Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco

Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco

CHNAES-00680; No of Pages 11 Acta Ecologica Sinica xxx (2020) xxx Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Acta Ecologica Sinica journal homepage: ...

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CHNAES-00680; No of Pages 11 Acta Ecologica Sinica xxx (2020) xxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Acta Ecologica Sinica journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/chnaes

Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco Elhassan Idm'hand ⁎,1, Fouad Msanda, Khalil Cherifi Laboratory of Biotechnology and Valorization of Natural Resources, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir 8106, Morocco

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history: Received 22 September 2018 Received in revised form 19 August 2019 Accepted 14 January 2020 Available online xxxx Keywords: Medicinal plants Ethnobotanical Fidelity level Informant consensus factor Morocco

a b s t r a c t Background: This study was carried out among the inhabitants of the province of Tarfaya (Moroccan Center South), in order to make an inventory of the medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine by the local population. Methods: Information was obtained by means of open interviews with local people using the questionnaires. The data was analyzed using Use Value (UV), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Fidelity Level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF). Results: The analysis of the results allowed us to identify 130 vascular plant species in 57 families with a significant representativeness of Lamiaceae (10%), Asteraceae (9.23%), Fabaceae (8.46%), Apiaceae (6.15%), Poaceae (3.85%), Solanaceae (3.07%) and Amaranthaceae (3.07%). These species are mainly used in the care of the digestive and genito-urinary disorders. The UV ranged from 0.01 (Aframomum melegueta) to 0.34 (Maerua crassifolia). The RFC ranged from 0.01 (Aframomum melegueta) to 0.32 (Maerua crassifolia). The highest FL (100%) was found for 38 species, while the highest values of ICF were recorded for gastrointestinal pains (0.972). Conclusion: This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in the Tarfaya province. Furthermore, ethnobotanical analysis will provide data for further pharmacological studies. © 2020 Ecological Society of China. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Traditional medicine all over the world relies on the available natural resources of the local environment as well as the knowledge and know-how needed to exploit these resources [1]. Since antiquity, plants have occupied a prominent place and have been for man an important source of therapeutic drugs especially in poor households [2]. Herbal medicine is still well preserved among the many communities around the world [3]. In addition, according to the World Health Organization, healing plants remain the only way of treatment for 80% of the African population [4]. Recently, many countries have made considerable efforts in the study of medicinal plants. The development of new herbal medicaments requires integration of several sciences such as chemistry, pharmacology and botany [5]. Ethnobotanical surveys and ethnopharmacological studies are effective methods in identifying and documenting medicinal plants [6]. Morocco has rich flora thanks to its geographical location and influence of various climate types. Indeed, nearly 5200 species and subspecies of vascular plants, subdivided in 155 families and 981 genders are listed. Regarding endemism, the ⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected] (E. Idm'hand). 1 Present address: Laboratory of Biotechnology and Valorization of Natural Resources, Faculty of sciences, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir (8106), Morocco.

number of endemic species in the flora is 900. On the other hand, the Moroccan medicinal flora has N600 species [7,8]. The vegetal biodiversity of the Sahara region is characterized by the presence of a multiple plants. In addition to their ecological and forage importance, these plants have many uses, traditionally practiced by the local population. In the Saharan provinces, health care system in rural areas has not yet reached the expected level. Several constraints hinder an effective medical supervision of the population, due to the geographical location of the Saharan territory and the unbalanced spatial distribution of health facilities between urban and rural areas. Faced with this situation, and due to the poverty of the major households in the area, the rural population is depending more and more on this traditional medicine. In these arid areas, the Desert Man has managed to find techniques over time in order to survive. He used the herbs he had on hand to relieve his pain, heal his ailments and heal his wounds, based on the knowledge transmission from one generation to the next. However, in some cases, this traditional knowledge is monopolized by a small part of the population who doesn't share it with the rest of the community, which is currently threatening the continuity and guarantee of this knowledge transmission [9,10]. In Morocco, a producer of medicinal and aromatic plants, population has a long tradition in the field of phytotherapy [11,12]. Many studies on

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002 1872-2032/© 2020 Ecological Society of China. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002

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herbal medicine have recently been done in some districts, among them: − Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco [13]; − Contribution to the knowledge of Rifian traditional medicine. II: Folk medicine in Ksar Lakbir district (NW Morocco) [14]; − Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases in the North centre region of Morocco (Fez–Boulemane) [11]; − Ethnobotanical studies and economic evaluation of medicinal plants in Taounate province (Northern Morocco) [15]; − An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Tata Province, Morocco [16]; − Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by people in Oriental Morocco to manage various ailments [17]; − Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in DaraaTafilalet region (Province of Errachidia), Morocco [18]; − Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin burns in occidental Morocco (area of Rabat) [19]; − Integrative herbal treatments of diabetes in Beni Mellal region of Morocco [20].

However, such surveys are almost or completely lacking in other regions of Morocco, especially in the south [12,21]. This led us to carry out an ethnobotanical study with the population of the province of Tarfaya in order to collect as much information as possible about the traditional exploitation of medicinal flora in this region. Therefore, the main aims of this study are (i) identify the spontaneous and marketed medicinal plantscommonly used by the population of the Tarfaya province, (ii) document the ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the region using standard ethnobotanical methods, (iii) safeguard valuable herbal knowledge acquired by the local population, and (iiii) serve science in many fields such as phytochemical and pharmacological investigations. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Study area The province of Tarfaya is a part of the Laayoune-Sakia El Hamra region, bounded to the north by the province of Tan-Tan, to the south by the province of Laayoune, to the east by the province of Smara, West by the Atlantic Ocean. It covers an area of 15450 km2 with a population of 13082 inhabitants (Fig. 1). The relief of the province of Tarfaya is characterized by a topography dominated by vast rocky plateaus, intersected by wide valleys where are distinguished depressions whose lowest level at altitude can be lower than that of the sea. These plateaus are locally covered with sandy accumulations in the form of dunes with a relatively small hydrographic network. The province is characterized by a semi-arid climate marked by the scarcity of rainfall. Rainfall amounts are generally low and unevenly distributed over the province. This rainfall is generally b60 mm / year. In the province, temperatures are moderate and influenced by the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean, generally around 30 °C in summer and 20 °C in winter, and there are not large annual variations. In terms of vegetation, the province is characterized by some isolated tufts or solitary trees; the appearance is that of a landscape left bare, covered only by some herbs that grow after the occasional rainfall. Depending on the place of residence, 8027 people live in urban areas and 5055 in rural areas, which represent an urbanization rate of 61.4% in 2014 against 53.9% in 2004. The number of urban dwellers increased from 5615 in 2004 to 8027 in 2014, representing an average annual population growth rate of 3.6%. The rural population has increased slightly from 4805 in 2004 to 5055 in 2014, representing an average annual growth rate of 0.5%.

