Environmental evaluation of grey cast iron via life cycle assessment

Environmental evaluation of grey cast iron via life cycle assessment

Journal of Cleaner Production 148 (2017) 324e335 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Cleaner Production journal homepage: www.elsev...

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Journal of Cleaner Production 148 (2017) 324e335

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Cleaner Production journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro

Environmental evaluation of grey cast iron via life cycle assessment  b, Juraj Ladomerský b, Karol Balco c Jozef Mitterpach a, *, Emília Hroncova a

Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Engineering, T. G. Masaryka 24, 960-53, Zvolen, Slovakia b  Bystrica, 974 01, Slovakia Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, Tajovsk eho 40, Banska c  533, Hronec, 976 45, Slovakia ZLH Plus a.s., Zlievarenska

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history: Received 17 April 2015 Received in revised form 31 December 2016 Accepted 3 February 2017 Available online 5 February 2017

The metallurgy industry significantly influences the quality of its surrounding environment. This paper, therefore, focuses on creating a model of life cycle assessment (LCA) for a foundry producing grey castiron castings. The principles of a LCA are given in ISO 14040: 2006 and ISO 14044: 2006. The environmental impact of the production of one ton of ready grey cast-iron castings was quantified, and the significant components of the LCA model were identified. The Hronec foundry model is situated in Slovakia, and its average annual production is 6000 tons of grey cast-iron castings. The production consists of typical processes for melting metal in cupolas, including production of castings by pouring molten metal into single-use sand moulds and final finishing before dispatch. The SimaPro 8 and ReCiPe Endpoint (quality of ecosystem, human health and consumption of resources) methods were used to assess the environmental impact of the castings. The greatest overall negative environmental impact (74.1%) is caused by processes related to melting metal in the smeltery, with the greatest negative impact on the consumption of resources. An important component of the LCA and the company's contribution is the identification of recycled metal waste (iron and steel waste sort 258.598 kg/t, backspacing scarp 82.88 kg/t and metallic packaging waste 0.952 kg/t), which in the melting process, reduces the impact of smelting by 9.52%. The next important component of the LCA and the company's contribution is the recycling of waste cores (1204.92 kg/t) during the manufacture of moulds, which reduces the impact of moulding by 1.65%. The overall impact of the other main foundry processes on environmental quality was minimised using environmental measures in the foundry, particularly its technological methods. These methods focused on reducing the demand for raw materials and other materials, energy consumption, release of emissions to the atmosphere, water use, and creation and production of solid waste as well as increasing the quality of drained water. These findings directly indicate the importance of the environmental measures that are used in foundry production processes. This “cradle-to-gate” LCA study can therefore form the basis for further environmental analyses that will help to reduce the negative environmental impact of foundry production. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: LCA Environment Foundry Waste Recycling

1. Introduction The environment is constantly under pressure from industrial activity; the foundry industry is a key industrial area (BAT, 2005). Foundry plants focus on the production of castings, mainly for the automobile, general engineering and the building industries.

* Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (J. Mitterpach), emilia. [email protected] (E. Hroncov a), [email protected] (J. Ladomerský), [email protected] (K. Balco). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.023 0959-6526/© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

According to the 47th Census of World Casting Production (Modern Casing, 2013), the total world production of iron (100,834,681t) increased in 2012. Grey cast iron grew by 0.3% and ductile iron by 1.6%, while malleable iron fell by 7.7%. Steel improved by 9.2%, aluminium by 6.5% and magnesium by 24.6%. According to CAEF (2014), in 2013, the European foundry industry had a total production of 15.2 m tons (ferrous 11.6 m tons, nonferrous: 3.6 m tons) and the number of foundries was 4958 (ferrous foundries 2100; nonferrous foundries 2858). It is important to be aware of the environmental impact of intensive foundry activity. A life cycle assessment (LCA) in

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compliance with ISO 14040 (2006) and ISO 14044 (2006) is important to determine the type, size and effects of environmental impacts. As shown in some studies, metallurgical production has an assumed significant negative impact on environmental quality. For example, Li et al. (2002) used LCA to compare the impact of iron and steel production. The results show that the methods of iron and steel production both have a marked environmental impact and that the environmental performance of typical iron processes is superior (smaller environmental impacts) to steel processes. The amount, type, efficiency and method of consuming raw materials and material resources for metallurgical production are important factors for environmental assessments (Hake et al., 1998; Cherubini et al., 2008; Burchart-Korol, 2011; REN21, 2012). A number of assessments of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from various types of foundry production (Norgate et al., 2007; Rynikiewicz, 2008; Neto et al., 2008; Burchart-Korol, 2011, 2013; Haque et al., 2014; Haque and Norgate, 2013) have shown that there is a significantly large impact of foundry activities on global warming (GWP) and climate change. In their work, Masike and Chimbadzwa (2013) used Cleaner Production and its opportunities to minimise material consumption, optimise production yields and prevent pollution of air, water and land in sand-casting foundries. Cleaner Production is used in conjunction with other elements of environmental management; it is a practical method for protecting human and environmental health and supporting the goal of sustainable development (Yacooub, 2006). Masike and Chimbadzwa (2013) concluded that raw materials, water and energy would to be saved if foundry companies implemented Cleaner Production options. The barriers to energy efficiency among 65 European foundries were analysed by Trianni et al. (2013). The study also highlighted differences by the type of alloy to characterise foundries as a proxy for process complexity. Indeed, enterprises with simpler production processes tend to have higher barriers to energy efficiency, showing the need to identify effective means to promote energy efficiency among those enterprises. Flows of foundry waste are managed by limiting the generation of solid waste and atmospheric emissions, including hazardous atmospheric pollutants and energy consumption (Yilmaz et al., 2014). However, the properties and possible use of foundry waste have mainly been investigated in the building industry (Alonso-Santurde et al., 2011; Quijorna et al., 2012; Cihangir et al., 2012; Altan and Erdogan, 2012). This paper discusses an LCA for Grey Iron LT (low-temperature type), whose average material balance of smelting is shown in Table 1. Grey cast iron is one of the most commonly used metal materials because it has the lowest pouring temperature of the ferrous metals and has other excellent qualities. Grey iron is an alloy of iron with a high carbon-silicon ratio. The carbon content of grey cast iron ranges from 2.1% to 4.0%; silicon ranges from 0.8% to 3.0%. Other alloying elements may be present in varying amounts, including Mo, Cu, Ni, V, Ti, Sn, Sb, S, P. The mechanical properties of grey cast iron are determined by the composition, cooling rate during casting and presence of different forms of carbon, most importantly the amount of graphite present, but also the shape, size, and distribution of graphite flakes. This “cradle-to-gate” LCA study focuses on creating a model for the environmental assessment of grey cast iron casting in a model foundry and on determining the important environmental aspects for assessing the environmental impact of such types of metallurgical production. 2. Materials and methods The processes were analysed in the Hronec foundry (Slovakia, Central Europe). On the basis of the process balances, the life-cycle evaluation model was created for a foundry producing grey cast

