at 5 a.m. The experiment began when the hens reached 50 percent production and continued for 18 weeks thereafter. Observations were made of the fertility of each group on a weekly basis throughout the experiment. The fertility of each hen was also observed on a weekly basis by the last egg laid before insemination and first egg laid after insemination. These data were then used to determine the effect of the approximate position of the egg in the oviduct on fertility. The egg laying pattern of the breeder hens was also observed weekly. On three successive days, the hour at which each hen laid its egg between 5 a.m. and midnight was recorded. These data were also used in determining the effect of egg position on fertility. The data were analyzed by analyses of variance and multiple range test (P < 0.05 - 0.01).

460

V. L. CHRISTENSEN AND N. P. JOHNSTON

TABLE 2.—Effect

of time of day insemination on fertility Fertility by time of day 5 p.m. 3 p.m.

6 p.m.

9 p.m.

12 p.m.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

36.8 65.5 70.3 75.7 66.4 70.2 62.5 51.8 57.5 63.2 61.9 68.8 79.6 54.8 59.5 83.3 71.4 93.3

49.2 67.3 70.7 77.3 88.5 54.8 84.5 79.3 79.5 78.0 85.5 85.7 85.0 71.8 71.7 81.1 84.0 64.3

77.9 74.5 79.2 93.3 96.7 90.0 88.7 74.7 64.7 81.7 77.7 58.0 74.0 69.3 83.3 63.3 48.5 47.9

77.8 80.0 88.7 85.1 83.5 78.9 82.1 73.8 73.6 93.5 94.8 85.0 79.8 76.9 85.0 71.9 71.3 51.2

Average

66.3d

75.5b

74.6bc

79.6b

64.8 83.1 98.3 88.0 93.5 100.0 96.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 97.5 94.4 94.4 100.0 95.0a

88.5 98.6 98.3 100.0 100.0 97.5 100.0 98.0 95.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.8 100.0 90.8 89.2 97.3a

Values followed by different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05). TABLE 3.—Effect Hrs. eggs were laid before A.I. 27-24 24-16 15-8 7-3 2-0

of approximate egg position in oviduct at insemination on fertility No. hens

Fertility

Ovulation Occurring Uterus Uterus Magnum, Isthmus, Uterus (Plumping) Infundibulum, Magnum or Ovulation Ovulation Occurring

119 151 104 148 41

74.5ef 82.0c 95.0a 76.2e 73.2f

Uterus Uterus Magnum, Isthmus, Uterus (Plumping) Ovulation Occurring

106 190 230 44

75.2 92.7 78.1 69.3

Position of egg

Hrs. eggs were laid after A.I. 1-7 8-18 19-24 25-27

Values followed by different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05). breeding period. Two of the hens in this group remained completely fertile throughout the entire experiment. Results of classifying hens by the hour of last egg before lay and first egg after lay are shown in Table 3. A moving average of these data with turkeys compares favorably with the effect of egg position on fertility in chickens as observed by Johnston and Parker (1970). Assuming the egg of the turkey requires 24 to 26 hours for development from the time of lay many of those hens laying

within 25 to 27 hours after insemination would have been ovulating at the time of insemination. It has also been observed that there is as much as a two to three hour lag between the oviposition of one egg and the ovulation of the succeeding egg, Kosin and Abplnalp (1951). Therefore, many of the hens laying their last egg within two hours prior to insemination would also have been ovulating at insemination. Fertility was found to be significantly lower at these points than at other divisions of development. This would agree

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1 p.m.

Weeks

461

FERTILITY OF TURKEYS

DISCUSSION Fertility was noticeably lower when inseminations were performed during the last seven hours of the egg's development in the uterus. Therefore, it would appear that the hard-shelled or oviducal events associated with its presence as suggested by Wyne et al. (1959) and Smyth (1968) does reduce the effective fertility of inseminations. Apparently this impairment is only a reality during approximately its last seven hours in the uterus. On the average, in excess of 75 percent of the eggs were laid in the afternoon with 1 p.m. being the most frequent time of lay (Table 4). Knowing the expected times of lay throughout the day, it is possible to predict the expected stages of egg development at

TABLE 4.—The percent of total eggs laid at different times of the day Time of day 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00

a.m. a.m. a.m. a.m. a.m. a.m. a.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m.