Fig. 1. Location of study area.

Despite the fact that the province belongs to the Saharan domain, its cover vegetation is relatively developed, particularly in Khnifiss National Park, which covers an area of 180,000 ha. The Khenifiss National Park occupies a very particular phytogeographical region integrated into the Macaronesian, Mediterranean and Saharan-Sindian domains, which is a true crossroads of flora with different origins and strains, also with different historical conditions and unique ecological environments. 2.2. Data collection The ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the province of Tarfaya was carried from December 2016 to December 2017 out through interviews with people native and/or having lived a long time in the five communes of the province (Fig. 1). Using questionnaires containing specific questions about the informant and the plant material to determine the therapeutic uses of medicinal plants and their use by the local population according to the gender of the respondents, age, marital status, level of study, the part of the plant used and the methods of preparation and administration. As many questionnaires as possible have been recovered (600). Then, data processing was carried out using Excel in order to analyze the data (statistical study) and to produce tables and graphs. Only the plant species identified and determined and which are cited a sufficient

Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002

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number of times (5 times minimum), which have been selected. Most of the interviews were held in Hassani, the dialectal language of the region. The Taxonomic identification of plant species was carried out at the Laboratory of Biotechnology and Valorization of Natural Resources (LBVRN), Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, with the help of the standard Floras of the area and the online database (www. theplantlist.org). Identified plants were made in herbarium specimens and stored in our laboratory (LBVRN). 2.3. Calculations 2.3.1. Use value The use value (UV) index assesses the relative importance of each plant species known locally to be used as herbal remedy. The use value was calculated according the following formula: UV = U/N, where UV is the use value of a species; U refers to the number of citations per species; and N is the number of informants who reported on the plant species. 2.3.2. Relative frequency citation Relative frequency citation (RFC) was calculated by the following formula: RFC ¼ FC=N ð0bRFCb1Þ This index is obtained by dividing the number of informants mentioning a useful species frequency of citation by the total number of informants in the survey (N) [22]. 2.3.3. Fidelity level Fidelity level (FL) was calculated using the following formula:

FL ð%Þ ¼ Np=N  100 where Np = Number of informants that claim an use of a plant species to treat a particular disease and N is the total number of all informants who reported all uses about given plant species [23]. 2.3.4. Informant consensus factor Informant consensus factor (ICF) was employed to indicate how far the information is homogeneous. The ICF was calculated with the following formula:

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which is 22%, 14% and 13% respectively. However, people aged b20 years use very little of the medicinal plants (1%), which explains why the younger generation ignores the traditional medicinal uses of plants, while the elderly are the most important source of information acquisition on the traditional therapeutic use of plants. This has been observed in other studies [16,26] where people over 50 years had the most knowledge about medicinal plants. The traditional therapeutic knowledge accumulated over centuries is only transmitted orally from generation to generation. This ancestral knowledge is really in danger if no efforts are made to save it [10]. According to Sargin and his collaborators, modernization of life style causes that the new generations using plants as remedies are on the brink of extinction [27]. 3.1.2. Use of medicinal plants according to sex In this region, 73% of the surveyed women use medicinal plants compared to 64% of the interviewed men, so both sexes are concerned with traditional medicine. However, it is women who hold ethnobotanical information more than men. The same results have been found by [28,29]. 3.1.3. Use of medicinal plants according to educational level The analysis of the obtained data showed a predomination of illiterate people with a percentage of use of medicinal plants of 50%. The majority of respondents are not enough educated, which ensures the oral transmission of information from generation to generation. Then come those with a primary education level with a rate of 42%, while respondents with a secondary and university level do not use traditional medicine (secondary 5%, university 3%). The random use of plants can harm the human health and this is confirmed with illiterate people who use plants without knowing their origin, dosage and action on the organism, which is manifested by many bad effects on health: digestive, neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory disorders, even sometimes death [30,31]. 3.1.4. Source of information Although the population of Tarfaya uses several sources of information on the use of medicinal plants, the ancestry experience is the most important source, with a rate of 70.60%, which reflects the oral image of the traditional know-how transmission from one generation to the next, while herbalists are classified as the second source of information (21.10%), reading and research as the third source (4.41%), doctors and pharmacists in fourth position (2.94), and at the end user himself (0.98%). 3.2. Medicinal species used

IFC ¼ ðNur−NtÞ=ðNur−1Þ where Nur refers to the total number of use reports for each ailment category and Nt is the number of taxa used in that category [24]. 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Demographic characteristics of interviewees Of the 600 people interviewed, 200 people use only traditional medicine, 192 people use only modern medicine, and 208 people use both herbal medicine and modern one. The number of people using medicinal plants is 408 (68%). The insufficiency of health infra-structures and essential medicines, as well as the low incomes of the population, explain the use of medicinal plants [25]. 3.1.1. Use of medicinal plants according to age People of age N 60 years and age group [51–60] come first with a frequency of use of medicinal plants of 25% for each. The age groups [41–50], [31–40], [20–30] have a non-negligible percentage of use

3.2.1. Distribution of medicinal plants The floristic analysis showed that 130 vascular species belonging to 57 botanical families are used by the population of the province of Tarfaya (Table 1). The most widely represented families in the region are Lamiaceae (13 species, 10%), Asteraceae (12 species, 9.23%), Fabaceae (11 species, 8.46%), Apiaceae (8 species, 6.15%), Poaceae (5 species, 3.85%), Solanaceae and Amaranthaceae with 4 species each (3.07%). These families alone contain 57 species, almost 43.84% of the whole. The predominance of Lamiaceae and Asteraceae is consistent with ethnobotanical studies conducted in North African regions such as Morocco [32,33], Algeria [34], or Libya [35]. 3.2.2. Commonly treated diseases and noteworthy plants Traditionally, Saharan species are used to treat a wide range of symptoms. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the most mentioned diseases are gastrointestinal pain with a rate of 31.96%, followed by genito-urinary disorders (12.19%), respiratory affections (8.34%), osteoarticular diseases (6.53%), skin and hair care (6.33%), oral diseases (5.82%), skin disorders (4.49%), diabetes (3.78%), cardiovascular diseases (3.23%), fever (1.91%), neurological disorders (1.82%) (Table 2),

Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002

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Table 1 List of medicinal plants used in Tarfaya Province (Morocco). Species (Voucher- specimen No)

Family

Local name

Plant part

Preparation mode

Administration Traditional uses

UV

Acacia nilotica L (LBVRN77)