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Table 1 Input and output of smelting. Material

[kg/t]

Raw iron Iron and steel waste sort. Backspacing scarp Metallic packaging waste FeSi 75% FeMn Limestone Foundry coke Soda Cu NI-MG VL 4 Inoculator 1 Inoculator 2 Litvar Refractory material

653.432 258.598 82.88 0.952 43.046 1.308 67.431 255.511 13.576 1.651 0.005 0.033 0.008 19.588 173.104

Electricity consumption

[kWh/t]

Cupola. Recuperatorr. Venturi washer. Cranes. Pulley. Ventilation PIKS/20/800/Fe Lighting

29 500 9

Gas consumption

m3/t

Cupola with recuperator

28.5

Pollutant from Smelting-Cupola furnace

kg/t

CO2 CO NOx PM SO2

665.3 2.242 0.151 0.087 0.011

 Water discharges, recipient Cierny Hron., V2- drain No. 2.

kg/t

CHODcr Insoubles Ptot Ntot N-NH4 DIS AOX Hg Cd BOD5 NES pH

1.331 0.452 0.011 0.18 0.04 8.907 0.001 8.77E-06 1.05E-05 0.79 0.012 e

Waste

kg/t

Sludges and filter cakes Furnace slag Linings and refractory

6.4 83.1 90

iron castings. The Hronec foundry prepares ferrous metals with a production capacity of over 20 t/day (BAT, 2005). Its average annual production is 6000 tons of grey cast iron castings (two-shift operation, 5 days per week). LCA is a structured, comprehensive and internationally standardised method. The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) provides guidelines for conducting an LCA within the series ISO 14040 (2006), “Environmental managementdlife cycle assessmentsdprinciples and framework“ and ISO 14044 (2006), “Environmental managementdlife cycle assessmentsdrequirements and guidelines.“ It quantifies all of the relevant emissions and resources consumed as well as the related environmental and health impacts and resource depletion issues that are associated with any goods or services (products) (EC-JRC, 2010a, b, c, d, e, f; EC-JRC, 2011; ERC-JC, 2012). Impact category selection is based on Europe 2020 strategies (COM Europe, 2020, 2010) and the more recent indicator requirements listed in EEA (2014), Decision No 1386/2013/EU and

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EEA (2013a, b, c). For the life cycle impact assessment of a foundry  Consultants, 2014), the current using SimaPro 8 software (PRe Ecoinvent v3.1 database applications and ReCiPe 2008 method were used (Goedkoop et al., 2013). These provide a recipe for calculating life cycle impact category indicators and comprise harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and endpoint levels. We used Endpoint(H)V1.11/Europe ReCiPe H/H with three endpoints: damage to human health, damage to ecosystems, damage to resource availability. 2.1. Definition of the goal and scope The aim of this “cradle-to-gate” LCA study is to assess the environmental impact of the production of 1 t of grey cast iron castings and to identify the production factors that markedly influence environmental quality, with proposed solutions for reducing their negative environmental impact. System boundaries are defined as “cradle-to-gate,” and the main processes, subprocesses, material and energy flows are shown in Fig. 1. From the results of the LCA study, we identified possible improvements in environmental performance for grey cast iron at various points in its life cycle. The functional units of this study were based on

foundry sub-processes, which are 1 ton of melted metal for metal melting (including casting) processes and 1 ton of sand for core and mould production processes. The data are the average values from measuring the consumption of raw materials and energy in a plant using certified measurement equipment. 2.2. Life cycle inventory 2.2.1. Unit production process The foundry production process consists of processes that are typical for melting metal in cupolas, production of castings by pouring molten metal into single-use sand moulds and final finishing before dispatch (Fig. 1). 2.2.1.1. Storage of raw materials. Raw materials are stored and batches are prepared in the cast iron smeltery bay (storage of batch raw materials). Raw iron in pellets and waste (recyclable material: residues of inlets, hoppers and faulty products, steel waste) is discharged from haulage trucks next to the containers. The required chemical content of smelted cast iron is achieved by using an appropriate composition of raw materials in a batch. A crane (12ton capacity) with a magnet (500-kg capacity) transfers the

Fig. 1. System scheme for the LCI of the grey cast iron processing and WFS formation.