Percent laid 0.13h 0.13h 0.13h 3.3fg 4.2ef 7.7d 7.5d 22.5a 13.7b 6.9d 6.3de 10.8d 7.7d 4.4ef l.Oh 0.5h O.lh 0.4h 0.7h

Values followed by different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05). that time. For example, if one were to inseminate at noon, he could predict the percentage of eggs likely to be in the last seven hours of uterine development by adding the percentage of expected lay from 1 p.m. through 7 p.m. In so doing he would find that approximately 72.3 percent of the eggs would be in that developmental stage. Previously, it was observed that if inseminations were performed while eggs were developing 8 to 18 hours prior to lay that a very high level of fertility would be anticipated. From the egg laying data, probabilities were computed to reflect the expected percentage of eggs that would be found in this 8 to 18 hour period during any given hour of the day. The hour 1 a.m. was high with 98% likelihood. The probability of finding eggs so positioned decreased throughout the morning and reached a low of 1.5 percent at 2 p.m. and increased upward thereafter throughout the afternoon and evening. The above observation probably explains why Christensen and Johnston (1975) observed fertility to decrease significantly at 1 p.m. from morning inseminations at 8 and 10 a.m. and return significantly higher at 3

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with the findings of Christensen and Johnston (1975) for turkeys and with similar results of Johnston and Parker (1970) for chickens. Moving from the 24th to the 19th hour, it is noted that fertility still remained relatively low but was significantly (P < .05) higher than the ovulatory phase. During this time sequence insemination would have likely encountered the egg developing in the magnal, isthmal or even early uteral development. By the 18th hour preoviposition, fertility improved significantly to a level in excess of 90% and remained close to or in excess of that level through the eighth hour before lay. Shell development would have been transpiring during most of this interval with the likelihood of some plumping occurring during the time near the 18th hour. Christensen and Johnston (1975) had also observed fertility at its highest point during much of this time. As reviewed earlier, Johnston and Parker (1970) found fertility of the chicken to also remain high when inseminating through much of the uterine period of egg development, but did not drop until the fifth preovipositional hour.

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It was not known if the egg itself in the oviduct was causing the observed variations in fertility or if it were other events such as hormonal or other biological secretions concurrent with the egg's position that causes reduced fertility. T h e s e factors should be investigated to determine if c o n c u r r e n t oviposital events other than the physical p r e s e n c e of an egg would affect the level of fertilization.

REFERENCES Bornstein, S. H. Schindler, I. Gabriel and E. Moses, 1960. Fertilization rate of chickens inseminated in the morning or in the afternoon. Israel J. Agr. Res. 10: 183-191. Christensen, V. L., and N. P. Johnston, 1975. The effect of time of day of insemination and oviposition on the fertility of turkey hens. Poultry Sci. 54: 1209-1214. Harper, J. A., 1949. A progess report on turkey research. Oregon Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. Info. No. 470. Johnston, N. P., and J. E. Parker, 1970. Effect of time of oviposition in relation to insemination fertility of turkey hens. Poultry Sci. 49: 325-327. Rosin, I. L., and H. Abplanalp, 1951. The pattern of egg laying in turkeys. Poultry Sci. 30: 168-179. Parker, J. E., 1945. Relation of the time of day of insemination to fertility and hatchability of hen's eggs. Poultry Sci. 24: 314-317. Parker, J. E., and G. H. Arscott, 1965. The effect of time of insemination on fertility of hen's eggs. Poultry Sci. 44: 1405-1406. Parker, J. E., and O. A. Barton, 1946. Confinement rotation of toms and artificial insemination as related to reproduction in turkeys. North Dakota Expt. Sta. Bi-monthly Bull. 9(1): (Sept.-Oct. 1946). Smyth, J. R., 1968. The Artificial Insemination of Farm Animals. Edited by E. J. Perry. Rutgers University Press, Rutgers, New Jersey. Wyne, J. W., R. D. Carter, M. G. McCartney and V. D. Chamberlain, 1959. Relation of time of insemination to fertility in the turkey. Poultry Sci. 38: 828-831.

NEWS AND NOTES (Continued from page 441) provides an integrated program of study in the biological and business aspects of poultry, including game bird production. It will be administered by the Department of Poultry Science, and will draw its primary enrollment from students in existing majors and the phased out animal industry major. U.S.D.A. NOTES The U.S. Department of Agriculture (U.S.D.A.) has

issued a new publication on its poultry and egg market news service. The leaflet, prepared by the U.S.D.A. 's Agricultural Marketing Service, includes an explanation of how poultry and eggs market information is gathered, the types of reports available and how Market News is distributed. Also included is a glossary of terms used in federal-state market news reports and how to obtain market news information from offices in 17 states.

(Continued on page 467)

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p . m . and 6 p . m . T h e s e results would have simply followed the pattern of moving from times of favorable oviducal environment in the morning t o a less likely time in t h e early afternoon and then returning to more favorable positions in the later afternoon and evening. This would also seem to justify the constant rise in fertility in this experiment from 1 p . m . to midnight. Assuming that turkeys used by Parker and Barton (1946) and H a r p e r (1949) had a laying pattern somewhat similar to those in this e x p e r i m e n t , the curve of the graph might also serve to explain why these earlier reports saw no difference in time of day of insemination. In both of these studies, turkeys were inseminated at mid-morning and mid-afternoon hours w h e n oviducal egg position would have been somewhat similar and would have by-passed the depression of fertility at mid-day and the likely peaks in fertility of the early morning and late evening h o u r s .