Fabaceae

Sllaha

Fruit

Powder

0.18 0.17 54

FL

Acacia senegal L. (LBVRN6) Acacia tortilis (foressk) Hayne (LBVRN3) Adansonia digitata L. (LBVRN4)

Fabaceae Fabaceae

Aalelk Talh

Gum Leaf

Decoction Decoction Decoction

Applied externally Oral Applied externally Rinsing Oral Oral

Malvacea

Tajmakht

Aframomum melegueta Schum. (LBVRN5) Aizoon canariense L. (LBVRN2)

Zingibéraceae

Powder Powder Infusion Powder

Oral Oral Oral Oral

Aizoaceae

L-gouza sahrawiya Lghassoul

Leaf Fruit Fruit Seed

Gingivitis Hypertension, indigestion Stomach pain, intestinal diseases, gastralgia, diarrhea Stomach pain, intestinal diseases Stomach pain, heart failure, indigestion Hypertension, diarrhea, diabetes Appetite stimulant

Decoction

Oral

Poisoning

0.01 0.02 100

Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. (LBVRN15)

Lamiaceae

Chendgura

Leafy stem Leaf

Poultice

Hair care, cephalalgia

0.1

Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Bulb Seed Bulb Bulb

Powder Decoction Decoction Fumigation Raw Powder Raw Cooked

Powder Poultice

Allium cepa L. (LBVRN8)

Amaryllidaceae

Lbsala

Allium sativum L. (LBVRN120)

Amaryllidaceae

Thouma

Aloysia citriodora Palau (LBVRN10) Alpinia officinarum Hance (LBVRN34) Ammodaucus leucotrichus Coss. Durieu (LBVRN12)

Verbenaceae

Lwiza

Bulb Leaf

Suppository Decoction

Applied externally Oral Oral Rinsing Inhalation Oral Oral Oral Applied externally Rectal Oral

Zingiberaceae

Khudenjal

Root

Decoction

Apiaceae

Kmoun reg

Seed

Anastatica hierochuntica L. (LBVRN125)

Anvillea garcinii subsp. radiata (Coss. & Durieu) Anderb. (LBVRN14) Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (LBVRN7) Artemisia herba-alba Asso (LBVRN16)

Artemisia reptans C.Sm. ex Link (LBVRN17) Asparagus altissimus Munby (LBVRN18) Atractylis babelii (LBVRN19) Atractylis gummifera Salzm. ex L. (LBVRN20)

Brassicaceae

Lkmcha

Toothache, Leather tanning

RFC

stomach ailments Hair care, burns

Intestinal diseases, rheumatism Diabetes Skin care Ritual and magical practices Anthelmintic Asthma Hypertension, anthelmintic, constipation Hair care

0.11 0.10 60 0.13 0.05 39 0.28 0.26 30

0.01 0.01 100

0.08 25

0.02 0.02 54 0.14 0.13 44

Appetite stimulant Sedative, hypertension, colds

0.07 0.07 67

Oral

Emmenagogue

0.01 0.01 100

Decoction

Oral

0.22 0.20 34

Seed

Powder

Leafy stem

Decoction

Applied externally Oral

Food poisoning, insect bites, snakes bites, intestinal diseases emmenagogue, carminative Wounds

0.2

Leafy stem Leaf Leaf

Poultice Suppository Powder

Applied externally Rectal Oral

Diuretic, urinary infectios, facilitates childbirth, kidney diseases, painful periods, colds, female infertility Vitiligo Rheumatism, appetite stimulant Rheumatism, sexual impotence

0.07 0.06 64

0.19 41

Asteraceae

Nagd

Sapotaceae

Argan

Seed

Oil

Massage

Vitiligo, hair care, skin care

0.09 0.09 46

Astéraceae

Chih

Leaf

Poultice

Wounds

0.23 0.19 29

Leaf Leaf

Suppository Decoction

Applied externally Rectal Oral

Leafy stem Leaf

Powder

Oral

Rheumatism, appetite stimulant Indigestion, diarrhea, bad breath, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, nausea, stomach pain Stomach pain

0.02 0.02 100

Decoction

Oral

Diabetes, stomach pain

0.05 0.05 50

Leaf Root Root

Raw Decoction Poultice

Asthma Skin care Hair care

0.03 0.03 100 0.08 0.08 31

Root Leaf

Fumigation Decoction

Oral Rinsing Applied externally – Oral

Decoction

Oral

Left Tafsa

Leafy stem Seed Leaf

Powder Powder

Tourja

Stem Stem Fruit Fruit

Astéraceae

Chihia

Asparagaceae

Skkoum

Asteraceae Asteraceae

Taskra Addad

Atriplex halimus L. (LBVRN21)

Amaranthaceae

Legtef

Bassia muricata (L.) Asch (LBVRN22) Brassica napus L. (LBVRN23) Bubonium graveolens (Forssk) Maire (LBVRN24)

Chenopodiaceae Tasnant Brassicaceae Asteraceae

Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Asclepiadaceae Aiton (LBVRN25) Capparis spinosa L. (LBVRN128) Capparaceae

Lkbbar

Anti-flies Diabetes, hypertension, rheumatism, urinary infections Angina

0.03 0.03 100

Asthma, appetite stimulant Toothache

0.05 0.05 52 0.09 0.08 55

Raw Decoction

Oral Applied externally Brushing Rinsing

Dental hygiene Wounds

0.03 0.03 100

Decoction Powder

Oral Oral

Stomach pain Asthma

0.16 0.16 56

0.05 0.05 50

Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002

E. Idm'hand et al. / Acta Ecologica Sinica xxx (2020) xxx

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Table 1 (continued) Species (Voucher- specimen No)

Family

Local name

Plant part

Preparation mode

Administration Traditional uses

UV

Capsicum annuum L. (LBVRN26) Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E. Br. (LBVRN27) Carum carvi L. (LBVRN28) Cassia senna L. (LBVRN29) Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière (LBVRN30)

Solanaceae

soudania

Fruit

Poultice

Alopecia

0.03 0.03 100

Apocynaceae

Okan

Stem

Juice

Applied externally Oral

Diabetes

0.03 0.03 100

Apiaceae Fabaceae Pinaceae

Lkrwiya Sana Kdran

Seed Leaf Resin

Powder Decoction Raw

Hypertension, obesity, sedative, carminative Constipation Hair care, animal wounds

0.11 0.10 29 0.07 0.07 100 0.15 0.14 22

Resin Resin Resin

Raw Raw Raw

Resin Fruit Fruit Leaf Leaf

Raw Powder Decoction Juice Decoction

Leaf Leaf

Powder Poultice

Ceratonia siliqua L. (LBVRN31)