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material into the main storage containers and daily containers. A batching crane (which has a magnet with a capacity of up to 300 kg with weight) transfers the material into a batching basket, and the batching basket transfers this material above the cupola using an incline crane. The lower part of the batching basket opens and the metal part of the batch drops into the furnace. Coke and limestone are stored in containers in a reservoir, and then, is transferred through a vibration feeder to scales, from the scales to a conveyor belt, to a batching trolley, to a metal batch via an incline crane, and finally, to the furnace. Ferrosilicon is weighed manually and thrown on the belt together with coke. The process of storing batch raw materials also includes all of the work related to the processing, production, demolition and drying of heat-resistant brickwork originating from the operation and maintenance of the cupola. 2.2.1.2. Smelting in a cupola. Smelting in a cupola and the processing of molten metal were analysed in detail in the works of  (2014). A cupola is equipped with a pair Mitterpach and Samesova of high-performance smelting aggregates (output ø 7.5/h) with a soil siphon opening (metal temperature in the siphon: 1480  C) and recuperator (double wall radial, wall temperature max. 910  C, air mass temperature max. 380  C). Tapping is performed continuously through a siphon slag separator situated at the tapping hole level by pouring into a gutter and subsequently into a collection pan. The gutter directs the molten cast iron into the collection pan, where the chemical composition is modified. Cupola and recuperator gases are exhausted through a chimney, and the gases are treated in a Venturi washer (output max. 55,000 m3/h, water consumption 180 m3/h). 2.2.1.3. Processing molten metal. After filling a six-ton pan, the slag is removed by decanting. Molten cast iron is then poured into a holding furnace, which serves as a reservoir for liquid cast iron, and heated to a tapping temperature of 1420e1460  C. The holding furnace consists of a PIKS/20/800/Fe (Channel-type induction forebay, medium frequency, 20 utilisable tons of liquid metal with a total output of 800 kW, ferrosilicon core). The PIKS/20/800/Fe is a holding unit for liquid cast iron and holds and heats molten metal. Modification, inoculation and alloyation of the cast iron takes place when molten cast iron is poured from the forebay to meet the mechanical and structural requirements. The chemical content can be checked in the forebay using spectrometric equipment. The basic technical equipment in laboratories consists of an atom emission quantometer (vacuum radius of 750 mm), an analyser for S and C, and a grinder. Casting takes place in single-use sand moulds, and cores are used to create cavities. Their production requires modelling equipment, which is a drawback of the produced casting. 2.2.1.4. Modelling plant. A modelling plant, as an auxiliary plant, produces new model equipment as well as performs repairs, maintenance, storage and documentation. Models are made of plastic resin, metal and wood. 2.2.1.5. Core plants. Core plants produce cores from core mixtures to produce cavities. Silica foundry sand (SFS) is used to produce cores. Sodium water glass is used as a binding agent for cores made of mixtures based on water glass (silicic acid gel) and silica sand. For more demanding castings, cores are made with SFS and chemical binding agents (resins and hardeners) or a chemical binding agent and a hardener (resin an appropriate hardener). The type of chemical binding agent depends on its fitness for a given purpose. Chemical binding agents are stored in composite packaging (containers placed in catchment vessels). The basic features of SFS are a chemical composition of 99.35% SiO2, 0.05% Fe2O3, and 0.08%

327

carbonates; mean grain size D50 of 0.39 mm; main fraction of 0.40/ 0.315/0.20; 0.11% binder; 90% homogeneity index; sintering point of 155 C;. 5.5% humidity max; and permeability of 490 m2. Sand is brought to the foundry in special silo trucks. Using compressed air and a pump on the silo truck's trailer, the sand is moved to local metal containers above the mixers. Manual production of cores is most often performed such that the core box is cleaned of core mixture residue, which sticks to the core box walls during the production of the previous core. A separating agent is applied to the surface of the core box (petroleum, lycopodium, Al paste). The core box is assembled and clamped with metal clamps. Both halves of the core box are filled with the core mixture and evenly compacted; if required, a reinforcement is fitted, the excess core mixture is levelled and the core is hardened. The core box is disassembled, and the core is removed and coated using a suitable coating. In machine production, the core mixture is pneumatically shot into the cavity of the core box from rapid mixers fitted above the machines. Then, influenced by chemical reactions or by blowing the hardening gas, it is hardened to handling firmness. The machine production of cores takes place using the following equipment: four injection machines, three tanks for foundry sand (contact max. 8 tons), two mixers (working cycle: filling 60e90s, mixing 180e220s, single discharge 40e60s), two amine washers with exhaust units and two pneumatic dosers for sand. Cores are stored in wooden pallets in automatic moulding line and are surface-finished using a spirit- or water-based coating, which decreases the wettability of the core's surface and improves the surface of the castings. If necessary, they are moved to a location for insertion into moulds. Damaged cores are written off and removed as waste. 2.2.1.6. Moulding plants. Moulding plants prepare moulding mixtures for the production of single-use sand moulds and also cool castings and release and shake them from moulds. Moulding plants are equipped with a system of containers, belts and mixers that regenerate moulding mixtures, as well as revive and supply them with new raw materials (new foundry sand, bentonite and water) until oolitisation of sand grains by bentonite occurs. In this case, the regeneration of a moulding mixture is provided by sand from the production of moulds since the regeneration of moulding sands is set in such a way that the volume proportion of the fall-off from cores is more than 7% of the moulding mixture and is replaced by new SFS. All of the cores that are produced are inserted in a mould, onto which metal is poured. During shake-out onto shake-out grids, the sand core falls through since the chemical adhesives are exposed to high temperatures, and the sand loses its firmness and is poured alone into the unified bentonite mixture. Up to 90% of the cores are used on a line, which forms a closed circuit. Therefore, when supplying 1 ton of sand, 1 ton of sand must be removed from the line so the amount in circulation remains the same. In this case, a uniform bentonite moulding mixture is used on the lines. A 3000-kg load of sand is required for one dose of moulding mixture. An average of 2100 doses of moulding mixtures are produced per month, representing 6300 tons of sand per month. If the sand is regenerated, it is theoretically necessary to produce a modelling and filling mixture. When divided into 50% model and 50% filling sand (this is without new sand), it is only necessary to supply 50% of this amount (circa 3150 tons per month), which represents 6.3 tons of sand per 1 ton of ready castings when calculated per functional unit. A moulding mixture is transported on belt conveyors to the moulding plant to a tank placed above the machine. The mixture is poured directly on a model via an aerator, which provides an even distribution of the mixture. Moulding plants include: an automated

