Parasl?:olo,~yToday, voL 2, no. I, 1986
28 trends since 1968 show that numerically, studies on the human disease have declined markedly, to be matched by a steady increase in experimental studies, which no doubt reflects the great interest of using Trypanosoma cruzi as a model system to study basic questions in parasite cell biology. Very few citations dealing with the insect vectors of T. cruzi have been included, which is regrettable, considering the very realistic potential of vector control to interrupt transmission of this virtually incurable infection. It is also regrettable that incorrect reference to 'Triatomids' is retained, rather than to the Triatominae or triatomines. (The vectors of T. cruzi were relegated to subfamilial rank by Jeannel in 1919, but it
Essential Malariology (2nd edition) by LJ. Bruce-Chwatt, William Heinemann Medical Books Ltd., London, 1985. £22.50 (xii + 452 pages) ISBN 0 443 04521 3 The investigation of malaria requires special knowledge and skills that can be learned from this book, the second edition of which (1985) has 98 pages more than the first (1980), plus a new colour plate showing blood stages of malaria parasites. The title is no exaggeration since even the most privileged traveller now runs the risk of exposure to drug-resistant malaria in tropical Africa, America and Asia. For a disease problem that is insidiously resurging in so many countries, there is no other up-to-date textbook on all aspects of the subject to guide those responsible for diagnosis and treatment, prevention and control. Fortunately, Professor BruceChwatt combines the old and new eras of malariology: he began his career in the 194Os building bunds against saltwater / AnophelesmelasvectorsofmalariainWest Africa, continued as a WHO malariologist and culminated as the Director of the Ross Institute in London. Several recent influences seem to have brought a fresh feeling into malariology. Gone is the over-optimistic dogma which led the first edition of this book to end with a chapter describing malaria eradication through vector control. Instead, the quest for a vaccine excites the imagination, although policies for field use of vaccines remain unclear, depending as they must on what is produced eventually. But the urgency of combatting the spreading menace of drug-resistant strains of Pr falciparum is sufficiently pressing to have raised malaria control practices from the doldrums o(the 1970s.This led the WHO
seems that clinicians and parasitologists will continue to ignore what, to them, may seem a pedantic distinction.) These criticisms aside, the new bibliography makes a welcome updated addition to the range of bibliographies available. It will greatly assistparasitologists to retain a grasp of the ever evolving literature on Chagas' disease, especially as so much of the important literature is in journals of limited circulation.
C.J. Schofield 6 7 References I Miles,M.A. and Rouse,J.E.(1970) Chagas's Disease (South American Trypanosamiasls) Bureau
in 1979to inaugurate four'tactical variants' of strategies to be implemented nationally against malaria in every endemic country, making the subject an unavoidable priority, whether run as a component of existing primary health care programmes or an independent malaria control organization. Bruce-Chwatt captures these accelerating attitudes well, and weaves them together with all the basictheory and technology of malaria, in his masterly new edition. After an historical outline with the dates of 95 milestones in malariology, chapter 2 is concerned with life cycles, cultivation and genetics of the human malarias: Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, P. falciparum, and the identity of some experimentally important malarias in birds and mammaJs.Subsequentchapters discuss the clinical course of malaria, with sections on imported, transfusion and therapeutic malaria', pathology and blackwater fever; immunology, immunopathology, innate and acquired resistance; diagnostic methods and identification criteria; vector Anopheles mosquitoes, their identity, anatomy, behaviour, biology, distribution and methods for their collection, dissection and examination for malaria infection; epidemiology and survey methods, malaria control rationale and techniques for various epidemiological conditions, with 82 pages putting emphasis, correctly still, on vector control methods. Several chapters are substantially stronger than in the first edition, notably chapter 2 with regard to biochemistry, genetics and the 1980 discovery of the hypnozoite stage which gives rise to relapses. This compact and strongly bound book strikes an excellent balance between theory and practice, being an ideal introduction for all manner bf health workers, planners, parasitologists, students and researchers whose previous experience of malariology may be narrow or negligible. The bibliography of about 450 references
of Hygiene and Tropical Diseases, London, 209 pp Olivier, M.C., Olivier, L.J.and Segal,D.B, (1972) A Bibhography on Chagas' Disease (I 909-1969) USDA Index-Catalogue of medical and Veterinary Zoology, Special Publn 2, 633 pp Alderete, P.M.N. de (I 984) Bibliografia Argentina sabre Enfermedad de ChagesPrograma de Salud Human& BuenosAires, 185 pp FIOCRUZ (1978) Bibliografia sabre Doenca de Chagas (I 973-1977) FundacaoOswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, I 17 pp Prata,A.R. and Sant'Anna, E.P.de(1983) Bibliografia Brasileira sabre Doenca de Chagas(I 9091979) CNPq, Brazil, 858 pp Ryckman, R.E and Archbold, E.F, (1981) Bull. Sac. Vector Ecol. 6, 143-166 Ryckman. R.E. and Blankenship, CM, (1984) Bull. Sac. Vector Ecol. 9, 84-1 I I Ryckman. R.E. and Blankenship, C.M. (1984) Bull. Sac. Vector Ecol. 9, I 12-430
is well chosen from the prolific literature. Copious annexes cover the names of 30 anti-malarial drugs and their formulations; characteristics of about 50 species of malaria vector mosquitoes; a list of appropriate insecticidesand their formulations; country by country information on malaria risks; and conversion factors for metric units. Although specialistsmay seek more detailed information, the merit of this book is to span many disciphnes (chemotherapy, community medicine, engineering, entomology, genetics, hydroIogy, immunology, mathematics, pathology, parasitology), drawing the disparate fields together against malaria. In view of the care that has been successfullyinvested in updating and expandingthe second edition with improved figures, tables and information, it is disappointing to notice some typographical errors repeated from the first edition. Factualerrors are few, but some of the latest concepts could have been better explained, especially the fact that hypnozoites lead to delayed primary exo-erythrocytic schizogony, as distinct from immediate schizogony, apparently rendering obsolete the idea of secondary exo-erythrocytic schizonts. Points about mosquitoes of partJcularconcern to me, are that "ga~nbiae species D" is considered to be a local malaria vector in Uganda, whereas A. quadriannulatus is so zoophilic that it is undoubtedly not a malaria vector. In mainland countries of southeast Asia, the forest malaria vector is A. dims not A. babbacensis. It would be pedantic, however, to suggestthat such minor flaws detract much from the broad utility of this volume. Indeed, its lucid and practical style makes this book invaluable for the legions of non-malariologists who must cope with the problems of malaria generally encountered in clinics and public health programmes. G. B. White London School of Tropical Hygiene and Medicine, Keppel Street, London WCI E7HT, UK