Fabaceae

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (LBVRN32)

Chenopodiaceae Lmkhinza

Cicer arietinum L. (LBVRN33) Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl (LBVRN11) Cinnamomum verum J.Presl (LBVRN35) Cistus populifolius L. (LBVRN36)

Fabaceae Lauraceae

Lhemmes Dar sini

Seed Bark

Decoction Powder

Oral Applied externally Oral Oral

Lauraceae

Qerfa

Bark

Decoction

Oral

Cistaceae

Irgl

Seed Seed Leaf Seed Seed Seed Fruit

Powder Decoction Decoction Suppository Fumigation Powder Decoction

Fruit

Poultice

Fruit Fruit Gum

Juice Decoction Powder

Gum Gum Leafy stem Leaf

Cooked Fumigation Decoction

Oral Oral Oral Rectal Inhalation Oral Applied externally Applied externally Oral Oral Applied externally Massage – Oral

Decoction

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Cucurbitaceae (LBVRN37)

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. (LBVRN84) Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. (LBVRN39)

Coriandrum sativum L. (LBVRN40) Cotula cinerea Delile (LBVRN41) Crocus sativus L. (LBVRN42)

Kharroub

Oral Oral Applied externally Nasal Oral Applied externally – Oral Oral Oral Oral

Lhdej

Rutaceae

Lhamed

Burseraceae

Oum nas

Apiaceae

Kazbour

Asteraceae

Lgartofa

Iridaceae

Zaafran

RFC

FL

Respiratory problems Cough Dental pains Anti-ants Stomach pain, diarrhea Poisoning Fever Carminative, female infertility, rheumatism, sexual impotence, fever Diarrhea Fever

0.12 0.12 69 0.24 0.20 41

Diabetes Diabetes

0.03 0.03 100 0.03 0.03 100

Emmenagogue, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, painful periods Rheumatism, appetite stimulant Urinary infections Stomach pain Rheumatism, diarrhea Hemorrhoids Diabetes Rheumatism

0.09 0.09 38 0.09 0.09 28

0.19 0.18 31

Wounds, eczema Kidney diseases Angina Toothache

0.06 0.06 53 0.07 0.07 37

Arthritis Ritual and magical practices Intestinal diseases

0.02 0.02 100

Oral

Stomach pain, cold, aromatic

0.08 0.08 33

Decoction Cream Decoction Powder

Oral Massage Oral Oral

Kidney stones, rheumatism Skin care Constipation Anthelmintic, hypercholesterolemia

0.12 0.12 74 0.02 0.02 100 0.05 0.05 58

Croton tiglium L. (LBVRN43) Cucurbita maxima Duchesne (LBVRN44) Cuminum cyminum L. (LBVRN45) Cynomorium coccineum L. (LBVRN46) Cyperus rotundus L. (LBVRN47)

Euphorbiaceae Cucurbitaceae

Stigma Stigma Habbet melka Seed Lgraa Seed

Apiaceae

Lkmmoun

Seed

Powder

Oral

Diarrhea

0,03 0.03 100

Cynomoriaceae

Tertout Tara

Powder Decoction Poultice

Stomach pain, intestinal diseases Anemia, asthma, diabetes Hair loss

0.03 0.03 52

Datura stramonium L. (LBVRN48) Daucus carota L. (LBVRN49) Ephedra alata Dec. (LBVRN88)

Solanaceae

Chdeq jmel

Leaf Seed

Fumigation Powder

Oral Oral Applied externally Inhalation Oral

0.12 0.12 42

Cyperaceae

Stem Stem Leaf

Incense Appetite stimulant

0.03 0.03 100

Apiaceae Ephedraceae

Khizzou Chdida

Powder Powder

Oral Oral

Asthma, appetite stimulant Rheumatism, colds

0.03 0.03 52 0.06 0.05 35

Eucalyptus globulus Labill (LBVRN51) Euphorbia falcata L. (LBVRN52)

Myrtaceae

Lkalitos

Seed Leafy stem Leaf Leaf

Decoction Powder

Oral Oral

Asthma Stomach pain

0.07 0.07 100

Euphorbiaceae

Hayat nofous

Decoction

Oral

Kidney stones, urinary infections

0.1

Euphorbia officinarum subsp. Echinus (Hook. F. & Coss.) Vindt (LBVRN53)

Euphorbiaceae

Dghmouss

Leafy stem Stem

Powder

Oral

0.28 0.26 29

Stem

Raw

Stem

Powder

Applied externally Applied externally

Cancer, snakes bites, rheumatism, asthma, anthelmintic, diarrhea, angina Toothache

0.10 84

Wounds and abscesses, wart (continued on next page)

Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002

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Table 1 (continued) Species (Voucher- specimen No)

Family

Local name

Plant part

Preparation mode

Administration Traditional uses

UV

Ficus carica L. (LBVRN54) Foeniculum vulgare Mill (LBVRN55) Fredolia aretioides (Coss. & Moq. Ex Bunge) Ulbr. (LBVRN56) Glaucium flavum Grantz (LBVRN57) Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (LBVRN58) Gymnocarpos decandrus Forssk. (LBVRN59) Haloxylon scoparium Pomel (LBVRN60)

Moraceae Apiaceae

Chriha Nafaa

Fruit Seed

Decoction Powder

Oral Oral

Constipation Obesity, stomach pain, intestinal diseases

0.07 0.07 100 0.1 0.10 70

Amaranthaceae

Sellii

Leafy stem

Decoction

Oral

food poisoning

0.02 0.02 100

Papaveraceae

Garn jdi

Stem

Powder

Oral

Appetite stimulant

0.02 0.02 100

Fabaceae

Aarq souss

Root

Powder

Oral

Cholecystitis, cough,asthma, obesity

0.1

Caryophyllaceae Jefna

Leaf

Powder

Oral

Stomach pain

0.07 0.07 100

Amaranthaceae

Rremt

Leaf Leaf

Fumigation Poultice

Angina Wounds

0.04 0.04 58

Rutaceae

Lfijel

Leaf

Cooked

Arthritis

0.02 0.02 100

Boraginaceae

Lehbalia

Leaf

Powder

Toothache and clean teeth

0.09 0.08 76

Leaf

Powder Decoction

Inhalation Applied externally Applied externally Applied externally Applied externally Oral

Infusion

Haplophyllum vermiculare Hand.-Maz. (LBVRN61) Heliotropium curassavicum L (LBVRN62)

Herniaria hirsuta L. (LBVRN63)

Caryophyllaceae Herrast lahjar

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (LBVRN64)

Malvaceae

Hyoscyamus albus L. (LBVRN129) Illicium verum Hook.f. (LBVRN65) Juglans regia L. (LBVRN66)