328

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moulding line (20e50 moulds/shift) with a pouring field (semiautomatic, casting from a 1900-kg siphon pot), a machine mould (2  jolting machines with squeezing, 40e70 moulds/shift) and a manual moulding plant (continuous mixer with an output of 20 ton/hour). An automatic moulding line produces moulds by machine compaction of the moulding mixture on a jolting table and subsequent static pressing. After pouring, the mixture is compacted by shaking-out and subsequent pressing using an articulated head. After removal of a half-mould, the machine is automatically moved below the punching device and a hole is drilled for the inlet hopper. At the same time, the model boards under the machine are changed, the second part of the model equipment is inserted, and the moulding frame shifts and produces the lower half-mould in the same way. Frames are moved along guiding routes. The upper part enters a turner, and the lower half-mould moves through the space for the insertion of cores, where employees check the quality of the face and spray the mould face and insert cores. The frames continue to move to an assembly junction, where the upper and lower frames are assembled and the ready mould is secured using wire. These assembled moulds are moved to the appropriate pouring field for casting. The machine moulding plant prepares moulds from several types of mixtures, including a model mixture (a mixture that is put on a model and forms the face of the mould), a filling mixture (a mixture that fills the remainder of the frame between the model mixture and the moulding frame) and a uniform bentonite mixture (a mixture that fills the whole of the moulding frame). 2.2.1.7. Releasing and shaking-out moulds. An automatic moulding line has an integrated shake-out junction. The line moves the mould above the shake-out junction's shaft, and the piston presses the whole mould from the frame. The bun drops onto the shake-out grid, which vibrates and therefore disturbs the moulding material. This material drops through openings in the grid to a conveyor belt and is transported to containers in the moulding mixture treatment plant for regeneration. Castings gradually drop onto a metal conveyor belt, which transports them to the cleaning centre for finishing. Manual and machine-moulding plants have a joint shakeout junction. Cast moulds are left to rest for a prescribed time and are then moved to a shake-out grid located in the hall using clamping chains. The suspended mould is placed on the vibrating grid. Castings stay on the grid and, after preliminary cleaning and use of ties, are placed in metal boxes and transferred to the finishing plant individually or in groups. 2.2.1.8. Cleaning and cast release. A cleaning and cast release, a centre is built and equipped for the finishing, thermal processing, surface protection and inspection and repair of castings. Here, residues of the moulding mixture and cores are removed using manual pneumatic tools. Castings are placed in metal boxes and are transported to the treatment centre for further operations. During the “final treatment,“ the surface and cavities are rid of core residues, burned-on moulding sand, breaking inlets and hoppers using a manual hammer before the following operations. During finishing, the surface is rid of castings of burned-on moulding sand by shot-blasting and steel particles (pellets) are shot onto the surface of castings via blasting equipment. Trimming, grinding and sanding of the excess parts of castings after the use of pouring and inlet systems in ventilated grinding cabins, trimming inlets, technological hoppers and moulding imperfections (lace) occurs during and after shaking-out in the area and equipment built for these purposes. Shot blasters and grinding cabins have a closed working area, and extraction of pollutants is performed through a dry filter with

