B O O K REVIEWS
depression, leading up to Bechterev and Larionov and finally Wedensky whose inhibition is better known than his 'telephonic transmission of EEG.' The reviewer enthusiastically recommends this book to the readership, especially since the beginnings of modern day neurophysiology and E E G take root in this period. The only problem that some readers m a y have with the book m a y be that they m a y not be able to translate the m a n y French passages found there. The price is reasonable and only 5 typographical errors were found, as evidence that the book was carefully assembled. John R. Hughes
University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612 (U.S.A.)
Electroencephaiography, 2nd Edition. - - E. Niedermeyer and F. Lopes da Silva (Eds.) (Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, MID, 1987, 940 p., U.S. $110.00) The second edition of this well-known, outstanding encyclopedia of E E G is even better than the first edition. There are 11 new chapters (two deleted), and 7 new contributors who have accounted for 188 more pages. All of the chapters have been updated in some way, although a few have remained very similar. In the Index, a few examples are found of an inaccurate page reference that was a carry-over from the first edition. Most of the spelling errors (except for two) have been corrected, each figure with an E E G that had a grey now has a (better) white background and spacing on the title pages of each chapter is now better utilized. After an updated neurophysiological basis of the EEG (Speckmann and Elger), a new and interesting chapter on dynamics of E E G as signals of neuronal populations is presented by Lopes da Silva who draws well upon the olfactory system for models. The latter author teams up with Rotterdam to update the biophysical aspects of E E G and the magnetoencephalogram generation and with K a m p to do the same for the technological basis of EEG. After Reilly's excellent chapters on apparatus and the E E G laboratory, Niedermeyer h a s s o m e fine additions to his chapters on the normal and the sleep EEG, but in the one on maturation his excellent table that condenses all patterns at various ages might have been easier to follow if the copy editor h a d put it on two pages facing each other rather than back to back. After Niedermeyer's short chapter on genetics, Sharbrough has improved his excellent treatise on non-specific abnormal E E G patterns. He has replaced the old persistent polymorphic delta activity (PPDA) with the new persistent non-rhythmic delta activity (PNDA). All of the figures are exceedingly clear but the reader m a y still wonder why the two examples of electro-cerebral silence are not with the highest of gain settings. One of the best chapters in the old and new versions is the senior author's chapter on abnormal E E G patterns. Careful rewriting has included the changing from the first person reference, but more importantly the chapter has new material
on 6 / s e c spike and wave complexes, small sharp spikes, subchnical rhythmic E E G discharge of adults and periodic discharges of other etiologies. After Takakashi's additions to his chapter on activation, Fischer-Wilhams has added 5 new figures to update her excellent version of E E G in space-occupying lesions. Her conclusions and summaries have always been and will continue to be helpful to the reader. Westmoreland changed the title of her chapter from infection to inflammatory process and begins with a new s u m m a r y table that is an excellent addition, as is the new section of slow virus diseases, parasitosis, Behcet's disease, etc. This reviewer was especially pleased to see the reincarnation of Gastaut's H H E syndrome in this chapter. In Niedermeyer's chapter on cerebrovascular disease is an expanded table on cerebral blood flow methods and some additional comments on the interesting p h e n o m e n o n of transient global amnesia. In his chapter on old age and the one on dementia the updating includes discussion on some important temporal theta patterns that have been of concern to both the author and this reviewer. On the next discussion on degenerative diseases, this reviewer missed seeing the old s u m m a r y table of the EEG findings in these different disorders. The new headings include mitochondrial and peroxisomal disorders, in addition to the Rett's syndrome. It is unfortunate that the copy editor placed the legend for Fig. 21.12 under Fig. 21.13 (and vice versa). Rumpl's chapter on trauma has been updated, especially by E E G examples that are clearer and Bauer's work on anoxia has some added comments on prognoses. The latter author was wise to change the term cerebral death to brain death in his next chapter on coma. One other chapter that this reviewer believes to be one of the best in the book is the next one by Niedermeyer on seizures. Additions include an important table on neurophysiological types of myoclonus (a very complex topic) and the old table on the clinical features is made more clear so that this reviewer will not, as last time, misunderstand parts of this helpful table. Excellent is the new table on c o m m o n causes of seizures according to age of onset and the discussion on Gastant's benign occipital epilepsy and the electrical status epilepticus of sleep, a p h e n o m e n o n that each EEGer should understand. In Small's chapter on psychiatry a new section on the temporal lobe is welcomed. Other additions include further discussion on new types of electrodes by Reilly. The chapters that are completely new include Porter's excellent one on prolonged E E G recording and the one by Blume and Sharbrough on recording during endarterectomy and open heart surgery. The latter will be very helpful to all of us. After some new clinical applications to C N V (Tecce and Cattanach) and a welcomed reorganization of the polysomnography chapter (Broughton), but without obvious changes in neonatal E E G (Lombroso) or on ERP (Lopes da Silva), the other new material then appears. Celesia's chapter on VEP now excludes the helpful table on MS that previously appeared, but with some extended discussion on ERG. The next chapter (with Grigg) on BAEP is very helpful, as is the excellent s u m m a r y on SEP by Erwin et al. Krumholz provides a short concise view of all 3 types of EP in the child. The last two additions reflect new directions in EEG, viz., intraopera-
tive monitoring (McPherson) and computer analysis (Walter) and the book ends with two updated versions of Lopes da Silva's EEG analysis. This reviewer can only be very enthusiastic about the modifications and additions to this magnum o p u s by Niedermeyer and Lopes da Silva. It seems likely that this 1987 edition will be the gold standard and the reference text for all electroencephalographers for many years to come. John R. Hughes
University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612 (U.S.A.)