Juncus rigidus Desf (LBVRN67) Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. (LBVRN68) Launaea arborescens (Batt.) Murb. (LBVRN69) Lavandula dentata L. (LBVRN70) Lavandula officinalis Chaix (LBVRN71)

Lavandula stoechas L. (LBVRN72)

FL

0.09 38

Wounds

Solanaceae

Sikran

Leafy stem Chalices of flowers Chalices of flowers Seed

Illiciaceae

Lbadyana

Fruit

Decoction

Oral

Emmenagogue

0.02 0.02 100

Juglandaceae

Swak

Nuts Nuts

Decoction Infusion

Gingivitis and bad breath Hair coloring

0.07 0.06 77

Juncaceae Cucurbitaceae

Semmar Slawi

Leaf Fruit

Decoction Fumigation

Oral Applied externally Oral Inhalation

Asthma, kidney stones Migraine

0.09 0.09 81 0.02 0.02 100

Asteraceae

Oum lbina

Stem

Latex

Massage

0.07 0.06 47

Lamiaceae

Lokhzama beldiya Lokhzama

Leafy stem Leafy stem Leafy stem Leafy stem Leafy stem Leaf

Decoction

Oral

Skin care, wounds and acne, ritual and magical practices Bad breath

0.02 0.02 100

Decoction

Oral

Emmenagogue

0.06 0.05 45

Suppository

Rectal

Rheumatism, appetite stimulant

Poultice

Applied externally Oral

Hair loss

Hair loss, eczema

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Bissam

Halhal

Lawsonia inermis L. (LBVRN73)

Lythraceae

Lhenna

Lepidium sativum L. (LBVRN74)

Brassicaceae

Hebb rchad

Limonium sinuatum (L.) Mill. (LBVRN75) Linum usitatissimum L. (LBVRN76) Lycium intricatum Boiss. (LBVRN130) Lygeum spartum Loefl. ex L. (LBVRN1) Maerua crassifolia Forssk. (LBVRN78)

Malva sylvestris L. (LBVRN79)

RFC

Kidney stones

0.04 0.04 100

Oral

Anemia, heart failure, stomach pain, hypertension, anthelmintic

0.24 0.22 30

Infusion

Applied externally

hair care

Powder

Oral

Appetite stimulant

0.02 0.02 100

Decoction

Leaf Seed Seed Seed

Decoction Decoction Powder Poultice

Plumbaginaceae Lgarsa

Seed Leaf

Suppository Decoction

Applied externally Oral Oral Oral Applied externally Rectal Oral

Linaceae

Seed

Powder

Solanaceae

Zarriaat Al Kettane Lghardag

Leaf

Poaceae

Lhalfa

Capparaceae

Atil

Malvacea

Lkhobbiza

Poultice

0.04 0.04 58

Diabetes

food poisoning Emmenagogue, galactagogue Anemia Hair care

0.07 0.07 47

0.1

0.10 24

Rheumatism, appetite stimulant Diabetes, indigestion

0.1

0.09 75

Oral

Asthma, appetite stimulant

0.05 0.05 55

Decoction

Oral

Stomach pain, intestinal diseases

0.1

Leaf Leafy stem Leaf Leaf

Juice Decoction

Ophthalmic Nasal

Eye infections Epistaxis

0.05 0.05 55

Decoction Poultice

Stomach pain, indigestion Wounds and burns

0.34 0.32 21

Leaf Bark Stem Leaf

Suppository Decoction Raw Cooked

Oral Applied externally Rectal Oral Brushing Oral

Rheumatism Stomach pain, diarrhea, gastralgia Dental hygiene Urinary infections, diarrhea

0.10 72

0.09 0.08 71

Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002

E. Idm'hand et al. / Acta Ecologica Sinica xxx (2020) xxx

7

Table 1 (continued) Species (Voucher- specimen No)

Family

Local name

Plant part

Preparation mode

Administration Traditional uses

UV

Marrubium vulgare L. (LBVRN80)

Lamiaceae

Lmrot

Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf

Decoction Decoction Decoction Raw Poultice

Otitis Respiratory problems Cough, colds Asthma Wounds

0.18 0.16 21

Matricaria chamomilla L. (LBVRN81) Medicago sativa L. (LBVRN82) Mentha pulegium L. (LBVRN83)

Asteracea

Babounj Lfessa Flyou

Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (LBVRN38) Mesembryanthemum cryptanthum Hook. Fil (LBVRN85) Musa paradisiaca L. (LBVRN86)

Lamiaceae

Timija

Decoction Decoction Powder Suppository Decoction Decoction

Antispasmodic Indigestion Asthma, appetite stimulant Appetite stimulant Colds, fever Toothache

0.08 0.08 73

Fabaceae Lamiaceae

Leaf Leaf Seed Leaf Leaf Leaf

Ear drop Nasal Oral Inhalation Applied externally Rinsing Oral Oral Rectal Oral Oral

Aizoaceae

Afzo

Seed Seed

Powder Powder

Oral Oral

Anemia, hypertension Rheumatism

0.09 0.08 38

Musaceae

Lbanan

Bark

Poultice

Hair care, wart

0.09 0.09 37

Bark

Poultice

Nuts Nuts Nuts Leaf

Powder Suppository Decoction Poultice

Leaf

Poultice

Leaf Seed Seed Seed Leaf

Decoction Suppository Powder Cooked Infusion

Applied externally Applied externally Oral Rectal Oral Applied externally Applied externally Oral Rectal Oral Oral Oral

Food poisoning Appetite stimulant Kidney diseases Cough Constipation

0.04 0.04 100

Leaf Leafy stem Flower Flower Fruit Leaf

Infusion Decoction

Oral Oral

Diabetes Jaundice, anemia

0.04 0.04 100 0.05 0.05 53

Decoction Raw Raw Decoction

Oral Oral Oral Oral

Kidney diseases, kidney stones Intestinal diseases Stomach pain Emmenagogue, nausea, food poisoning, asthma Colds Appetite stimulant Cephalalgia

0.19 0.19 33

0.13 0.12 59

Myristica fragrans Houtt. (LBVRN87)

Myristicaceae

Myrtus communis L. (LBVRN50) Myrtaceae

Lgouza

Rihane

RFC

FL

0.05 0.05 64 0.1 0.08 35 0.03 0.03 100

Dental hygiene Appetite stimulant Appetite stimulant Emmenagogue Hair loss

0.08 0.08 58

0.09 0.09 40

Migraine

Nigella sativa L. (LBVRN89)

Ranunculaceae

Sanouj

Ocimum basilicum L. (LBVRN90) Olea europaea L. (LBVRN91) Ononis natrix L. (LBVRN92)