an exhaust to the treatment plant. Regular measurement of emissions from a source of atmospheric pollution takes place at the exhausts. Shot-blasting devices are used for removing burned-onmoulding mixtures of sand on the surface and in cavities remaining in cores. Grinding cabins are used for the final grinding of casting surfaces to the shape prescribed in drawings or to meet technical/supply conditions, removing marks remaining from the technological process, inlets, trimmings and lace. If necessary, the cleaning and cast release also performs repairs on castings using corrective welding and fillers. 2.2.1.9. Releasing castings. The term “releasing castings“ means an explicitly stated method for inspecting and repairing castings. The repair process includes repair welding, filling with non-metal and metal putties and filling with molten metal. 2.2.1.10. Energy and maintenance. As a supporting operation, energy and maintenance includes the transportation of energy and gases to the consumption location, maintenance of transformer stations and gas regulation stations, supply and distribution of drinking and technological water to individual centres, documentation and recording of the consumption of gas and energy, repair of technological equipment, production of compressed air and production of heat and hot utility water. The energy component also includes laboratories, which perform continuous and final chemical analyses of the produced melts, evaluations and mechanical tests of melts, metallographic evaluations of structures, evaluations of the properties of moulding and core mixtures and cooperate when tests are performed by external suppliers. Laboratory technical equipment includes an atom emission quantometer, analyser for S and C, spectrometer, grinder, cut-off saw, tearing machine, Charpy hammer, a device for measuring hardness, drill, furnace, dryer, scales, a device for measuring chemical properties, a device for measuring compactability and a device for measuring permeability. Only certified measurement instruments (electrometer, scales and others) are used in the model foundry. 2.2.1.11. Storage and expedition. Storage and expedition is a dispatch and serves for the temporary storage of castings, packaging, palletising or placing castings in transportation boxes or containers. It provides the loading and unloading of castings and issues the necessary documentation for the transportation of the castings. Technical dispatch equipment includes a crane with a capacity of up to 12 tons, packaging and palletising equipment, and foil wrapping equipment. 2.2.2. Inputs Tables 1e5 shows the input and output from the main unit processes. 2.2.2.1. Consumption of materials. In this case, a total of ~3020 kg of input raw materials and other materials for the production of 1 t of castings is necessary for melting in a cupola and pouring grey cast iron into single-use sand moulds. 2.2.2.2. Electricity consumption. The main energy flow covering the whole production process was electricity, which runs the majority of the equipment in the plant. The total consumption was 1366 kWh/t of castings. 2.2.2.3. Gas consumption. The total consumption of natural gas was 64.4 m3/t, from which the smeltery (cupola with recuperator) used 28.5 m3/t, heating pots used 3.9 m3/t, energy (production of heat and hot utility water) used 20.4 m3/t and cleaning and cast release (thermal processing of castings) consumed 11.5 m3/t. O2 (21.6 kg/t)

J. Mitterpach et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 148 (2017) 324e335 Table 2 Input and output of core production.

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Table 4 Input and output of cleaning.

Material

[kg/t]

Material

[kg/t]

Foundry sand Alphacure Alphaset Ecocure 1 Ecocure 2 Novanol Helum Denatured alcohol 95% Isopropyl alcohol

1204.92 0.772 2.25 4.217 4.217 0.07 4.333 3.445 0.009

Granulate S600 steel Granulate S550 steel Grindings discs Electrode EPOXY CHS371 Paint synthetic Paint zinc Paint nitrocellulose Paint other Thinner synthetic Thinner nitrocellulose Thinner other

1.5 4.5 5.073 0.074 0.003 1.569 0.293 0.211 0.035 0.543 0.086 0.059

Consumptions operation

[kWh/t]

Trimming Blasting Finishing Burning Lighting

5 119 45 1 8

Source of emission

kg/t

P Cleannig and cast release, PM Smokestac S1, PM Smokestac S2, PM Smokestac S3, PM Smokestac S4, PM Smokestac S5, PM Varnishing plant, Corg.

0.329 0.051 0.048 0.055 0.079 0.096 1.218

Source of emission

kg/t

Cleaning. Dry filter BH 4

6.582 10.485 1.558 1.43 0.458 2.603 0.88 1.687 0.697 1.879 1.558 4.316

Electricity consumption

[kWh/t]

Compressor plant - production of compressed air Technology for the production of cores Lighting

125 72 9

Waste

kg/t

Bituminous mixtures

1.5

was consumed to start the cupola plant, specifically to increase the temperature to approximately 240  C and enrich the air from 2021% to 23e25% oxygen content in the air, which was forced into the furnace. N2 (3.71 l/t) was consumed for mixing the melt with slag and therefore for efficient desulphuring. 2.2.2.4. Water consumption. The consumption of drinking water was 3.558 m3/t. The drinking water source was the Osrblie spring. Drinking water was used for social and hygiene facilities, drinking and catering. Water was only used for production purposes in emergencies: cooling PIKS 20/800/Fe and extinguishing fires. The consumption of technological water was 23.324 m3/t.  Technological surface water was taken from the recipient, Cierny Hron. It was used to cool the cupolas and induction forebays of PIKS/20/800/Fe, dust cupolas, granulate slag, and operate wet surface separators and in boiler rooms (circulating heating system). The distribution was made up of metal pipes covered with insulation, running in aboveground pipework systems.

Table 3 Input and output of moulding. Material

[kg/t]

Bentonite Dextrins Dusting Special material Special metallic material

68.967 0.4 0.667 2.578 0.674

Electricity consumption

[kWh/t]

Moulding technology Regenerating circuits for moulding mixtures Lighting

198 91 42

Source of emission P Moulding, PM Smokestac S21, PM Smokestac S22, PM

kg/t

Source of emission

kg/t

Moulding. dry filter BH 4 shake-out grid and belt conveyors I shake-out grid and belt conveyors II

4.913 1.558 3.355

0.212 0.144 0.068

Waste

kg/t

WFS- Casting cores, moulding forms, dry dust

1116.9

Waste

kg/t

waste foundry sand

116.9

4  grindign cabins I þ 1 welding booth 5  drinding cabins II shot blaster PT 1800 shot blaster OWPK I shot blaster OWPK II shot blaster Agtos dry filter Agtos

2.2.2.5. Consumption of metal waste. The foundry produces its own waste consisting of technological partsdtrimmings, inlet systems, lace and technological admixtures, in-house faulty products, returned external faulty products and processable waste from residue from the bottom of the furnace. Depending on the assortment, this waste forms 30e50% in a foundry. Adding value to waste can occur in the technological process of melting metals in a cupola, in a total amount of 342.43 kg/t of recycled waste. 2.2.3. Outputs 2.2.3.1. Emissions into the atmosphere. A gas boiler room, cupola and varnishing plant have am efficient exhaust of approximately 90%. Dry dust (11.495 kg/t), formed exclusively from dust from sand, is stored as waste sand. Dust with a metal content of 10.485 kg/t of castings is recycled by an external customer. 2.2.3.2. Water discharges. Waste rainwater is drained from the  plant in the recipient, Cierny Hron, via drains. Drain No. 1 (V1) removes approximately 20% of rainwater. Industrial waste water, cooling water from cupolas, cooling water from the PIKS/20/800/Fe induction forebay, technological water from granulating slag and related equipment after sedimentation, water from the entry transformer station passing through a LAPOL industrial oil trap and rainwater from built-up areas are drained via Drain No. 2 (V2).