Sleep, aging and related disorders. Interdisciplinary topics in gerontology, Vol. 22. - - W. Emser, D. Kurtz and W.B. Webb (Eds.) (Karger, Basel, 1987, 165 p.) In this book 9 papers are collected that concern the specific sleep disorders related to aging. All of these papers were presented at a Symposium during the 13th World Congress of Neurology held in Hamburg in September 1985. This book contains original data as well as synthetic reviews concerning the clinical electrophysiology and the monitoring of sleep disorders in elderly people. The first chapter by Webb is devoted to 'physiological' sleep changes related to aging. The criteria useful to differentiate natural changes and pathological disorders are discussed but the most original aspect of the chapter is to report results from a 5 year longitudinal study of a population of 52 subjects in their fiftees. Ch. 2-5 concern respiratory pathology related to sleep. Ch. 2 by McGinty et al. is mainly devoted to sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) but also reviews the whole topic of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs). Several studies from the literature converge to conclude that the frequency of such disorders increases with aging. The authors also report preliminary results concerning different disorders associated with SRBDs such as cerebral blood flow changes, hormonal disturbances and cognitive impairments. In Ch. 3 Lugaresi et al. present a concise and clear review concerning the hemodynamic changes observed during sleep respectively in normal subjects, heavy snorers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), respiratory musculoskeletal disorders or central alveolar hypoventilation. The excellent Ch. 4 by Sullivan et al. concerns the treatment of cardiorespiratory disturbances during sleep with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Despite some discomfort, CPAP seems at present to be the best treatment of OSAS and might also be used in other respiratory disorders. The authors used the abbreviation 'UPPP' without giving its meaning and some readers may not know that this refers to uvulo-palato-pharyngo-plasty,' a surgical treatment proposed for some breathing disorders. The long Ch. 5 by Kurtz et al. is devoted to sleep disturbances and sleep-related respiratory abnormalities in COPD.
The authors present a critical review of the technical aspects of cardiorespiratory monitoring and also discuss the efficiency of most of the therapeutic approaches proposed in COPD. In Ch. 6 by Billiard et al., the reader will find a well documented, easy and useful review on insomnia, a frequent complaint of elderly people. The aspects of this disorder, specifically related to aging, and the possible therapeutic approaches are reviewed. An exhaustive statement of the effect of tryptophan on human sleep is presented in Ch. 7 by Borbrly and Youmbi-Balderer. The effects of this amino acid on sleep and vigilance remains puzzling and the authors conclude to a limited application of tryptophan, a precursor of serotonin but also of various neurotransmitters, in the treatment of sleep disorders. The footnote of the first page of this chapter contains two misprints. Prinz et al. in Ch. 8 mainly present data from their own studies of sleep in Alzheimer's dementia (AD) suggesting that the patterns of sleep disturbances are different in AD and depression. Were these findings confirmed by further studies sleep, recording could be applied to early diagnosis and prediction of AD. The last chapter (No. 9) is devoted to sleep disorders in diseases of the basal ganglia which represent another frequent pathology in the elderly. The authors discuss the frequent association of sleep apnea with Parkinson's disease as well as their results from sleep studies in Huntington's chorea and spasmodic torticoll2s. The pathophysiology of the observed sleep disorders is also envisaged in this chapter, the only weakness of which is the rather poor quality of some interesting figures. In conclusion, despite the lack of a chapter devoted to hypersomnia not directly related to respiratory disorders, the results and reviews collected in this book are of good quality, generally well presented and easy to read. This book can bring useful information for the reader interested in sleep or gerontology. H. Bastuji and F. Maugui~re
EEG Dept., H~pital Neurologique, F-69003 Lyon (France)
Current topics in research on synapses, Voi. 4. - - D.G. Jones (Ed.) (Alan R. Liss, New York, 1987, 162 p.) This volume of a new series published by Alan Liss is made of two articles, one on 'Effect of normal and pathological aging on brain morphology: neurons and synapses,' by I. Adams and D.G. Jones, and the other on 'The vesicle hypothesis and its alternatives: a critical assessment,' by D.E. Oorschot and D.G. Jones. D.G. Jones is the editor of the series; he may have found difficulties to recruit authors for his fourth volume but this impression must not deter potential buyers, the book is by no means parochial. On the contrary it is of general interest and can be considered as a must in the library of any research centre working on the nervous system.