Lamiaceae

Lahbaq

Oleaceae Fabaceae

Zitoun Hennet reg

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (LBVRN93)

Cacataceae

Aknari

Origanum compactum Benth. (LBVRN94)

Lamiaceae

Zaatar

Lamiaceae

Leaf Leaf Merdeddouch Leaf

Infusion Suppository Decoction

Oral Rectal Oral

Poaceae

Oum rokba

Root Root Root Seed

Cooked Powder Decoction Poultice

Otitis Asthma Diarrhea Rheumatism, hair loss

Seed Seed

Fumigation Cooked

Seed Seed

Fumigation Powder

Ear drop Oral Oral Applied externally Inhalation Applied externally Inhalation Oral

Ritual and magical practices Appetite stimulant

0.02 0.02 100

Decoction

Oral

Kidney stones

0.03 0.03 100

Powder Decoction Poultice

Appetite stimulant Kidney diseases Hair loss

0.04 0.04 68 0.03 0.03 100

Sciatica

0.01

Urinary incontinence, stomach pain, kidney stones Incense Leather tanning Stomach pain Hair loss

0.13 0.11 53

Emmenagogue, sexual weakness Rheumatism hypertension, rheumatism

0.03 0.03 35

Origanum majorana L. (LBVRN95) Panicum turgidum Forssk. (LBVRN96)

Peganum harmala L. (LBVRN97) Zygophyllaceae

Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. (LBVRN98) Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (LBVRN99) Phaseolus aureus Roxb (LBVRN100) Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (LBVRN101) Pimpinella anisum L. (LBVRN102) Pistacia atlantica Desf. (LBVRN103)

Lherml

Poaceae

Illan

Apiaceae

Lmaadnouss

Fabaceae

Soja

Poaceae

Lkseb

Leafy stem Seed Seed Root

Apiaceae

Habbat hlawa

Seed

Decoction

Oral Oral Applied externally Oral

Anacardiaceae

Igg

Seed

Decoction

Oral

Seed Seed Bark Bark

Fumigation Powder Powder Poultice

Root Root Fruit

Decoction Suppository Juice

Inhalation – Oral Applied externally Oral Rectal Oral

Punica granatum L. (LBVRN104)

Punicaceae

Rman

Ranunculus muricatus L. (LBVRN105) Rhus albida schousboe

Ranunculaceae

Wden lhalouf

Anacardiaceae

Zewaya

0.09 0.08 38

0.14 0.14 22

0.02 0.02 100

0.13 0.13 19

Sciatica Arthritis, antispasmodic

100

0.05 0.04 56

0.18 0.17 57 (continued on next page)

Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002

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E. Idm'hand et al. / Acta Ecologica Sinica xxx (2020) xxx

Table 1 (continued) Species (Voucher- specimen No)

Family

Local name

Plant part

Preparation mode

Administration Traditional uses

Bark Bark Bark

Powder Decoction Poultice

Leaf Bark Bark Bark Leaf Leaf

Powder Powder Decoction Infusion Decoction Poultice

UV

RFC

FL

0.2

0.19 61

Rhus tripartita (Ucria) Grande (LBVRN107)

Anacardiaceae

Jdari

Rosa canina L. (LBVRN108)

Rosaceae

Lward

Flower Flower

Decoction Poultice

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (LBVRN109) Rubia tinctorum L. (LBVRN110) Salsola tetragona Delile. (LBVRN111) Salvia officinalis L. (LBVRN112)

Lamiaceae

Azir

Leaf

Decoction

– Oral Applied externally Oral – Oral Oral Oral Applied externally Oral Applied externally Oral

Rubiaceae Amaranthaceae

Lfowwa Laarad

Root Leaf

Powder Decoction

Oral Oral

Carminative, constipation, urinary infections, 0.1 0.09 21 painful periods, gastralgia, rheumatism, colds Anemia, jaundice 0.07 0.07 76 Stomach pain, indigestion, fever 0.06 0.06 49

Lamiaceae

Salmia

Saussurea costus Lipsch (LBVRN113) Senecio anteuphorbium (L.) Sch. Bip. (LBVRN114) Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae) (LBVRN115) Styrax benzoin Dryand. (LBVRN116) Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (LBVRN117)

Asteraceae

Lkist lhandi

Leaf Leaf Root

Decoction Suppository Powder

Oral Rectal Oral

Diabetes, colds, emmenagogue Rheumatism Hypertension, constipation

0.03 0.03 50

Asteraceae

Chbartu

Stem

Poultice

Wounds

0.02 0.02 100

Pedaliaceae

Jenjlan

Seed

Powder

Applied externally Oral

Appetite stimulant

0.01 0.01 100

Styracaceae

Lejawi

Resin

Fumigation

Inhalation

Ritual and magical practices

0.02 0.02 100

Myrtaceae

Qranfel

Clove

Poultice

Hair care

0.19 0.18 28

Clove

Powder

Clove Clove Clove Leaf Leaf Leaf Leaf

Decoction Powder Decoction Decoction Decoction Powder Poultice

Leaf Leaf Leaf

Decoction Decoction Decoction

Applied externally Applied externally Oral Oral Rinsing Oral Oral Oral Applied externally Oral Rinsing Oral

(LBVRN106)

Tamarix gallica L (LBVRN118)

Tamaricaceae

Tarfa

Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. (LBVRN119)

Cupressaceae

Aaraar

Thymus broussonetii Boiss (LBVRN9) Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (LBVRN121)

Lamiaceae

Zaitra

Fabaceae

Lhelba

Seed Seed Seed

Decoction Suppository Powder

Oral Rectal Oral

Valeriana celtica L. (LBVRN122)

Caprifoliaceae

Senbel

Leaf

Poultice

Volutaria crupinoides (Desf) Maire (LBVRN123) Zea mays L. (LBVRN124)

Asteraceae

Lmghayzli

Leaf

Powder

Applied externally Oral

Poaceae

Zghb lkbal

Stigma

Decoction

Oral

Zingiber officinale Roscoe (LBVRN13) Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam. (LBVRN126)

Zingiberaceae

Skinjbir

Rhamnaceae

Ssder

Rhizome Rhizome Fruit Fruit Leaf Leaf Leaf

Decoction Powder Powder Decoction Infusion Maceration Poultice

Zygophyllaceae

Laagaya

Stem Stem

Powder Powder

Oral Oral Oral Oral Oral Rinsing Applied externally Oral Applied externally

Zygophyllum gaetulum Emb. & Maire (LBVRN127)

leather tanning Stomach pain, toothache Hair loss Stomach pain leather tanning Stomach pain Anemia Stomach pain, indigestion, diarrhea Hair loss Constipation Hair loss