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J. Mitterpach et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 148 (2017) 324e335 Table 5 Input and output of others unit processes. Process

Material

[kg/t]

Modelling

Glue Resin Timber maple Timber ALDER Timber SPR/FIR Timber SPRUCE Plywood Metal Others

23.645 23.637 0.729 0.25 0.142 0.25 1.371 0.023 0.006

Storage and expedition

Energetics

Water dicharge

Electricity consumption

[kWh/t]

Technology for the production of models. Lighting

13

Waste

kg/t

Bituminous mixtures

1.5

Material

[kg/t]

Oil hydraulic Oil autom.gear.pp Oil transform. Perchloroethylene Sheet metal Tube steel Rod Cyklotape Euro pallet wooden PE film

1.41 0.132 0.029 0.22 0.3 0.134 2.113 0.847 2.025 6.058

Electricity consumption

[kWh/t]

Parking Administration building Grounds Other consumption

5 7 23 5

Electricity consumption

[kWh/t]

Chemical water treatment plant Pump station - Cupola. Venturi washer. Granulation of slag. DOR Transformer station. Heating. Lighting Boiler room for solid fuel - Production of heating for production areas

43 14 10 27

Gas consumption

m3/t

Heating pots Production of heat and hot utility water Thermal processing of castings

3.9 20.4 11.5

Emission to air from gas boiler room

kg/t

CO2 CO NOx PM SO2 Corg.

71.14 0.01 0.023 0.001 0 0.002

 recipient Cierny Hron. V1- drain No. 1

kg/t

CHODcr Insoubles Ptot Ntot N-NH4 DIS AOX Hg Cd BOD5 NES pH

1.232 0.358 0.016 0.204 0.089 4.431 0 1.75E-06 3.51E-06 0.518 0.004 e

Others waste

kg/t

D2 R1 D2 D2 D2 R2

Waste paint and varnisha Chlorine-free. miner. hydraulic. oila Packaging content. residues NLa Absorbents and oil filtersa Transformers and capacitors containing PCBsa Lead-acid batteriesa

1.9 1.2 1.4 0.8 0.3 1.3

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331

Table 5 (continued ) Process

Material

[kg/t]

R2 R2 R1 D1 D1

Dust mixture with a metal portion Metal packaging Worn out tires Mixed waste from construction Mixed municipal waste

10.485 1 0.5 38.8 4.2

a Hazardous waste, R1- Recycling or reclamation of organic substances, R2- Recycling or reclamation of metals and metal compounds, D1- Depositing on landfill sites, D2- Physical and chemical treatment of waste for disposal.

Sewage from the bathroom and catering facilities is drained via sewage pipework, with final treatment at the mechanical biological water treatment plant. 2.2.3.3. Generation of solid waste. The total amount of waste produced by the foundry per ton of ready castings is 1263.4 kg/t, from which the amount of non-hazardous waste is 1256.5 kg/t and the amount of hazardous waste is 6.9 kg/t. The majority of the waste, 1116.9 kg/t, is composed of waste foundry sand (WFS). 3. Results 3.1. Life cycle impact assessment In the final evaluation, the nominal processesdStorage of raw materials, Modelling plant, Energy and maintenance and Storage and expeditiondwere merged into a nominal process, termed “others.“ The results of the life cycle assessment (LCIA) of 1-ton of grey cast iron castings, as a characterization (Fig. 2, Table 6) and single score (Fig. 3, Table 7), show that the overall greatest impact is from the foundry using ReCiPe 2008 (Goedkoop et al., 2013). The endpoint is from the greatest negative impact that is caused by damage to resource availability (60.8%), followed by damage to human health (26%), and damage to ecosystems (13.2%). These

impacts are mainly caused by foundry processes since, in these processes, most batch raw materials and energy carriers are used (coke, natural gas and electricity). Damage to endpoints and midpoints is mainly caused by processes related to melting metals during smelting (Fig. 1), with a greatest total impact of 74.1% (Table 7). To a larger extent, the impacts of the main smelting process are caused by impacts from mining and processing: the main batch raw materials (raw iron in pellets 24.8%, waste 9.48%, ferrosilicon 13%, coke 14.3%), heat resistant materials (17.7%), electricity consumption (8.46%) and natural gas consumption (5.64%). The amount of emissions currently appears to be less significant since exhausts are equipped with filters that meet the prescribed legislative limits. A Monte Carlo simulation on a single score of the production process in the foundry showed a mean of 248, close to a singlescore value of 246, consequently resulting in a small standard deviation. This is further accentuated by the coefficient of variation (9.75%), indicating that the standard deviation does not widely vary from the mean of the LCA. An important element of this LCA and the impact mitigation strategy of the foundry is the recycling of metal waste (342.430 kg/ t) (Fig. 4), which greatly conserves resources and reduces the impact of the smeltery, in an extreme case by as much as 9.48%. The amount and type of recycled metal waste (Table 1) can change significantly, depending on the carbon content in the melt, and its

Fig. 2. The results of the total life cycle assessment (LCIA) of 1 ton of grey cast iron castings in midpoints, characterization, method ReCiPe Endpoint (H) V1.11/Europe ReCiPe H/H.

332

J. Mitterpach et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 148 (2017) 324e335

Table 6 Characterization 1t grey cast iron, ReCiPe Endpoint (H)V1.11/Europe ReCiPe H/H. Impact category

Unit

Total

Others

Core p.

Moulding

Cleaning

Smelting

Climate change Human Health Ozone depletion Human toxicity Photochemical oxidant formation Particulate matter formation Ionising radiation Climate change Ecosystems Terrestrial acidification Freshwater eutrophication Terrestrial ecotoxicity Freshwater ecotoxicity Marine ecotoxicity Agricultural land occupation Urban land occupation Natural land transformation Metal depletion Fossil depletion

DALY DALY DALY DALY DALY DALY species.yr species.yr species.yr species.yr species.yr species.yr species.yr species.yr species.yr $ $

1.98E-03 5.02E-07 7.13E-04 1.95E-07 1.17E-03 1.18E-05 1.12E-05 4.08E-08 5.19E-08 1.40E-08 3.59E-08 6.96E-09 9.05E-07 3.26E-07 6.00E-07 3.88Eþ01 9.92Eþ01

1.26E-04 9.23E-08 4.49E-05 1.10E-08 5.11E-05 1.12E-06 7.14E-07 3.02E-09 3.77E-09 9.07E-10 1.66E-09 3.22E-10 5.68E-08 7.77E-09 2.55E-08 1.70E-01 6.72Eþ00

2.01E-04 4.33E-08 7.03E-05 1.74E-08 8.17E-05 1.70E-06 1.14E-06 5.00E-09 5.69E-09 2.18E-09 2.55E-09 5.05E-10 1.38E-07 3.72E-08 4.24E-08 3.35E-01 5.98Eþ00

2.23E-04 6.66E-08 1.06E-04 1.64E-08 9.26E-05 2.67E-06 1.27E-06 5.40E-09 8.80E-09 1.99E-09 4.01E-09 7.81E-10 1.10E-07 4.00E-08 2.50E-07 3.70E-01 6.66Eþ00

1.62E-04 5.43E-08 6.01E-05 1.33E-08 7.81E-05 1.45E-06 9.20E-07 3.72E-09 5.04E-09 1.17E-09 2.18E-09 4.25E-10 6.78E-08 1.32E-08 2.44E-08 1.43Eþ00 6.15Eþ00

1.26E-03 2.45E-07 4.32E-04 1.37E-07 8.65E-04 4.88E-06 7.15E-06 2.36E-08 2.86E-08 7.77E-09 2.55E-08 4.93E-09 5.32E-07 2.28E-07 2.58E-07 3.65Eþ01 7.37Eþ01

Note: DALY- Human Health, expressed as the number of year life lost and the number of years lived disabled. These are combined as Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), an index that is also used by the World Bank and WHO. The unit is years. Species.yr- Ecosystems, expressed as the loss of species over a certain area, during a certain time. The unit is years. $- Resources surplus costs, expressed as the surplus costs of future resource production over an infinitive timeframe (assuming constant annual production), considering a 3% discount rate. The unit is 2000US$ (Goedkoop et al., 2013).

Fig. 3. The results of the total life cycle assessment (LCIA) of 1 ton of grey cast iron castings in endpoints, single score, method ReCiPe Endpoint (H) V1.11/Europe ReCiPe H/H, Pt (Point-the total environmental load expressed as a single score, Goedkoop et al., 2013).

content (amount and type) is therefore set at a limit given by the requirements for the chemical content of the melt (mainly a carbon content of 3.2%e3.8%) to meet the required quality for ready castings.

The main processes of moulding (7.6%), production of cores (6.5%) and finishing (6.4%), were identified as other processes that had a significant impact on the LCA model for grey cast iron castings. The impact of foundry sand, based on its energy efficiency

Table 7 Single score 1t grey cast iron, ReCiPe Endpoint (H)V1.11/Europe ReCiPe H/H. Endpoint

Unit

Total

Others

Core p.

Moulding

Cleaning

Smelting

Total Resources Human Health Ecosystems

% % % %

100,000 60,777 26,026 13,197

5353 3035 1502 0,816

6544 2781 2387 1376

7638 3094 2855 1689

6412 3340 2032 1040

74,052 48,527 17,249 8276

J. Mitterpach et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 148 (2017) 324e335

333

Fig. 4. A comparison of the impacts of smelting, the production of cores and moulding with identified significant environmental measures and impacts without these measures (index II), single score, method ReCiPe Endpoint (H) V1.11/Europe ReCiPe H/H, Pt (Point-the total environmental load expressed as a single score, Goedkoop et al., 2013).