0.05 0.05 54

0.08 0.08 41

Toothache Nausea, indigestion, cephalalgia Facilitates childbirth Bad breath Stomach pain Poisoning Diabetes Hair loss, fever Stomach pain, cough Ritual and magical practices Gastralgia

0.06 0.06 58 0.15 0.14 18

0.02 0.02 100

Emmenagogue Rheumatism Stomach pain, diabetes, blood purification, appetite stimulant Hair loss

0.16 0.16 24

0.04 0.04 100

Anemia, Jaundice

0.05 0.05 52

Kidney diseases, kidney stones, stomach pain, diarrhea Emmenagogue Rheumatism, colds, diarrhea Kidney stones, stomach pain Diabetes, fever hypertension Ritual and magical practices Hair loss

0.13 0.12 33

Diseases of the intestine, gastralgia Wounds

0.09 0.08 37

0.11 0.11 31 0.19 0.19 18

Note: UV represents Use Value, RFC represents Relative frequency of citation and FL represents Fidelity Level.

El-Hilaly et al. have found that medicinal plants listed in Taounate region (Northern Morocco) are used the most in the treatment of digestive problems [15]. Briguiche and Zidane (2016) have also reported that most used plants in Jadida City (Morocco) are recommended to treat gastrointestinal disorders [36] Moreover, several other studies

carried out in the Mediterranean region confirmed our results in Algeria [37,38], in Spain [39]. Some species have multiple uses and are used for other interests, artisanal, aromatic, ritual and magic practices. Proved by number of citation Maerua crassifolia (206 citations) and Adansonia digitata (170 citations) were the most species used. The

Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002

E. Idm'hand et al. / Acta Ecologica Sinica xxx (2020) xxx Table 2 Informant consensus factor.

9

43.71

Category

Number of used reports

% of used reports

Number of Taxa

ICF

Gastrointestinal pain Genito-urinary disorders Fever Oral diseases Cardiovascular diseases Respiratory affections Neurological disorders Skin disorders Osteoarticular diseases Skin and hair care Diabetes Other

2116 807 126 385 214 552 120 297 432 419 250 902

31.96 12.19 1.91 5.82 3.23 8.34 1.82 4.49 6.53 6.33 3.78 13.62

60 30 5 16 11 27 7 17 25 24 16 56

0.972 0.964 0.968 0.960 0.953 0.952 0.949 0.945 0.944 0.944 0.939 0.938

25.8

13.46 8.62 4.74

Decocon

Powder

Poulce

3.66

Infusion Suppository

Other

Note: ICF represents Informant Consensus Factor. Fig. 3. Methods of preparation of plants (%).

leaves of Maerua crassifolia, in decoction, are used for treat gastric ailments. The leaf powder is applied as a poultice to treat burns and sores, the bark of the stem, in decoction, is used as antidiarrheal and for calm the stomachaches, the chewed stem is used as a traditional toothbrush (meswak). Studies on the chemical constituents of Maerua crassifolia have been carried out by many investigators and have shown the presence of various compounds. For example, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoides, resins and flavonoids which is an indication that the plant is of high pharmacological importance [40]. The leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia was found to exhibit antiinflammatory, antimalarial, analgesic, antidiarrheal, antipyretic and gastrointestinal activities [41]. The pulp of the fruit of Adansonia digitata, in infusion, is used against hypertension, diarrhea and diabetes, its fruit powder is recommended in cases of heart failure and heavy digestion, also its leaf powder is used to treat gastrointestinal pain. Available scientific literature published on Adansonia digitata reported many empirical recommendation of this plant. Fruit-pulp and seeds have shown antiviral activity [42]. It has been suggested that the Adansonia digitata pulp powder to could prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp., and Streptococcus sp. [43]. Various studies confirmed that cellulose, citric acid, mucilage, and tannins isolated from Adansonia digitata exhibit an Antidiarrheal activity [44]. 3.2.3. Conservation status and harmful effects of medicinal plants Many species are more prone to extinction because the high demand on national and international markets. Indeed, the world trade in medicinal plants and products is now estimated at US$ 90 billion with average annual growth rate of 7% and it is expected to touch the mark of US$ 5 trillion by the year 2050 [33,45]. In Morocco, the trade in medicinal plants has become very profitable, with annual revenues generated of about 550 million Moroccan dirhams (=about US$ 55.9 million) [33].

On the other hand, users tend to uprooting, or collecting the whole plant instead of harvesting the above ground parts for therapeutic uses. The best solution to these problems is to continued close collaboration between different actors interfering with this sector namely ecologists, botanists, chemists, economists, private sector companies and organizations, governments, and civil, etc. Despite the increasing use of medicinal plants, there continues to be a number of issues that need to be worked on. One of these is the bad packaging methods of the plants. These plants are constantly exposed to danger from the dusts, to the sun and to other pathogens that can make us sick. Another problem is the risk of herbalists and traditional healers making the wrong diagnosis or giving the wrong treatment, because this is not their area of specialty. The adverse reaction can be caused inherently by toxic herbs, by bad methods of use, by the overdose or by confusion with other plants. Indeed, significant efforts are needed to raise the awareness of users of medicinal plants in order to avoid the misuse of traditional medicine.

3.2.4. Used plant parts The analysis of the collected information has shown that the leaves are the most used part with a percentage of 34.4% (Fig. 2), followed by the seeds (17.69%), then by the fruits (11.6%), then the leafy stems (7.33%), the stem (6.72%), the bark (5.54%), the root (3.43%), the gum (1.62%), the flower (1.53%), and at the end, the bulb (1.33%) The rest of the used parts is represented by a percentage of b8.8%. These results are consistent with those reported by [4,5,18], where leaves and seeds were the most commonly used parts in the treatment of different ailments. The higher leaf use frequency can be explained by the ease and rapidity of the harvest, but also by the fact that they are the site of the photosynthesis and sometimes the storage of secondary metabolites responsible for the plant biological properties [46].

34.4

Other 13,5 17.69 11.6 7.33 6.72 5.54

8.82 3.43

External applicaon 13,55

Oral 72,9

1.62 1.53 1.33

Fig. 2. Plant parts used in herbal preparations (%).

Fig. 4. Routes of administration of medicinal plants remedies (%).

Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002

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E. Idm'hand et al. / Acta Ecologica Sinica xxx (2020) xxx

Table 3 New uses of medicinal plants reported in this survey. Species (Voucher- specimen No)

New uses

Anastatica hierochuntica L. (LBVRN125) Bassia muricata (L.) Asch. (LBVRN22) Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. (LBVRN39) Cynomorium coccineum L (LBVRN46) Ephedra alata Dec. (LBVRN88) Euphorbia falcata L. (LBVRN52) Euphorbia officinarum subsp. Echinus (Hook. F. & Coss.) Vindt (LBVRN53) Haplophyllum vermiculare Hand.-Maz. (LBVRN61) Heliotropium curassavicum L (LBVRN62) Lavandula dentata L. (LBVRN70) Lavandula stoechas L. (LBVRN72) Lygeum spartum Loefl. ex L. (LBVRN1) Maerua crassifolia Forssk. (LBVRN78) Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (LBVRN38) Myrtus communis L. (LBVRN50) Origanum majorana L. (LBVRN95) Pistacia atlantica Desf. (LBVRN103) Rhus albida schousboe (LBVRN106)

Vitiligo

Rhus tripartita (Ucria) Grande (LBVRN107) Salsola tetragona Delile. (LBVRN111) Valeriana celtica L. (LBVRN122) Volutaria crupinoides (Desf) Maire (LBVRN123) Zygophyllum gaetulum Emb. & Maire (LBVRN127)

Angina Toothache, arthritis Anemia, asthma Rheumatism Kidney stones, urinary infections Cancer, snakes bites, rheumatism, asthma, anthelmintic, diarrhea, angina, toothache, wounds and abscesses, wart Arthritis Toothache Gingivitis Hair loss Eye infections, epistaxis Rheumatism Toothache Migraine Cephalalgia Urinary incontinence Hypertension, rheumatism, leather tanning, toothache, hair loss, stomach pain Anemia, hair loss Fever Hair loss Anemia, Jaundice Wounds

ambrosioides (UV = 0.24; RFC = 0.20), Artemisia herba-alba (UV = 0.23; RFC = 0.19). 3.3.2. Fidelity level (FL) Results concerning Fidelity Level are illustrated in Table 1, the specific disease treated by a species is written in bold fonts. Fidelity level indicates species which are favored in treating a specific disease by the informants of the studied area. The plants having the highest values of FL (100%) were: Aframomum melegueta, Alpinia officinarum, Artemisia reptans Buch, Bassia muricata, Calotropis procera, Capsicum frutescens, Caralluma maroccana, Cassia senna, Cicer arietinum, Cinnamomum cassia, Coriandrum sativum, Croton tiglium, Cuminum cyminum, Datura stramonium, Eucalyptus globulus, Ficus carica, Fredolia aretioides, Glaucium flavum, Gymnocarpos decandrus, Haplophyllum vermiculare, Herniaria hirsuta, Hyoscyamus albus, Illicium verum, Lagenaria siceraria, Lavandula dentata, Mentha suaveolens, Ocimum basilicum, Olea europaea, Origanum majorana, Pennisetum typhoides, Petroselinum sativum, Phragmites australis, Pimpinella anisum, Senecio anteuphorbium, Sesamum indicum, Styrax benzoin, Thymus broussonetii and Valeriana celtica. Similar results were obtained in previous ethnobotanical surveys carried out in other parts of the world in which the number of plants with an FL of 100% was higher [52–54]. 3.3.3. Informant consensus factors (ICF) The ICF was calculated for each ailment category and the range was from 0.938 to 0.972 (Table 2). The ICF values found are close to 1 which shows a high homogeneity of knowledge between the informants. The highest values of Informant Consensus Factor were recorded for gastrointestinal pains (0.972), genito-urinary disorders (0.964) and respiratory affections (0.952). Concerning the highest ICF of gastrointestinal problems, the same result was found in other surveys such as in Morocco [17,18] in Alegria [38] in Pakistan [23]. 3.4. New reports and new uses

3.2.5. Mode of preparation and administration In order to facilitate the administration, several methods of preparation are used, namely the decoction which constitutes the majority preparation mode in this region (43.71%), followed by powder (25.8%), poultice (8.62%), infusion (4.74%), and suppository (3.66%) (Fig. 3). The decoction makes it possible to collect the most active ingredients and attenuates or cancels the toxic effect of certain recipes [47]. These figures confirm the results obtained by diverse authors in Nigeria [48], in Burkina Faso [49] and in Rawalpindi-Pakistan [23] where preparations were made with water as a solvent. Decoction and infusion are highly valued and often preferred by local healers in Africa [5]. The local population uses essentially oral administration (72.9%), in fact the latter comprises the majority of the methods of preparation: decoction, powder, infusion and maceration. Next comes the external application (13.55%) used mainly in the treatment of skin diseases and hair care. The other modes of administration (rectal, rinsing, massage, inhalation, brushing, nasal, auricular, ophthalmic …) are represented by a percentage of 13.5% (Fig. 4). The predominance of oral administration is well documented in the ethnobotanical studies conducted in the country [16] and in neighboring countries such as Algeria [50,51].

3.3. Staistical data analysis 3.3.1. Use value (UV) and relative frequency of citation (RFC) According to this survey, Maerua crassifolia is the most widely used plant species, recorded the highest UV (0.34) and RFC (0.32). Adansonia digitata was another notable medicinal species as it recorded the second highest UV (0.28) and RFC (0.26). The other medicinal species most reported are: Euphorbia officinarum subsp. Echinus (UV = 0.28; RFC = 0.26), Hibiscus sabdariffa (UV = 0.24; RFC = 0.22), Chenopodium

Through comparison of our findings to those of other ethnobotanical surveys in neighboring regions, 44 uses of medicinal plants were quoted for the first time and were never mentioned in literature (Table 3). 4. Conclusions The ethnobotanical study in the province of Tarfaya has revealed the importance of traditional herbal medicine in the Sahara region. In the present study, 130 medicinal plant species belonging to 57 botanical families were documented as used in the treatment of different diseases. The analysis of the results has shown that the traditional herbal medicine knowledge is held by the oldest people and that the majority of the users of the medicinal plants are not educated. These results also show that the leaves prepared in decoction are the most used parts and are administered orally. Regarding the treated diseases, our results show that they are many and the most commonly cited are those affecting the digestive and genitourinary systems. Finally, we hope that this ethnobotanical study will serve on one hand, to complete the already undertaken work and on the other hand, as a database for further scientific research to conduct a comprehensive summary of the Moroccan flora and medicinal Safeguarding of this valuable cultural heritage. In addition, this biodiversity is an ecological asset of great socio-economic importance in the southern provinces that must be protected at all costs against excessive human or animal exploitation. Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002

E. Idm'hand et al. / Acta Ecologica Sinica xxx (2020) xxx

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Please cite this article as: E. Idm'hand, F. Msanda and K. Cherifi, Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco, Acta Ecologica Sinica, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.01.002