(Tables 2e5, foundry sand processes 656 kWh/t, 47%, other consumption 744 kWh/t, 53%), was identified as an important LCA component, as was the large amount of silica foundry sand (SFS) 1204.917 kg/t at the input to core production processes. This assessment was based on the large amount of waste foundry sand (WFS) 1116.9 kg/t at the output from the foundry moulding plants; these factors had the greatest impact on the consumption of resources (Mitterpach et al., 2015, 2016). Environmental impacts related to the consumption of resources in the moulding plant, core production and finishing stations of the foundry decrease, as follows: The foundry uses local reservoirs, which reduces the demand for energy by approximately 30% compared to the previous central storage of sand. The consumption of foundry sand is given by the types of foundry products and technological processes used in the production of moulding and core mixtures. Reducing impacts related to the consumption of resources takes place via regenerating circuits for moulding mixtures, resulting in a decrease in the consumption of SFS and in the production of WFS by 6.3 kg/t. Additionally, a reduction in impacts from the production of cores (Fig. 4) was caused by a reduction in the production of WFS by 1204.92 kg/t and therefore a reduced consumption of SFS and of WFS in moulding processes. These changes were also taken into account, since in this case, the regeneration of moulding mixtures was provided by sand from the production of cores. Similarly, the impacts of filling a landfill with waste foundry sand are included, as well as the positive impact of recycling WFS (10% vol. of total production of WFS, 116.9 kg/t) for solidifying the landfill. Since data on waste sand with metal dust (processed by an external company) is not accessible, the impact of transportation from the foundry is outside the system's selected borders. A comparison of the impacts of smelting, the production of cores and moulding with the identified significant environmental measures clearly shows real reductions in the impacts of such adjusted production upon all assessed components of the environment. This is true, in terms of saving resources (i.e., recycling waste in a cupola, regenerating and circulating systems for foundry sand) and impacts without these measures (Fig. 4), even without compulsory legislation. The last important element is the overall impact (5.4%) of the

other main foundry processes upon environmental quality. The impact was minimised using environmental measures in the foundry and its technological methods and processes. 3.2. Life cycle interpretation The foundry impact results show that the overall negative impact of the foundry, for all its processes, is greatest during the consumption of resources (Fig. 3). The consumption of resources is mainly caused by the difficulty of mining and processing the main input raw materials and materials as well as the high demand for energy sources. The amount of input materials for a one-ton batch of castings is given by the technological casting method. The foundry used the most principled measure to save resources by replacing the metal batch with metal waste to the greatest possible extent while maintaining casting quality. The environmental impact of the foundry may be further influenced by the consumption of coke as a fuel (Stanek et al., 2015) or by replacing the furnace with more modern equipment, where the producer states the consumption of a batch (smelting) for this cupola (12e14% vol. of batch). The use of solidified mud in the metallurgical process during cast iron production had a positive influence on the wear and tear of the furnace , 2015). This strategy could brickwork (Ladomerský and Hroncova theoretically be applied to this case and is a significant proposal for reducing resource consumption. Limiting the amount of foundry waste, mainly the amount of SFS in inputs and the amount of WFS in outputs, is another changed recommended by this LCA. Since the amount of SFS and WFS in foundry production processes is already set to maximum efficiency, there are prospects for greater recycling of WFS, mainly in the building industry (Alonso-Santurde et al., 2011; Quijorna et al., 2012; Merve Basar and Nuran Deveci Aksoy, 2012; Mitterpach et al., 2016). The ideal solution seems to be to find a direct application for spent foundry sand in good quality production within the foundry. This would reduce the negative environmental impacts of the foundry and reduce the impact of the building sector when  and Porhinca k, 2015; replacing raw materials with waste (Estokova

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Ladomerský et al., 2016). In terms of the impact transport, it is important that the treatment of foundry waste and its recycling occurs at the local level. It has been shown (Fig. 4) that all of the other significant flows (consumption of materials, gases and water, emissions to the atmosphere and solid waste) from main foundry production processes are minimised, in this case by the material and energy optimisation of foundry production processes, since their impact on environmental quality is minimised at all midpoints and endpoints. In addition, the demand for energy is given by the nature of the foundry plant for casting grey cast iron castings. The consumption of gases by operating foundries is acceptable and can be regulated by adjusting burners to optimum firing (burners are currently optimised at 90%), regularly inspecting the combustion processes and equipment or installing more modern equipment (when accessible). The environmental impacts caused by the consumption of electricity can be further influenced by the installation of more energy-efficient technology (when accessible) or by replacing the source of electricity production with renewable resources (UNIDO, 2010; Taibi et al., 2012; Trianni et al., 2013) since electricity is currently received from the network and fossil fuels are used for its  production. For example, the proximity of the Cierny Hron water way (long-term average flow Qa ¼ 3.869 m3 s1; Q355 ¼ 0.815 m3 s1) allows a shift in the source of electricity production to renewable resources, for example, by installing solar or hybrid panels on the plant roof. The results of this LCA also show how and with what the foundry can contribute to minimising the environmental impact of its production. 4. Conclusions By improving the management of materials and energy flow in production processes, the foundry can resources, reduce the negative impact on ecosystem quality and minimise human health impacts. The quantity and type of recycled metal waste in a cupola furnace can significantly change the characteristics of the melt and therefore limit its use. Among the important impacts of grey cast iron production were processes associated with SFS, WFS and WFS as waste. The ideal solution would be to discover a direct application for SFS in goodquality production within the foundry at the local level. The transformation of industrial waste into raw materials is a key step in achieving permanently sustainable industrial development. The important overall impact of the other main foundry processes on the environmental quality was minimised using environmental measures in the foundry as well as technological methods. These measures focused on reducing the demand for raw materials and other materials, energy consumption, release of emissions into the atmosphere, water use, and creation and production of solid waste as well as increasing the quality of drained water. These findings directly indicate the importance of environmental measures in foundry production processes. This “cradle-to-gate” LCA study can therefore form the basis for further environmental analyses, which will assist in reducing the negative environmental impacts of foundry production. Similarly, this paper can be a basis for the ecodesign of castings, decreasing the demands for materials in the production of castings, cores and moulds. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the grant KEGA 035UMB-4/2015.

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